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Faixy if you don't,' it won't be your



fault nor ours. Here's your hanki-
cher ; you see there isn't the difiPer
of a miUh%ogue*s wing in the two
colors."

Perhaps it was the proximity to
Boher-na-milthiogue that had suggest-
ed the comparison.

** Indeed, boys, Fm entirely obliged
to you, and I don't think we can fail of
success. It shall not be my fiialt if
we do, and I'm certain it won't be
yours. But I'm sorry — "

" Bidh a hurst, Emon ; don't say
wan word, or Fll choke you. But
thry tliem on."

Emon's coat was forthwith slipped
off his back and thrown upon the end
of a turf-stack hard by, and Phil
M'Dermott drew the sleeves upon his
arms, and tied them artistically over
his shoulders.

** Dam' the w^an, Emon, but they
were med foryou ! " said Pliil, smooth-
ing them down toward the wrists.

" Divil a word of lie in thaty any
way, Phil," said Solon. "Tell us
something we don't know."

" Well, I may tell them that yen
have too much wit in your head to
have any room for sense," replied
M'Dermott, seemingly a little annoyed
fit the remark.

Solon grinned and drew in his horns.
" They are, indeed, the very thing,"
said Emon, turning his head fit>m one
-to the other and admiring them. He
could have wished, however, that it
had been a Rathcash girl who had
made them instead of Peggy M'Der-
mott. "But I cannot have every-
thing my own way," sighed he to him-
self.

M'Dermott then quietly removed
Emon's hat with one hand, while with
the other he slily placed die silk cap
jauntily upon his head. There was a
general murmur of approbation at the
effect, in which Emon himself coold
not choose but join. He felt that be
was looking the thing.

After a sufficient tune had been al-
lowed for the admiration and verdict
of the committee as to their fit and ap-
pearance, Phil M'Dermott took them



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519



off again, and, folding them up care-
fblly in the paper, handed it to Emon,
wishing him on bis own part, and that
of the whole parish, health to wear
and win in them on Patrick's Daj —
« Every man of as will have our



own colors ready the day before ''he
added.

Emon then thanked them heartily,
and turned into the house, to show
them to his father, and the deputation
returned to their homes.



TO BX COHTUICrCD.



Translated from the Qerman.

MALINES AND WURZBURG.

1

▲ SKETCH OF THE CATHOLIC GONaBBSSES HELD AT HALIXES AKD wSrZBITBO.
BY ANDREW NIEDEHMA8SER,



CHAPTER IT.



HiHiOBEN. in a speech delivered at
the convention of Salzburg, Septem-
ber 24, 1857, spoke as follows : " All
grumblers and pessimists should strive
to understand that we live in a great
age — great because it is destined to wit-
ness the triumph of the truth. I feel
that it is a great age, and I thank God
for the happiness of living in the nine-
teenth century. Except the age of
the apostles and that of Constantine,
no period in the history of the Church
can compare with the present."

Notwithstanding my frequent and
intimate intercourse with some of the
most exti*eme pessimists in Germany,
I own I am convinced of the correct-
ness of Himioben's opinion. The first
and principal reason of this conviction
is the heroic achievements of Christian
charity, of which every part of the
globe has been the scene in our days.
Where such deeds are doiie as those
which we have witnessed and heard of
so of^en, God^s kingdom on earth must
flourish. The rays of Christian
charity illuminate the whole world.

We cannot deny that the century
beginning with the year 1764 and
closing in 1864 has been an age of



spoliation for the Churclu The sup-
pression of the Society of Jesus by
King Joseph Emmanuel, of Portugal,
in 1759, was followed by a similar
measure in France in November, 1764.
On April 3, 1767, the Spanish, and
on the 20th of November, 1767, the
Neapolitan, Jesuits met with the same
fate. Joseph II. of Austria, who was
chosen Emperor of Germany in 1764,
suppressed 700 monasteries in his
hereditary dominions, whilst the cham-
pions of the French Revolution were
still more ruthless in the work of
destruction. In Germany most of the
Church property was secularized, un-
der circumstances of great cruelty, in
1803. On May 28, 1824, the King
of Portugal decreed the suppression of
all religious orders in his kingdom.
In 1835 the Spanish government
confiscated the property of 900 mon-
asteries, and a royal decree, dated
March 9, 1836, pronounced the same
doom on all the remaining religious
houses in Spain. Since 1860 the
Sardini&ns have suppressed at least
800 convents, and the remaining
Church property will doubtless fare
in the same manner, for the rapacity
of these sacrilegious robbers is never
appeased. On the 28th November,
1864, the Czar of Russia ordered 125
of the 155 Polish convents to be



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MaUfUi and Wunsburg.



dosed, and the monks were treated
with great cruelty.

Tnily this age of enlightenment can
boast of glorious exploits. Sacri-
legious robbery has been the order of
the day throughout Europe, and civil-
ized governments have trampled
under foot rights that have been
sanctioned during many successive
ages. But their efforts have proved
abortive, for the Church flourishes
more and more, and develops new
seeds of life. The religious orders
and congregations of the nineteenth
century rival in purity, austerity, and
holy zeal the monks of the most pros-
perous ages of the Church, and devoted
disciples of Christian charity are count-
less as the stars of the firmament,
whilst their activity cannot fail to
elicit the admiration of every im-
partial witness. Charity has engaged,
in a particular manner, the attention
of the Catholic re-unions ; it is their
proper province — even more so than
science and art. It is the culminating
point of their activity ; for what is re-
ligion but practical love of God and
our neighbor ? Art is the proper ob-
ject of our fancy ; science, of our in-
tellect ; and cluirity, of the will — and
free will is the distinguishing character-
istic of the human soul. Art requires
facility ; science, thought ; but charity
supposes action, the real living act
which always turns the balance.
Truth must not only be proved, but
felt ; science and art are the necessary
fruits of true religion ; science is not
the light, but is to give testimony of the
light. The object of art is the beauti-
fal ; of science, the true ; and of charity,
the good ; but the beautiful, the true,
and the good are the three highest cat-
egories — ^the indispensable conditions
of intellectual activity — ^the connecting
links between the intellect and God,
who is the fountain-head and prototype
of all being, as well as the last end of
human investigation and aspirations.
If it is true that the intellect can find
repose only in the unity of three re-
lations, and that we meet with the em-
blem of the Trinity in all places, then



I know not where this trinity finds a
more perfect expression than in art,
science, and charity. Whoever has
comprehended these three, has grasped
everything of which man is capable,
and an assembly of men who occupy
themselves with art, science, and
charity is at all times of great import-
ance, for it bears a truly universal
character.

Let not the reader expect that I
will enter into all the details of tlie
proceedings of the general conventiona
concerning the subject of Chris -ian
charity. To do this would require a
book even more voluminous than
Bishop Dupanloup's work on ChristiaB
charity. At Malines alone how many
great and weighty questions were dis-
cussed by the first and second sections
(" CEuvres Religieuses" and " Econo-
mic Chr^tienne"), not to speak of the
fifth section, which treated of similar
subjects. We shall mention a few of
the questions proposed. " What,** it
was asked, ^ can a layman do to pre-
serve the people in the faith of their
ancestors, to induce them to observe
the laws of God and the Church, and
to teach them to resist strenuously eyerj
attack of infidelity T' It was recom-
mended to establish in every city con-
ferences of men, and to explain for
them the principal truths of our faith.
It was further agreed that, during
Lent, the people should have an oppor-
tunity of following some spiritual ex-
ercises and thus refreshing their souls.
Good books, likewise, are to be fur-
nished to the poor at a moderate price.
The assembly next debated what
measures should be taken to revive
pilgrimages not only to Rome and
Jerusalem, but also to the places of pil-
grimage existing in every country —
shrines with the history of which the
people should be made familiar. Then
followed a discussion on the prevention
of abuses, so that every pilgrimage
may preserve its religious and edifying
character. It was decided to foster
all societies whose object is the aa^
sembling, edification, and instruction
of apprentices and journeymen. How^



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521



ifc was asked, are the meetings in the
evenings to be carried on? how the
religious exercises on Sundays ? how
are sick members to be visited? etc
The Malines congress also declared
that ft is the dutj of the state to fix bj
law the age at which children may be
allowed to work in factories and mines ;
to procure healthy dwellings for the
workmen; to determine the duration
of a day's work ; and to see that males
and females work in separate apart-
ments. The congress sought to im-
press on owners of factories the obli-
gation devolving on them to take care
of the children of their employees, to
provide for their laborers when sick,
not to force women suckling infants to
work — ^in short, to treat their employees
in a Christian manner. Jean DoUfns,
of MUhlhausen, and Lowell in Am-
erica, were proposed as models worthy
of imitation. Amietus Dlgard and
Audigaime, of Paris, placed at the dis-
position of the central committee the
results of their long experience. De
Rtancey, of Paris, was the zealous advo-
cate of the '* Patronage," which he
wishes to be founded on charity and
freedom, and to spread over every
country. It was urgently recommend-
ed to establish clubs for journeymen
in Romanic countries. Count Lemer-
cier and Marbeau, of Paris, submitted
to the consideration of the central
committee an elaborate paper on the
amelioration of the social condition of
the laboring classes, insisting particu-
larly on the necessity of providing
them with suitable dwellings ; this
paper proved of gi*eat value in pre-
paring the programme. The debate
on the best way of checking the habits
of intemperance which are now 'unfor-
tunately becoming so general among
all classes of the laborers, was unusu-
ally interesting. During the present
century no one has done more to attain
this desirable end than Father Mat-
thew in Ireland, who has probably
thereby conferred even greater benefits
on his countrymen than the great
O'ConnelL Nor were the prisoners
neglected at Malines ; the congress de-



clared itself in fiivor of solitary confine-
ment, vSadi at the same time recommend-
ed most earnestly societies for aiding
discharged convicts. In short, these
men were occupied with all that might
prove beneficial to their neighbor.

Among the most prominent speak
ers in the second section were de
Riancey, Count Lemercier, Perin,
Jacobs, of Antwerp, Dogiiee, Lenor-
mant, Digard, Beslay, Jean Casier,
F. de Robiano, Count Legrelle, de
Richecourt, de Gendt, Vandenest, and
especially Viscount de Melun, who,
together with Marbeau and Baudon, is
the leading spirit of every charitable
undertaking in Paris.

In the first section, of which, as be-
fore mentioned. Count Villermont was
chairman, the proceedings were very
animated, nay, at times aiplemn and
grand ; the most active members were
de Hemptinne, of Ghent, the jurist
Wauters, of Ghent, Lamy, of Louvain,
de Haulleville, of Brussels, O'Reilly,
of Ireland, the BoUandist fathers Gay,
Boone, and de Buck, Lemmens, Abel
Le Tellier, Count Edgar du Val de
Beaulieu, Abb6 Kestens, of Louvain,
Abb4 G6andre, Abbe Geslin, of Ker-
solon in France, editor of " L'Ouv-
rier," F. Van Caloen, F. Antoine,
DemuUiez, Terwecoren, Abbe Gaul-
tier, of Brussels, Fassin, of Verviers,
Chevalier Van Troyen, Bosaerts, Ver-
speyen, Abb6 Battaille, de Caulin-
court, Paga Sartundur, of Madrid,
Malengi6, Peeters Beckers, de la
Royere, Viscount d'Authenaisse, De-
vaux, Putsaert, and some others whosi^
names have escaped my memory — ^aU
of them edifying Christians, men of
strong and sound intellect, seeing the
realities of life, and of feeling hearts,
sympathizing with the joys and loves
of their fellow-men, and taking cogni-
zance of their necessities. They will
long be remembered and blessed by
the posterity of those to whose spirit-
ual and corporeal wants they have at-
tended.

The religious orders, which in mod-
em times have been so often mocked
at and slandered, found many warm



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MoHtus €aid Wurzburg,



defenders at Maline^. Baron von
Gerlache devoted the most brilliant
passage of his opening speech to their
defence. Woefete, a lawyer of Brus-
sels, delivered a masterly discourse on
religious communities before a full
meeting of the congress. Many
speakers touched on the same theme,
and Count Villermont made it the
special order of the day. This subject
was exhausted by the able speeches of
de la Royere, Verspeyen, O'Reilly,
Count du Val de Beaulieu, Viscount
d'Authenaisse, Lamy, Viscount de
Kerckhove, Ducpetiaux, and others.

The WUrzburg general convention
passed a resolution in favor of reli-
gious orders, and at Frankfort the
*' Bposchtii^enverein" will shortly pub-
lish a pamphlet on this subject. The
Malincs cowgress also resolved to en-
courage popular works on the origin,
the nature, and the spread of religious
orders, and to give a fair exposition of
the manifold benefits they have con-
ferred' on mankind. It was also rec-
ommended to publish the lives of the
founders of these societies, to give an
account of their history in schools and
other educational institutions, and, by
means of the pulpit and the press, to
make known as widely as possible the
principles of religious orders. In this
way the members of these societies
will be compensated to some extent for
the countless slanders and calumnies
which are continually heaped on them.
The laymen present at Malines
pledged themselves to pass no oppor-
tunity of rendering them a service,
and defending their rights ; of showing
them reverence, and of spreading
more and more their communities.

For the sake of completeness, I
shall mention the names of a few who
spoke at Malines in the fifth section.
Religious Liberty, where many import-
ant questions were discussed. It is
impossible to enter into details con-
cerning all, for who can be present in
£ve places at the same time ? Beside,
there were assembled at Malines and
Wttrzburg more than 7,000 delegates,
so that I cannot give even the names



of alL In a grand painting the artist
does not represent all his figures ia
full ; he contents himself with giving
us an outline of their features. De-
champs and Ncut, men of great merit
and able to control the most animated
debate, presided in this section. Du-
mortier, of Brussels, and Coomans, of
Antwerp, both veteran members of
the Belgian parliament, managed ad-
mirably the details of business. Sen-
ator Delia Faille and Count de Thenx,
as well as Cai'dinal Sterex, made
many valuable suggestions from the
rich fund of their experience. The
young and able jurist, Woeste, of
Brussels, Digard, of Paris, and the
journalist Lasserre were the most ac-
tive members of this section. Here,
too, spoke Don Almeida, of Portugal,
an orator sweet and strong as the
wines of his native country, and one
of the most handsome men in the con-
gress. Here, also, we renew our ac-
quaintance with Ducpetiaux, Dogndc,
of ViDers, Verspeyen, Geslin, of Ker-
solon, and Abbe Geandre. To these
names we may add those of Don Ig-
natio Montes de Oca, grand almoner
of the Emperor of Mexico, Abbe Pac-
quet, professor of the University of
Quebec, in Canada, Canon Rousseau,
Jalheau, Stofielt, CoUinct, Landrien,
de Smedt, Baron von Montreuil, Chev-
alier Schouteste , Nellaroya, Wigley,
of London, Ch. Thelller, of Ponche-
ville, and Abb^ Huybrechts. Abb^
Mullois, of Paris, is well known in
Germany. In this section we also
noticed Generals de Capiaumont,
Baron Grindl, and Lamoy, whose re-
marks were always received with ap-
plause.

Lc Camus, of Paris, represented the
" Society for the Diffusion of Grood
Books," founded in 1862 by Viscount
de Melun. More than 12,000 good
books have already been distributed.
The executive committee consists of
eighteen members, who are assisted in
their charitable labors by another com*
mittee of fil^y.

And now we shall bid farewell to
Malines.



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Malinea and Wurzburg*



523



The Grerman conventions have call-
ed into existence many cLarltable in-
stitutions. Foremost among these is
the Society of St. Boniface, founded
at Regensburg in 1849. Even long
before, Count Joseph von Stolberg
had visited every part of the German
empire to enlist the sympathies of
high and low for the noble object of
this society, and had thus prepared
the \rvLj for its establishment At
Regensburg he was ejected president,
and thus crowned his labors. Since
its institntion the society has founded
67 missionary parishes, 114 chapels,
and 98 schools for about 100,000
Catholics in northern Europe. Forty-
two of these stations are entirely
maintained by the association, whilst
most of the remaining ones receive
considerable pecuniary assistance.
Much, however, remains to be done ;
many stations will go to ruin unless
speedy aid is afforded them. All
Catholic Germany must contribute,
by its exertions, its prayers, and its
sacrifices, to bring to a successful issue
the greatest of our national under-
takings, the reunion of all Gei*many
in the one true faith.

An annual report of the results
achieved by this society is presented
to the general conventions. Al WUrz-
burg Canon Bieling spoke in the
name of Bishop Conrad Martin, of
Paderbom, who by his great work
has created an immense sensation
among the German Protestants. Great
exertions are making to spread the
society of St, Boniface ; may they
prove successful.

At Wiirzburg the Hungarian Socie-
ty of St. Ladislaus was represented
by Canon Kubinszky, and the Bavari-
an Missionary Society by Monsignore
Baron von Overkamp.

I must next speak of the St Jo-
seph's Society. It was founded at
Aix-la-Chapelle ioif the purpose of en-
abling the Grerman Catholics living
at Paris, London, Havre, and Lyons
to secure places of divine worship.
Canon Prisac, of Aix-la-Chapelle, is
the business manager of the society,



and is assisted in his labors by Lau-
rent Lingens and others. During the
first two years of its existence the so-
ciety accomplished very little.

The missionaries of the poor Cath-
olic Germans in the great emporiums
of England and France have already
been three times in our midst For
years the pastor of the Germans
in London, Rev. Arthur Dillon . Pur-
cell, has done everything in his power
to establish the German mission in
that city on a sure basis, and his
efforts have at last been crowned with
spccess. Although aq Englishman
by birth, he speaks our mother tongue
very fluently and without fault His
speeches will not inspire enthusiasm,
but will convince and obtain their end.
At Aix-k-Chapelle, in 1862, the Ger-
man mission in London Vas repre-
sented by Adler, missionary priest of
the diocese of Wtirzhui-g, and at
Frankfort, in 1863, by Boddinghaus,
of MUnster. The Jesuit father Mo-
deste has thrice urged the claims of the
Germans in Paris. He is a native
of Lorraine, and, therefore, speaks
French and German equally welL
His speeches are carefully prepared,
and produce a great sensation, for
they are addressed not only to the
mind but also to the heart. The La-
zarist Miillijans, a native of Cologne,
spoke for the German mission in the
Quartier St. Marceau, which has
been committed to his cai*e. Abb6
Braun, who has done much for the
Germans in Paris, was likewise pres-
ent at the Wiirzburg meeting. Father
Lambert, of Havre, a pious and de-
voted priest, privately represented to
us the misery of the German emi-
grants in the French seaport But of
what use are these cries for help, un-
less we are willing to make some sac-
rifice? Will not twenty-five million
Grerman Catholics do something for
their poor forlorn brethren ?

In the third place, I must mention
the journeymen associations. There
are at present more than 400 of these
in Germany, and a few in Switzerland
and Belgium. Of late, similar socio-



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524



MdUnu and Wunhurg.



ties have been established at Buchar-
est, Rome, Pnris, London, St. Louis,
Cincinnati, and Milwaukee. The pre-
fects of the society at Cologne, Vien-
na, and Munich have lately received
special marks of esteem fram the
Holy Father in recognition of their
services, whilst the Emperor Francis
Joseph has honored the Vienna asso-
ciation by his presence, and the young
King of Bavaria, Louis II., has accept-
ed the protectoi-ship of all the Bava-
rian associations. The second general
convention at Mayence eam<«tly re-
commended these societies, but Kol-
ping of Cologne was the instrument
chosen by God to undertake and carry
out the great work. Of Kolping it
may truly be said that he has the
welfare of mankind at heart, and thou-
sands will bless his name. In his own
way, he is one of the foremost social
reformers of the nineteenth century.
At Wtirzburg he convened many of
the prefects fjx)m every part of Grcr-
many, and secured the future of the
societies by the introduction of the
religious element. Kolping is not
only a powerful speaker, but also a
journalist, and one of the most popular
writers in Germany. Gruscha, of
Vienna, has often taken Kolping's
place at the general conventions. As
an orator, Gruscha seems to exert a
magic'power over his hearers, and it
is useless to combat liis \ lews, for he
carries everything before him. Gru-
scha is general-prefect of all the jour-
neymen associations in Austria. Al-
ban Stolz, the founder of the Freiburg
association, has spared no pains to
promote Kolping's undertaking. He
is the most eminent ^nd successful
popular writer in Germany. His
pamphlets attract universal attention,
and his almanacs are read by thou-
sands. Stolz does not approve of
everything done by the Catholic con-
ventions, still he has been present nt
several of them ; for instance, at Aix-
la-Chapelle and Frankfort. MuUer,
of Berlin, is one of the most energetic
prefects; he succeeded in tbunding
for the Catholics at Berlin a splendid



club-house. He publishes an able re-
ligious weekly, and an excellent alma-
nac, founds new missions every day,
and does all in his power to extend
the kingdom of Christ in the north of
Germany. He is a talented and in-
teresting speaker, although his style
is not very harmonious or elegant.
Greorge l^yr, of Munich, general-
prei<^t of more than a hundred asso-
ciations in Bavaria, and a general fa-
vorite, has built, probably, the finest
club-house in Germany. The most
zealous promoter of this enterprise
was Dr. Louis Merz, of Munich, who
spared neither labor nor sacrifice
whenever there was question of fur-
thering the interests of the Church :
his memory is enshrined in the hearts
of all his friends.

The memorial submitted by Kol-
ping to the German bishops was
signed by the following diocesan pre-
fects : Beckert, of Wtirzburg, Pohholz-
er, of Augsburg, J. Weizenhofer, of
Eichstiidt, Benkcr, of Bamberg, Schacf-
fer, of Treves, G. Arminger, of Linz,
B. Holbrig], of St, Polten, Max Jager,
of Freiburg, F. Riedinger, of Spires,
F. Nackc, of Paderbom, and the pre-
fects, Jos. Mayr, of Innsbruck, F. Hop-
perger, of Agram, &d C. Ziegler, of
Rottenburg.

To mention more names would be
tedious, but I hope and trust that Giod
will reward in a special manner the
prefects of these societies. For the
last few years the social question has
occupied the attention of the Catholic
conventions, and Rossbach, of Wiirx-
burg, Vosen, of Cologne, and Schiiren,
of Aix-la-Chapelle, have delivered in*
teresting discourses on this subject.

The reading-room associations and



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