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807


619


18


41


10


1864


1446


1098


68


188


IS



Limiting our researches only to
England, we find the increase within
eight years, between 1856 and 1804,
stated in the official returns of the
several dioceses, at the following
rates :



Chnrchea.
DiocKSSB. 1W6. 1864.

Wefltra'ster- 86 117 129 214

Beverly -75 90 « 116

B1nnlnghftm9B 100 183 141

Clifton. .87 49 00 62

Hezhftm . 6S 81 73 09

Liverpool -94 110 166

Newport .96 49 39

Northamp'n 80 96 26

Nottingham 49 03 47

Plymoutb -26 85 28

Salford - - 47 70 "

Shrewsbnry SO M



C1erg7.*n. Conv*te. Monatt**.
1886. IBM. 1886. 1864. 1806. 1864.



Soathwark • 79 100 90



190
47
81
09
84

107
71

147



16
6
8
8

1
6
8



780 941 985 1821
780 965



1 8
8 9



38 SB 100 187
98 100



81
19
39
18
11
95
6
8
8
8
14



XiierMM»Cli« SilCl«rg.886 Cost. 86 Hoiii.81



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494



The XeUgtaui SuOiiUei of the World.



lY. Let us now step over to the
Continent, and investigate the increase
of Catholicilj in a province where
Protestantism has had it all its own
way since the be^nning of the Re-
formation — we allude to Holland. To
understand the progressive develop-
ment of Catholicity in the Low Coun-
tries, we need only compare the figures
of two years, with an interval of half
a century' intervening between them :

Tean. CaUi. Popal*ii. Parfshw. Qergy *ii. Cbnrc**.
1S64 l.aOO^UOO 941 llltt 976

1614 860,000 814 1S16 898



Inc. in 60
jean • 460,000



191



SIO



The amount expended in repairing
the old and building new churches is
reckoned, during this lapse of time, at
thtr^ millions of Dutch florins, a little
more than dxty-four millions of francs
[over $18,560,000— Ed. C W.] All
Uiat government has contributed of its
own toward this sum amounts only to
two millions of florins. In the above
sum of thirty millions no account is
taken of what has been expended in
churches and chapels belonging to re-
ligious communities, or for convents,
hospitals, charitable institutions, or-
phan asylums, and the like. Add to
this what has been contributed for the
endowments of those places, and the
original sum of sixty-four millions of
francs becomes well-nigh double its
amount.

V. But nowhere has the Catholic
Church increased so prosperously,
within the last fifty years, as in the
United States of America. Above
two thousand churches and chapels
built; an increase of one thousand
and eight hundred clergymen; one
hundred and sixty schools established,
for the Catholic training of 18,000
boys and 34,600 girls. Moreover,
there existed in 1857 sixty^x asy-
lums, with 4,963 orphans of both
sexes ; twenty-nz hospitals, with three
thousand beds ; four insane asylums,
with eighty-two patients, beside many
other charitable institutions^ all estaj^



lished and supported by the private
charity of Catholics. Here we copy
a comparative table from the *^ Metro-
politan Catholic Almanac " of 1857 :




08 80 S 1

SSS 380 9 6

489 819 18 9

1061 1678 99 17

1574 9468 84 SO

1879 9889 86 99



IS

9
90
47

n

U9
184



9S17 8790 49 — —
Sd. Cath. Wobza.]



YI. Canon Joseph Ortalda, in a
work of great value,* the result of
much labor and accurate investiga-
tions, supplies us with two verr inter-
esting documents. One is a Synoptic
Table of the mimons in Asia, ex-
hibiting both the number of Catholics
in each mission and that of mission-
aries employed in them ; a number, by
the way, generally very inadequate,
especiaUy when we take into consider-i
ation the vast territories over which
every mission is extended.



APOBTOLIO VIOABIATSS. If ZflSZOITAlB.

Aleppo - - -96

Aeia Minor - • - 70

Gfalna and adjacent kingdoms :

Xenei - - . -

Xanci ....

Hn-pd, In the Hu-qnang, ntp
tWe miselonarle*, 14

Ha-nan, in the Hn-qoang

Snt-choen, North-woBt vicar-
iate ....

Sat^hnen, Baetern Vicariate
" BonUiem ♦*

Konein-kon



Jon-nan

To.chien

Nankin ...

Pekin, Western Vicariate
** Bonth-wesCn "
•* Eastern "

Tse-Kiang

Klang-si

Leaotnng

Hongolia

Xan-tnng

Ho-nan ...



16

IS

II

7

15
19
14
7
5
6
14
88
17
16
19
6
6
9
8
11
6



Cath*s.

tO.000

100,000

80,000
90,000

18.806
10,000

98.Q0O
17.000
90.000
10,000

rooo

8.000
80,000
13.000
80,000
96.600
18.000

6.000
10,000
11,000



19,000



• "Italian Apostolic Missionaries fn the
Foreign Missions, over the Four Farte of the
World.'' Tnrin: G. Marietti, 1884. Ortalda's
intent Is to proTS before the Senate of the Kinc-
dom of Pteamont how the sappreselon of ren-
gions orders wonld be tojarlons to the Chnrch
and to civilization, whilst ttom their boaoms'go
forth so many missionaries to tU parts of tM
world.



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Bfob.



495



Avonouo TkOAXiAns. Musiova.*8.


Oath's.


8Um, Western Vicariate


19


12'SS


'* Eastern


SO


80,000


Cochin China, Bast'n Vic'ate


89


81000


" North*n "


81


96,000


" We«rn "


lil


80,000


Gamboge and People of Laos


10


15,000


Tonehia, Bastem Vicariate -


18


64,000


" Western **


85


185,000


Soathera "


49


80,000


Central "


03


150,000


Corea ....


13


16,000


Ekwt Indies:






Japan ....


10


19,080




11


8,000


Bombay, South Mission


90


15,000


North "


15


18,000


Bengal, Western Vicariate
(CSicntta)






19


16,000


Bengal, BB«tem Vicariate -
Oeyfon— Colombo


6


9,000


18


84,900




IT


80,000


Madras . '. - .


18


44,880


Brderabad


1
15
68


4,000

7,180
100,000


Mayasonr ...


16


17.110


Coimbatonr ...


11


17,900


Sardhana


19


16,000


Agra


95


90,000


F&na ....


10


4,000


Verapoiis — Native priests,






LAUntUe98,S7riacSI0 -


T


880.000


Oanara, or Mangalor— NatiTS






prieatoM


7


40,000


QniSon— NatlTeprioaUn •


8


60.000
140,000


ApoerroLio Dbuioatioks.






I^e^aia, Mesopotamia, Knr-

diatan, and Armenia Minor

Syria -^ Holy Land alone


80


95,000




#


oonnts ...


64


98,986








Aden, in Arabia


8


1,800


Hong-Kons, in China -
Hal-noa, Qoan-tong, Qaan-si,


7


6,000






China . - • -


81


40,000


For the French Coioniea in






India ....


19


7,000


War the Dntcb Colonies in In-






dia and Oceania


7


11,000


lisboan and adjacent places -





8,000



VII. The chief object of Ortalda'a
work ifl to show how manj mission-
aries Italj gives to the Catholic
Church. He gives the name, the
grade in the hierarchy, and the resi-
dence of each, adding such items of
information as will aid him in the ob-
ject he has in view. We draw from
his laborious work the following table,
which, bj way of conclusion, gives the
final result of all his researches :



lioUan ApotMie JOtfionariet in Foreign ja#«
^OM over tKs Whole World.





MisaiovABUs.


1




i 1 1


-i






1


^\< s


I


41


BUhops . . .


14


31


4 3 , -.


41


163


Secular Priests .


86


m


11 66; 8


181


94


Benedletlnes


7


9


- 5 18


31


18


Minor CoDventaals


9


2


- 3 -


18


aoB


•• Observants .


81 115


80 1841 8


866


447


~ ^SS^iST:


669 106


65 160 5


447


916


60


66


39


97 1


315


84


Dominicans .


32


11




1 !-


84


89


Carmelites .




80





— : —


89


3


Angustinians .


1








1 ' -


«j


490


Jesuits . . .


106 118


46 207 18


51




8


22


9 12 -


51


1


Alcanturines .








1 ! —


1


1


Barnabites .


"l


_





— , —


1


m


Crncifers


34


13


8


10


8


67


u


Friars of St. Bona-
















venture


6


6


«_


_





11


8


Bedcmptorlsts






— .





8


8


1


Sorvites . . .


_


_


_


_


1


1


16


Oblates . . .


__


16


_


_




If


3


Pallottlncs (of A.
















PallotU) . .


3


_


_


_


_


3


90


Bosminians .


16 , —


__


4


__


20


28


From the Semln*y


1










of Milan . .


4 23


_


- 8


21


98


From the Semln*y












BrignoleSale .


17 6





5 -


28


2066




839 610 167 606 S8 'SOH



BOOKS-

Welcoke, my books, my golden store I
Your leaves mj eyes, my hands explore ;
With you my sweetest hours have flown—
My best of life with you alone.
When none in the wide world could cheer,
Your wisdom dried the bitter tear ;
When summer skies were fresh and blue,
None could rejoice with me like you.
What living voice may speak among
Your silent and time-hallowed throng ?
For you, the best of every age,
I quit the world's degenerate stage.

IVansl^ionframRanaMHU



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496



I%$ Ancient FaeuUy of PwrU.



From The Month.

THE ANCTENT FACULTY OF PARIS.



At the comer of thie Rue de la
Bdcherie and the old Rue des Rats,
now known by the more dignified ap-
pellation of the Rue de I'Hdtel Col-
bert, maj still be seen, unless the un-
sparing hand of "modem improve-
ment" has very recently swept it
away along with so many other me-
morials of the past, a dirty, dilapidated
building topped by a round tower,
which you might take for some old
pigeon-house. The half-obliterated
inscription upon an escutcheon on one
of the facades of the edifice indicates,
however, some heretofore high and
venerable destination — Urhi et orhi
solus. If curiosity lead you to pene-
trate into the interior of this dismal
edifice, you find yourself, after mount-
ing a damp staircase, in a great circu-
lar hall, divided into four irregular
compartments. Above some empty
niches hollowed in the thickness of the
wall rans a wide comice, the now-de-
faced sculptures of which represent al-
temately the cock — Esculapius's bird
and emblem of vigilance — and the pe-
lican nourishing its young, the type of
self-sacrifice — watchfulness and unsel-
fish charity, the two great duties in-
cumbent on the professor of the heal-
ing art. You stand, in fact, in the
midst of the ancient amphitheatre of the
Faculty of Medicine* There studied,
and there, in their tum, taught, the
great anatomists of the seventeenth
century, Bartholin, Riolan, Pecquet,
Littre, Winslow. This building was
an old adjunct to a large and hand-
some hotel belonging to the medical
body, containing their chapel, library,
laboratory, a vast hall for solemn dis-
putations, with minor saloons for the
daily lectures, etc, with the addition
of a large court and botanical garden.
It was abandoned long before the



Revolution, and not a trace of all this
corporate glory of the medical faciiltj
now remains. The quarter of Paris
in which it stood, known formerly a8
the Latin quarter, long preserv^ a
peculiar stamp and physlQgnomj.
Here were the colleges of St. Michel,
of Normandy and Picardy, of Laon,
Presles, Beauvais, Comonailles, and
that long succession of churches, con-
vents, colleges, and high toppling
houses, filled .with a studious youth,
which formerly crowded the Rue St.
Jacques and the Rue de la Harpe. All
these and many other sanctuaries of
religion and of science, so intimately
connected in the middle ages, cluster-
ed around the faculty. Here, in fact,
was the centre of the university of
Paris, whose origin is lost in the ob-
scurity investing the early mediasval
period. The methodical classification
under the head of faculties of the dif-
ferent studies pursued at that celebrat-
ed institution dates, however, from the
close of the twelfth century. These
Acuities formed independent compan-
ies, attached to their common modier,
the university, like branches to the
parent stem.

Disregarding all apocryphal preten-
sions to antiquity, we cannot assign an
earlier date for the formation of the
medical body into an independent cor-
poration than the year 1267. About
that time we find the faculty in pos-
session of its statutes, keeping registers
and affixing to documents its massive
silver seaL The term Faculty of
Medicine^ it must be observed, is mod-
em. The title Physicorum Facvkatj
or FacuUas in Physica^ waa long pre-
served. Whatever we may think of
the empirical practice and dogmatic
character of the medical art in those
times, we cannot but see in this an m-



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The AncimU Facul^ of Parts.



497



dieation that natural scieaoe was even
then the recognised basis of medicine.
We have here, if not a principle clear-
ly understood and habitually followed,
at least an intuition and a kind of
prc^ramme of the future. A memor-
ial of the old designation survives in
our own country in the title of physi-
cian, while in the land where it origin-
ated it has been discontinued.

Bom in the cloister, medicine long
Tetained an ecclesiastical character.
Most of the doctors in early times
were canons; and those who were
neither priests nor even clerks were
still boiuid to celibacy ; a regulation
which remained in force long after
.ooancils had decreed the incompatibil-
ity of the exercise of the medical pro-
fession with the ecclesiastical state.

The general assemblies of the fac-
ulty were held sometimes rouad the
font of Notre Dame, sometunes at St.
Genevieve des Ardents, sometimes at
the Priory of St. £loi ; while, for the
ordinary purposes of instruction, it
shared fraternally with the &culty of
theology the alternate use of some
common room with a shake-down of
straw in the Quartier St. Jacques. But
by-and-bye riches began to pour in,
chiefly through the means of the lega-
cies of members of the medical corps
or other well-wishers ; and, thanks to
ihe liberality of Jacques Desparts, phy-
sician to Charles YIl., the corporation
of doctors was finally installed in the
abode we have just described. To the
general worth and* respectability of
the body in the fideentb century we
have the testimony of Cardinal d'Es-
toutteville, who, in 1452, was deputed
by the Pope to reorganize the univers-
ity of Paris, and who found less to
reform in the faculty of medicine than
iiL any other department. Indeed, no
change of much importance was intro-
duced, with the exception of the revo-
cation of the law of celibacy, which the
cardinal pronounced to be both^Mm-
pious and unreasonable."

Independence of spirit and great

- reverence for its own traditions were

characteristic of the medical body from

VOL. u. 33



its earliest beginnings. It loved to
describe itself as veteris disciplina re-
tentissimcL In those days men gloried
in their respect for antiquity. In
common with all the different bodies
which composed the university of
Paris, the medical corporation pos-
sessed great privileges— exemption
from all taxation, direct or indirect,
from all public burdens, from all on-
erous services or obligations. When >
we sum up all the advantages enjoy-
ed by this aud other favored bodies
and classes in the middle ages, the
reflection naturaUy suggests itself —
what must have been the condition
of the poor, who possessed no privi-
leges and bore all the financial bar^
dens? In the days, however, when
standing armies in the pay of govern-
ment had no existence, when the king
himself was a rich proprietor wiA
large personal domains, when national
debt and its interest were things un-#
heard of, the ordinary imposts, as dis-
tinguished from all arbitrary and acci-
dental exactions, were, of course, very
much lighter than those of modern
times. Liberty in those days assumed
the form of privilege'; and its spirit
was nursed and kept alive within the
bosom of these self-ruling corporations,
and in none more remarkably than in
that of medicine. The espfit de corps
naturally existed with peculiar strength
in a body not merely organized for
purposes of instruction, but exercising
a liberal profession, of which it had
the monopoly.* Hence a minute in-
ternal legislation imposed upon all its
members, and willingly accepted in
view of the interests of fiie-body. Its
alumni were aspirants to a life-long
membership; whereas with us the
medical man's dependence upon th^
faculty virtually ceases the day he
takes his doctor's degree. He has
nothing more to ask or to receive from
it ; his affair is now with the public ;

* It iB probably this pecnllarlty which caused
the medical to be considered as pre-emlneatly
the facalty. Its practice brought it into intimate
contact with the world at largo ; and this has
aUo doubtless led to tlie exclusive rotentiou« in
this ioetancc, of a dcsigruatlon common in iU
origin to other dopartmonts of learning.



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ids



2%e Ancient Fixctdty of Barit.



and the sense of brotherhood with his
colleagues in the profession is lost, it
18 to bo feared, not unfrequently in a
feeling of rivaliy. But it was other-
wise in the olden time. The day
which now sends forth the full-fledged
doctor to his independent career drew
the tie closer which bound him to his
order, in which then only he began to
take his solemn place. The honor
and the interest of each member thus
became common property, and un-
worthy conduct was punished by sum-
mary fitclusion from the body.

Unfortunately this esprit de corps
had iis bad as well as its good results.
It produced a certain narrowness of
mind, a love of routine, and no slight
attachment to professional jargon.
It is not that the faculty was actually
the enemy of all progress, but progress
must come from itself. As no associ-
ation of men, however, can enjoy a
monopoly of genius, useful and bril-
liant discoveries emanating from other
quarters had to encounter the hostility
of the chartered body. This spirit
was exemplified in its animosity toward
surgery, long a separate profession,
in its prejudice against tlie doctrine of
the circulation of the blood, because an
English discovery ; against antimony,
because it orig'mated with the rival
Montpelier school ; against quinine,
because it came from America. To
these subjects we may hereafter recur ;
in the meantime we note them as in-
stances of medical bigotry, which ex-
posed the profession to just ridicule,
but which has drawn down upon it
censure and disesteem of perhaps a
somewhat too sweeping character. It
would be unfair to judge the ancient
faculty solely from its exhibitions of
foolish pedantry and blind prejudice ;
and it is our object on the present
occasion to give a slight sketch of its
constitution and internal government,
such as may enable the reader to form
a juster and more impartial view both
of its faults and of its substantial
merits. Indeed, without some solid
titles to general esteem, it would seem
improbable that the faculty should



have attained to the high poeitian
which we find it occupying in the
seventeenth century.

One accidental cause, no doubt, of
the importance of the doctors daring
the whole period which we are con-
sidering was their small relative num-
ber. From a computation made by a
modem member of the medical pro-
fession in France,* to whom we are in-
debted for our facts, the average num-
ber of doctors in the capital from the
year 1640 to the year 1670 did not
exceed 110. Compared with the pop-
ulation of Paris, which is reckoned at
540,000 souls, this gives one doctor
for every 4,900 of the inhabitants.
The medical corps is now 1,830 strong,
while the population has risen only to
1,740,000. Great as is this increase
of population, greater, we see, propoi^
tionally, has been that of the medical
practitioners, who are at present as 1
to 940. If sickness was as prevalent in
the seventeenth century as it is now,
and recourse to physic and physicking
as frequent, we can imagine that ihe
faculty must have necessarily occupied
a distinguished position. Many offices
now undertaken by public institutions
or by government devolved, also, at
that time on the faculty, which to the
best of its ability supplied the want of
sanitary regulations, and exercised a
kind of medical police, including the
supervision of articles of diet All
this must have helped to swell their
importance. A large proportion of
the doctors received during this select-
ed period of thirty years were Paris-
ians; and nothing is more common
than the perpetuity of the profession
in certain fam ilies. ' This cireu mstanee
must have combined with the corporate
reverence for their traditions to inten-
sify their attachment to a receiyed
system, and to sti-engthen that spirit of
union which is a source of power. The
i-espect which the lower bench paid to
the upper, and the young to the ancient



*Maar1ce lUirnaad, DocUrnr en MMedne,
Doctetir dd Lettres. La Sfidednt an tomtit <f«
MoUere,—Mwtr9, JattUutioM, DifOiHne*. FltfU,
l!W3. Dldler.



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The Andent Factdty of Paris.



49d



—and by ** young" we mean young in
their degree, not in years — ^must have
contributed toward the same result.
It required ten years of doctorate to
qualify a man to take his place amongst
this venerable class ; and the stat-utes
are prolix on the subject of the re-
spect due to the ancients irom their
juniors on the bench ; a respect which
was to be marked by every external
act of deference.

But the' first and great tie which
bound all the members together was
religion. To profess the Catholic faith
was long an essential condition of ad-
mission to the examinations. The fac-
ulty gave an energetic proof in 1637 of
the importance it attached to this funda-
mental rule, when it withstood the press-
ing solicitations of the king's brother, the
Duke of Orleans; in favor of a certain
Brunier, the son of his own physician
and a Protestant, although the prince
condescended to address a fiattcring let-
ter to the dean of the faculty, signing
himself " Votre bon ami, Gaston," and
although his request was backed by a
royal injunction. The sovereign must
needs bow to the authority of the stat-
utes, respectfully but firmly urged in
contravention of his regal pleasure.
Yet this would seem to have been a
closing efibrt, for in 1648 we find four
Protestant doctors on the lists. Every
year there was a solemn mass on St.
Luke's day, at which all the members
were bound to be present, and which
even at the commencement of the sev-
enteenth century was still sung by the
doctors of the faculty. After mass the
statutes were publicly read. There was
a like obligation, with a penalty for its
neglect, to attend an annual mass for
deceased doctors, and another for bene-
&ctors, as also to accompany the bod-
ies of their brethren to the grave.

The head of the corporation was the
dean. His powers were extensive, and
the honor paid to him unbounded. He
waa the ^guardian of the discipline and
statutes ** of the faculty, vindex discip*
UfUB et custos hgum ; he was at once
its foremost champion and its highest
dignitary. He was also its historian,



entering in its great registers all facta
interesting to the corporation which
occurred during the course of his ad^
ministration. The account of each di*
aoonate is headed thus :

" In Nomine Omnipotentis Deiy Pch
trUj et Filiij et Spiritus SancH. In-
cipit commentarius rerum in decanatu
. . . geetarum^*

Amongst other topics judged worthy
of registration is a necrologlc notice of
members deceased during the period.
Take as a specimen, which marks at
the same time the high estimation in
which the diaconate was held, the ao»
count given of Merlet's death in 1663.
He was the " ancient of the company,**
and had been remarkable for the zeal
he exercised in its behalf. The then
dean, the illustrious Antoine Morand,
pays the venerable doctor a visit just
before he expii-es ; and the dying man
breaks out in a kind of Nane dimiUit
~" Now I can die contented, since it
has been given me to behold once more
the dean of the faculty." Valot, the
king's physician, who had come to see
the patient, expresses in language of
much reverence .his hope that Mer^
let may still live to illustrate the su-
preme dignity in which he stands
amongst them. The ^ patriarch " with
his last breath energetically refuses
such excessive honors. He confesses
that he holds a high rank as ancient of
the school, but not the highest. ^ To
the dean alone," he says, '* belongs su-
preme honor." " Sublime words," ob-
serves Morand in his funeral notice :
^ veritable song of the dying swan, pro-
ceeding from a man truly wise and en-
dowed with all perfection! May he
rest in the peace of the Lord." Of
course, it is a dean who is speaking.



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