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ness and death ; a sad story, indeed, but
sadly sweet to those who knew him well.
Their eyes will be watered with tears as
they read it, but happy tears, such drops
as form the rainbow when the sun smiles
on the summer shower. There was a
light from heaven on the death-bed of
Father Baker that is stronger than our
grief.

The volume oontams twenty-nine ser-
mons of Father Baker, chiefly parochial



discourses, with a few others selected
from those he was accustomed to preach
on the missions. It is unnecessary for
us to make any comment on these. His
eloquence and his style are well known.
He was a model peacher, as well as a
model Christian and a model priest.
The art of sacred eloquence is little un-
derstood among us, and therefore we
hail this contribution to it with enthu-
siasm. It will show the young pulpit
orator how the Word of God will admit
of legitinuite ornament, which is neither
derived from the theatre, the lecture-
room, nor the political rostrum. We
never listened to a preacher of whom it
can be more appropriately said : '^ How
beautiful upon tne mountams are, the feA
of him thai bringeth good tidings, and that
preacheth Mlnatian,^*

This work is well printed on super-
'fine paper and handsomely bound. We
have no doubt that the numerous
friends of Father Baker will be glad to
obtain this delightful memoir of nis life
and labors.

The Temporal Mission of the Holy
Ghost. By Henry Edward Manning,
D.D., Archbishop of Westminster.
New York : D. Appleton & Co.

The Messrs. Appleton have again ren-
dered a great service to the reading
pul)lic, especially the Catholic portion
of it, by republishing a standard work
in English Catholic literatura The
author of this work, Archbishop Man-
ning, was formerly a dignified clergy-
man of the Established Church of
England, and one of the leaders of the
Oxford movement. He was the Arch-
deacon of Chichester, a position in the
' English Church next in rank to the
episcopate, and conferring a quasi-epis^
copal dignity and jurisdiction. He is
said to have possessed in the highest
degree the confidence of the English goy-
emment, and to have been the person
most frequently consulted concerning
political measures relating to the inter-
ests of the ecclesiastical establishment.
The London Weekly Begitter states, on
what it claims to be authentic informa-
tion, that he was marked forpromotioa
to the episcopal bench. But, far beyond
the distinction conferred on him by
hierarchical position, was the influence
which he wielded by the simple force
of his intellectual and moral superiori-
ty. His writings, especially a treatiBe



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on " The Unity of the Church," raised
him to the first rank as an advocate of
the principles of the High-Church party.
In the first stage of the Oxford move-
ment, he was considered a more safe
and judicious advocate of its princi-
ples than Dr. Pusey and Mr. Newman,
and his name and opinions had more
weight with the bishops and the supe-
rior clergy on account of the calm,
moderate, and thoroughly ecclesiastical
spirit and tone of his character and
writings. After Mr. Newman's con-
version, Archdeacon Manning succeed-
ed in a great measure to his vacant
throne, and held it for about six years.
He led the second great movement
from Oxford to Rome, and his conver-
sion, which occurred in 1851, made
nearly as great a sensation, on both
sides of the Atlantic, as that of Mr.
Newman had done in 1645. Six months
after his reception into the Catholic
Church he was ordained priest. Some
time after he joined the '*Oblates of
St. Charles,'' a religious congregation
founded by St. Charles Borromeo, and
established a house in London, of which
he was appointed the superior. He re-
ceived also the appointment of provost
of the Cathedral of Westminster and
was decorated by the Holy Father
with the title of a Roman prelate. Dur-
ing the thirteen years of his priest-
hood he has been most actively and
zealously employed in laboriuj^ for the
advancement of the Catholic faith,
chiefly by preaching, writing books,
and privately instructing converts from
the educated classes, in which latter
work he has been remarkably success-
ful. It is probably for this reason
that, in spite of his 'remarkable ameni-
ty of mind and character, and the ex-
treme courtesy and gentleness which
characterize his controversial writings,
he has been regarded and spoken of
by the English in so hostile a manner,
and that his appointment to the see of
Westminster seemed to awaken a feel-
ing of resentment. The mind and
character of Archbishop Manning are
sure, however, to command, in the long
run, fhe respect of all classes of men,
however widely they may differ from
him in their theological opinions; and
although certain English suscej^tibili-
ties may have been unpleasantly irritat-
ed by his elevation, yet the general
veidict will agree that the Holy Father
has placed a most worthy suecessor in



the vacant chair of the illustrious Car-
dinal Wiseman.

In the book before us the author
treats of the office of the Holy Ghost,
as sent by the Father and the Son in
the temporal order; that is, in the order
established in time, through which the
principal operation ab extra of the Bless-
ed Trinity is accomplished, viz., the re-
demption of the human race. In a very
interesting introduction he takes occa-
sion to explain in part the motives of
his conversion, by pointing out the
connection between the Catholic doc-
trines which he held as an Anglican
and their complements in the filU sys-
tem of Catholicism. In the body of the
work he discusses the office of the
Holy Ghost in relation to the Church,
to Reason, to Holy Scripture, and to
the Divine Tradition of the Faith. This
includes a very wide scope of doctrine,
embracing revelation, the medium
through which revealed truths are
proposed, explioated, and defined; the
formation of Christian theology and
philosophy; the relation of faith to
science, and the whole subject of the
inspiration and interpretation of Scrip-
ture.

If we may be allowed to express a
modest opinion on the subject, we
should say, that the principal merit of
Dr. Manning, as a theological writer,
lies in his ability to unfold the analogy
of faith, and expose the inter-commun-
ion^ so to speak, of the ^reat truths of
natural and revealed religion with one
another. He shows pre-eminently in
his writings that gift which is denomi-
nated in theology " the gift of intelli-
gence ;" that is, the ^ift by which the
mind penetrates the interior essence of ■
the doctrines of faith, and their interi-
or relations. His exposition is in the
highest deg^e luminous, and his style
corresponds in this regard to his
thought, so that his treatment of the
great doctrines declared by the Church
appears like a statement of self-evi-
dent propositions, or a geometrical
demonstration in which the problem
is proved by simply describing the fig-
ure. We have never read anything
which has given us more satis&ction
than his statement of the four grand
fundamental propositions on which the
entire fabric of the Catholic doctrine
rests. It appears to our mind that in
his statement of the nature of the evi-
dence by which reason apprehends the



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being of God, and the credibility of
revelation, and afterward the real
meaning and contents of the revelation,
he has marked out the outlinea of a
sound and correct philosophy of relig-
ion, which is so much needed, and
without which the antagonists of reve-
lation cannot be adequately refuted on
rational principles. We desire to quote
one sentence, short but pregnant, in
illustration of our meaning. After
stating that he always uses the word
" rationalism'* in an ill sense, he pro-
ceeds to say :

'* By rationalism, I do not mean the
use of the reason in testing the evi-
dence of a revelation alleged to be di-
Tine. ^

" Again, by rationalism I do not mean
the perception of the harmony of the
divine revelation with the human rea-
son. It is no part of reason to believe
that which is contrary to reason, and it
is not rationalism to reject it. As rea-
son is a divine pft equally with reve-
lation — the one m nature, the other in
grace — discord between them is impos-
sible, and harmony an intrinsic necessi-
ty. To recognize this harmony is a
normal and vital operation of the rea-
son under the guidance of faith ; and
the grace of faith elicits an eminent
act of the reason, its highest and no-
blest exercise in the fullest expansion
of its powers." (Introd., p. 4.)

The eliciting of this eniinent act of
the reason to the utmost possible ex-
tent is at present the great desideratum
in theology. It involves the exhibition
of the intrinsic harmony between faith
and science ; that is, of the conformity
of revelation, not only as to its extrin-
sic motives of credibility, but also as to
the intrinsic credibility of its doctrines
to reason. It appears to us that Dr.
Manning appreciates the first half of
the desideratum more perfectly than
the second ; and that, in regard to the
second, he appreciates more completely
what is necessary to convince Anglicans
and« Orthodox Protestants than what
is requisite for rationalists, with whom
the chief contest has to be carried on.
The main drift of his reasonings goes
to establish, in an admirable manner,
that Christianity is credible, and that
Catholicism is identical with Christian-
ity. Orthodox Protestants already be-
lieve the first, and whatever difficulties
they may have on the subject are easily
answered by a lucid statement of the



grand external proofs of that whicb
they have been educated to accept as a
first principle. Of the second, they
can be convinced by the exposition of
the analogy and harmony of the spe-
cial Catholic dogmas which they have
not been taught with those they al-
ready believe. Difficulties raised on
the side of human science against the
intrinsic credibility of revelation, they
can easily dismiss by reverting to their
first principle of the well-established
verity of divine revelation, as resting
on extrinsic evidence. Establish in
their minds the in&llible authority of
the Church, and they are content to re-
ceive a doctrinal exposition of all that
she teaches which is made by way of de-
duction from revealed principles, with-
out seeking for a reconciliation of this
exposition with the deductions of pure-
ly rational principles. This is no doubt
a very sound and Christian method,
and it were to be wished that all would
be willing to follow it. Experience has
shown, however, that those who have
been brought up in the more advanced
and rationalistic Protestantism, are with
difficulty induced to adopt it. They
exact an answer to the difficulties and
objections lying in their minds against
the intrinsic reasonableness of revealed
doctrines, before they will attend to
their extrinsic evidence. The exposi-
tion of this intrinsic conformity be-
tween revealed and rational principles
forms for them a part of the requisite
moral demonstration of the credibility
of the Christian revelation. Nor is it
altogether without reason that they re-
quire this. They are obliged to learn
a great deal which a High-Church An-
glican has already received from his
early education. They have the same
incapacity of apprehending correctly
the most fundamental Catholic veritic^
which the Anglican has of apprehend-
ing certain specific dogmas. Both most
have these misapprehensions removed
in the same way, only it is a shorter
and more restricted process for the one
than for the other. The account given
by our illustrious author of his own in-
terior history shows that the extrinsic
proof of the claims of the Roman
Church to supremacy over all portions
of the Christian fold did not convince
him before they were illuminated by
the discovery of the intrinsic relation
between this supremacy and the essen-
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Christ. Hia mind demanded an appre-
hension of the rationale of strict, ex-
ternal, organized unity of administra-
tion under one ecclesiastical head. It
was enough for him that this rationale
was made evident from revealed princi-
ples, because h^ alreadv possessed these
principles as a part of nis intellectual
life. Those who have lost in great
measure the Christian tradition, or who
have never had, must find the rationale
further back in their reason.

A Jew, for instance, apprehends the
doctrines of the Trinity and the Incar-
nation as follows : " God is divided into
three portions, one of which became in-
closed in human flesh." A Unitarian
will apprehend these doctrinel, and
others, such as original sin, atonemeat,
etc., in some form almost equally re-
pugnant to reason. Many Protestants
apprehend the doctrine of the real pres-
ence to be that God is made a piece of
bread, or that a piece of bread is made
God. It is evident, according to the
rule laid down by Dr. Manning in the
passage above cited, that it is impossi-
ble foit the human mind to assent to
such irrational propositions on any ex-
trinsic authority. Even supposing that
a person admits the proofs of divine
revelation and the authority of the
Church to be irrefragable, he cannot
submit to either while he believes
that they require him, to assent to
such absurdities. Hence the necessity
of exhibiting the Catholic dogmas in
their analogy to the truths of reason, as
a part of the evidence of their credibil-
ity. A large portion of nominal Chris-
tians are so completely imbued with ra-
tionalistic and 'sceptical notions, and so
full of misconceptions of Catholic ideas,
that they are persuaded of the validity
of a thousand objections derived from
reason, science, history, etc., against the
Catholic religion. They cannot be
reached by a line of argument which
lays the principal stress on the extrinsic
proof of the Christian revelation propos-
ed by the Catholic Church, and rules out
their objections and difficulties by the
principle of the obedience due to legit-
imate authority. It seems to us, for
this reason, requisite to make every ef-
fort to exhibit the interior conformity
between faith and reason, thieology and
science, and to prove that faith is really
"an eminent act of reason." All Cath-
olics must agree in this general state-
ment, for all the advocates of the Cath-



olic religion have from the beginning of
Christian literature aimed at this result.
In regard to the method of doing it,
however, there is some diversity of
opinion. Dr. Newman, for instance, re-
gards the progress of theological science
as a movement from below upward, and
from the circumference to the centre.
That is, science is elaborated by the re-
flection of individual minds, especially
the gifted and learned, on the dogmas of
faith, under the supervision and sub-
ject to the judgment of authority. Dr.
Manning, if we understand him correct-
ly, regards the movement as one which
proceeds ii\ a reverse order ; he repre-
sents the Church as proceeding in a
more direct, positive, and magisterial
manner ; not by collecting the accumu-
lated, elaborated, and clarified products
of stilly, thought, reasoning, and medi-
tation, and giving them her implied or
express approbation, but by continual-
ly giving forth utterances of inspired
wisdom received from a divine source.
He apprehends that in adopting the
other view, there is danger or subordi-
nating the Ecclesia Docens to the £c-
clesia Discens, and making reason a
critic on divine revelation. Those who
adopt the latter view have a tendency
to elevate theological opinions and ar-
guments which have gamed a wide ac-
ceptance to a species of authority bind-
ing on the mind and conscience, and
limiting the freedom of investigation.
They desire that all arguments on doc-
trine should follow the traditional
track and merely emulate and elucidate
what has been already taught by the
great doctors- of theology. They ex-
tend the sphere of authority and infalli-
bility to the utmost possible limits, and
many of them seek to extend the pro-
tecting sBgis of the Church over philo-
sophical systems. Those who adopt
the other may often err in an opposite
extreme. Yet, we think, they have a
principle which is justified by sound
reasons, and by the actual history of
the formation of doctrine and theology
in the Church. That principle is stated
by Mohler in these words: "For a
time even a conception of a dogma^ or an
opinion, may be tolerably general, with-
out, however, becoming an integral
portion of a dogma, or a dogma itself.
There are here eternally changing indi-
vidual forms of an universal prmciple
which may serve ... for mastering that
universal principle by way of reflection



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and speculation." (Symb. Introd., p.
11, London Edit.)

On this principle, they seek continu-
ally to scrutinize more deeply the inner
essence of dogmatic truths, and to in-
vestigate its relation and conformity to
the principles and deductions of phil-
osophy and science. We think history
shows that this is the way in which
theology has actually advanced, and the
Catholic Church herself attained more
and more to that reflective conscious-
ness of her own dogmas by which she
is enabled to enunciate from time to
time her solemn definitions. St. Thomas
made an immense advance, beyond St.
Augustine and the other fathers. The

great Jesuit theologians, Bellarmine,
uarez, and Molina, struck out a new
and bold path in theolo^. Take, for
instance, the ^reat doctrines of o||ginai
sin, predestmation, and efficacious
grace. The conception of these dog-
mas, and the scientific explication of
their contents, has been greatly modified
in the process of time, and chiefly
through the influence of a few original
thinkers. These have generally met
with a strong opposition from the es-
tablished schools of theology, and the
most strenuous efforts have been made
to decry them as unorthodox and to
procure their condemnation by author-
ity. The names of Catharini, Sfondrati,
and Molina will serve as a suflSicient il-
lustration. Tet, their method of stat-
ing Christian doctrine on important
points has gained a great predominance
m the Church, and uie supreme author-
ity has frequently intervened, not to
enforce these opinions, but to protect
those who hold and advocate them
from censure. Not only theologians,
but even teachers of natural science,
have brought about great changes in
current theological opinions. For in-
stance, Galileo, and those who followed
him, have, by the force of scientific de-
monstration, compelled theologians to
modify their interpretation of Scripture
where it speaks of natural phenomena.
Geology has caused a similar general
change of the method of inter-
preting the Scriptural accounts, of the
creation and the deluge. The old Swiss
proverb is verified in the perpetual ef-
fort to discover the harmony between
faith and s(uence : *^ God gives us plen-
ty of nuts to crack, but does not crack
them for us.'* One of these hard nuts,
not yet cracked, is the question con-



cerning the extent of the influence of
inspiration in preserving the sacred
writers from error in matters of purely
human knowledge. The well-known
opinion of Helden on this subject, it
appears to us, is a little too summarily
condemned by our learned anthor.
The opinions of Bellarmine and Lessius
were severely censured in their time,
but nevertheless are now acknowledged
to be tenable and probable. We think
the opinion of Holden deserves at least
a very thorough examination and dis-
cussion before it is put under the ban.
Dr. Manning admits that " it is evident
that Holy Scripture does not contain a
revelation of what are called physical
scienc^,^' and that *^no system of chro-
n^ogy is laid down in the sacred books**
(p. 165, Eng. Ed.) Nevertheless the
sacred writers speak of physical pheno-
mena and of chronological dates. The
Holy Spirit allowed them to speak of
the former in accordance with their
own and the common opinion even,
when that was erroneous. He has al-
lowed their statements respecting the
latter to fall into such inextricable con-
fusion, through accidental or intention-
al alterations either in the Hebrew or
Greek text, that we cannot tell with
certainty what they intended to record
on the subject Does not this show that
revelation was not intended to teach
chronology ? And if it was not, how
does it militate against the Cath-
olic doctrine of inspiration to main-
tain that the sacred writers were
originally left to follow the best human
authority they could find in chronology
as well as in science ? If the end of
revelation did not require that an in-
fallible system of dates should be
preservoL in the sacred text, why should
it have been given at firtt ? Why arc
minor historical facts, relating to the
numbers who fell in particular battles,
etc., within the cope of infallibility any
more than matters of science and chro-
nology? It appears to us, tliat until
some authoritative decision is' made,
this question is open to discussion, and
the opinion of Holden tenable without
prejudice to orthodoxy. Very proba-
bly the distinguished author meant to
express simply his judgment as to what
is the sounder view of inspiration^
without denying that the other is with-
in the limits of orthodoxy. However
this may be, this is the only instance la
which tiiere is any appearance of sever-



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ity toward those whose theological
opinions on matters extra Jidem differ
m>m his own. It were to be wished
that some other writers, who are dis-
posed to censure their brethren severely
and throw suspicidn upon their loyalty
to the Church, on account of theolog-
ical differences, would imitate the ad-
mirable model placed before them by
the illustrious chief of the English
hierarchy. We commend to their at-
tention the following extract from the
London WeeUy Begigter, which is a por-
tion of an excellent and well written
review of' Dr. Pusey's Elrenieon,
When severely pressed by an able an-
tagonist, one frequently finds himself
driven to defend the Catholic cause
upon the common, certain ground
where all Catholics stand together, and
to sink domestic controversies. This
is very well; but the same language
ought to be used toward opponents m
these domestic controversies, when they
are discussed inter nos, which is used
resfpecting them when we are fighting
the exterior enemy. If one takes
certain giound because it is available
against non-Catholics, he ought to
allow other Catholics to stand upon
that ground at all times in peace with-
out having his fidelity to the Church
called in question. We give the quota-
tions now, without further comment,
and leave the intelligent reader to
make hi \ own reflections on them :

" The greater part of the remainder
of the volume is taken up with proving
what most Catholics would be ready to
admit, that many exaggerated things
have been said by Catnolic writers of
name concerning the Pope's personal
infallibility, on the prerogatives of the
Blessed Virgin, and on many other sub-
jects. No doubt, viewed from without,
there is much matter for perplexity in
this whole subject. We know that
many persons, now Catholics, have
been kept back from seeing the
Church's claims on their absolute alle-
giance, because of the hold these exag-
gerated statements had obtained on
their imagination, and the repugnance
tliey felt to the aspect of doctrine thus
X>resented. This, we think, has arisen
partly from their having attributed to
such statements an authority which
they did not possess, and from their
not distinguishing between matters of
£iith and matters of pious opinion.
.. . . Catholics, on the other hand, . .



. . . know that the Church, while re-
quiring unitoH in necesaariis^ is most
free in conceding libertas in dtiiis ; . .
. . . does not aim at creating a dead
and soulless level of uniformity, but
tolerates great liberty of opinion in
matters of opinion," etc.

"Even though we might ourselves
hold that what are commonly called
the Ultramontane opinions are the more
logical, the legitimate deduction from
Scripture, the true development of
patristic teaching ; and however much
we might wish for a union of all
Christians on this basis, we should



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