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nevertheless hold most strongly, until
otherwise taught, that a reunion on the
principles of Bossuet would be better
than perpetuated schism."

Archbishop Manning's work will, of
course, take its place in our standard
Catholic literature, and we earnestly
recommend it to all our readers.



The Chbistian Exaheneb.
Ixxix.



Vol.



We observe by a notice appended to
its last number, for November, 1865,
that this long-established periodical has
been transferred from Boston to New
York, and will hereafter be conducted
under the editorship of the Rev, Henry
W. Bellows, D.D. This is a significant
fact, but precisely what it signmes time
only can reveal to the uninitiated. So
far as we can conjecture its significance,
the change of location and editorship
bodes a change in its prevailing tone
and spirit. It is, however, announced
that the former editors will co-operate
with the new one in the conduct of the
Review, which leads us to suppose that
the different schools of Unitarians will
be allowed fair scope for expressing
their views in its pages. Those who
are acquainted with the writings of Dr.
Bellows may fairly expect that if he de-
votes his time and energies j;o the task
of contributing articles on the great
topics which are just now occupying
the attention of Unitarians, there will
be a great improvement in the general
spirit and tendency of the Review. It
will become less extreme in its ration-
alism, and more positively Christian.
Dr. Bellows has come the nearest
to Catholic doctrine in some of the
frmdamental points of religion of any
rationalist with whose writings we have
happened to meet. We shall look with



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interest for the result of the movement
which has placed this powerful medium
for influencing minds and shaping the
course of eyents in the sphere to which
he belongs under his control. Mean-
while, we have some criticisms to make
on certain portions of the number which
closes the Boston series of ^^ The Exam-
iner."

The first article contains a critique
upon Miirs " Examination of the Phil-
osophy of Hamilton." We are delight-
ed to have that overrated and incon-
sistent disseminator of sceptical princi-
ples, Sir William Hamilton, demolished,
no matter who does it. One of his pu-
pils, Mr. Calderwood, has attacked him
on the side of positive philosophy,
showing his sceptical tendencies. Mr.
Mill has countermined him by a more
subtle scepticism than his own, and has
shown the baselessness of the positive
and dogmatic portion of his philosophy.
Very goodl The most dangerous of
all errors is semi-scepticisnL It defends
all that it retains of philosophical and
theological truth in such an illogical
manner that it brings it into doubt and
discredit with logical thinkers. It
covers up its scepticism so adroitly that
the unwary are deceived and poisoned
by it unawares. Let the contradiction
between its two elements be shown, let
both be pushed to their legitimate con-
sequences, and a great advantage is
gained. Those who push through the
sceptical principle, like Mr. Mill, bring
it to sucli a patent absurdity, that every
right-thinking mind will reject it at
once. Those who take the other side,
are forced upon a better and more solid
basis for both science and faith. The
reviewer of Mr. Mill seems to have
given himself up completely to his
sway, and to be unable to do more than
echo his thoughts. He gives up tran-
scendentalism, the ^and philosophy of
Boston and Cambridge which was to
supersede .old-fashioned Christianity
and inaugurate a new epoch, as an ex-
ploded and obsolete system. This for-
midable iron-clad has "blown up and
gone under^ like the famous Merrimac;
and it appears that Dr. Brownson seed
not have levelled his artillery against
her, but might have waited patiently
for her own magazine to be set fire to
by her crew. We are no longer even
sure that two and two do not make five,
or that two parallel lines cannot inclose
a space 1 Tne writer anxio'^««ly endea-



vors to show that in spite of this Mr.
Mill will still allow him to believe in a
God, and in the difference between right
and wrong. Let him, however, if he
will persist in believing something, do
it with trembling. For, if two and two
might, for anything we know, mako
five, one might possibly become equal
to nothing, and then some day we may
all find ourselves annihilated. Mr. Mill's
mine can be countermined as easily as
Sir William Hamilton's ; for, when once
the perception of absolute and necessary
truth is questioned, there is no stopping
short of nihilism.

The article on Dr. Newman's " AjmI-
Offia'*^ is well written, and shows a candid
and respectful appreciation of the in-
tellectual and moral greatness of the
illustrious convert. The author, how-
ever, makes a sweeping, wholesale
charge of having adopted a system of
equivocation, chicanery, and sophistry
upon the Jesuits, and the whole Catho-
lic Church, which has nothing to sus-
tain it but an on dit. The charge is
false. But apart from that, in saying it
the writer struck a foul blow, unworthy
of an honorable critic. Here is a great
question, on which men's minds are
divided, and on which there are most
weighty and important testimonies to
be examined. The writer does not
profess to enter the lists for the discus-
sion of it, but merely to criticise the
particular statements of Dr. Newman.
If he had anything to say. about it, he
should have taken up Dr. Newman's
statements and arguments, and made
some rejoinder. It is always a sign
that a man is either weak or disingenu-
ous, when he throws a wholesale asser-
tion of the general badness of your
cause m your face, because you nave
successfully defended it in respect to
one particular item. It is also very
achootbayUih to repeat continually the
stale generalities that one has read in
his books or in the newspapers about
the Jesuits. Cannot our antagonists
*'invint $ome other little bit of truth T^
We are tired of hearing this one so
often.

The writer fairly admits thatdf any
other guide to truth is necessary,
beside the individual reason, that guide
must be the Catholic Church. There
is no alternative except to follow your
own light, or be a Roman Catholic.
Every man, he thinks, has for himself a
light, which is infallible for himself



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alone, and only for the time being. We
would like to ask him whether this is a
certain, necessary, and uniyersal trath,
true for all times, and every individaal?
Is it so ? Then by the same process
which proves it to be so, you can estab-
lish a complete system of universal
truths, and amon^ them the universal
or Catholic principles of the Catholic
Church. We admit the infallible light
of reason, excluding his limitations,
which are ipso facto destroyed if he an-
swers our question in the affirmative.
If in the negative, the assertion he has
made is true only for himself, as a kind
of provisional arrangement — a sort of
dark lantern borrowed for the evening.
It is quite probable that by-and-bye the
sun may rise, and the dim rays of his lan-
tern blend with its brighter beams. The
infallible light within may tell him that
he needs the revelation of God, and the
instruction of the Catholic Church.

Decidedly the most valuable article
in the number is the one on '^ English
Schools and Colleges." It is evidently
written by one who is perfectly familiar
with the English system of education,
and contains many valuable hints and
suggestions for che improvement of our
own colleges. We recommend all those
who are engaged in the higher branches
of instruction to procure and read it ;
and, indeed, the author would do them
a great service by publishing it separ-
ately as a pamphlet, with such additions
as he might think suitable to enhance
its value. ,



OUR Faith, The Victory ; ob, A Com-
prehknsrvb vib w op the principal
Doctrines op the Christian Re-
ligion. By Rt. Rev. John McQill,
D.D., Bishop of Richmond. Balti-
more : Kelly & Piet. 1865.

This new edition of a work already
noticed in our pages is well printed,
and, if the paper were of somewhat
finer quality and the binding a little
better, would be a very handsome
volume. The extravagant price of
paper at present is a very fair excuse
for the first defect, although we cannot
help regretting that a work of such
high meriAind permanent value should
not be brought out in a style complete-
ly worthy of it. If our copy is a fair
specimen, however, there is no excuse
for the binding, which, though hand-



sonxe enough, is so loosely and care-
lessly executed as to endanger already
some of the leaves falling out. We
recommend our Catholic publishers to
show a little more of the enterprise and
thoroughness requisite in first-class
houses. Mr. O'Shea has given them a
good example in Dr. Brownson's
" American Republic," which we trust
will not be without a good effect. We
again recommend this admirable work
to our readers as one of the best in the
English language on the great topics of
which it treats.

The American Repxtblic : Its Consti-
tution, Tendencies, and Destiny. By
O. A. Brownson, LL.D. 8vo. New
York: P. O'Shea. Pp.435. 1866.

This is a work brought out in a very
superior style of typography which
does great credit to the enterprise of
the young publisher, Mr. O^Shea, and is
worthy of its great subject and its
equally great author. We have only
had time to read the preface, which
breathes the exalted philosophical
wisdom, the noble, magnanimous spirit,
and the pure Christian faith of the
illustrious Catholic publicist and
American patriot who wrote it. A
more extended notice of the work
itself will appear in our next number.

History of England from the Fall
op Wolsby to the Death op Eliza-
beth. By James Anthony Froude,
M.A., late Fellow of Exeter College,
Oxford. Vols. HL and IV., 8vo.
New York : Charles Bcribner & Com- '
pany.

The fourth volume of Mr. Froude^s
work ends with the death of his hero,
Henry VIII, The portion of the history
embraced in the instalment now before
us includes, therefore, many picturesque
incidents, which the author narrates
with his most charming and brilliant
pen, and with that quick eye for dra-
matic effect which lends such a fascina-
tioA to his style. In a notice of the first
and second volumes we expressed with
sufficient clearness our judgment of Mr.
Froude^s faults and merits, and we see
no reason to modify our previous state-
ments. He professes to have originally
approached his subject without preju-
dice or any purpose of running counter



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to the commonly received opinions of
the world; bat he does not deny that
he has come to take a very different
Tiew of Henry and his times from that
accepted by the rest of mankind. He
has this advantage over his critics —
that, as he makes nse of state papers and
other manuscript records which are not
accessible to the world at large, it is not
always possible to test the correctness
of his qaotations or the justness of his
inferences from official documents. We
can only say that in the few instances
in which it has been in our power to
folio «ir him in his researches, we have
learned to distrust not only his accuracy
but his honesty. We must wait until
some other and dispassionate historian
shall have explored the same fields be-
fore we can detect all his misrepresenta-
tions and rectify all his errors.

HuMOBouB Poems. By Oliver Wendell
Holmes, with illustrations by Sol.
Eytinge, Jr. Boston: Ticknor &
Fields. 1865.

A cheap but neat edition, bound in
pamphlet form, forming one of a series
of ^^ Companion Poets for the People,
illustrated.*' Dr. Holmes is our Thomas
Hood, in some respects more to our
taste than his English compeer. His
humorous poems, though steeped in
the double distilled oil of wit, have no
poison in them, and are wholesome and
delicious, when taken laughing in
small doses.

The Practical Dictation Spellino-
BooK, in which the spelling, pronun-

• elation, meaning, and application of
almost all the irregular words in the
English language are taught in a
manner adapted to the comprehension
of youth. For the use of schools.
By Edward Mulvany. New York:
P. Omea.

The plan of this book is excellent,
and will, we have no doubt, be general-
ly adopted in our schools. It has evi-
dently been compiled with much care
and attention. The scholar that mas-
ters its various sections will not be apt
to make those ridiculous mistakes in
spelling and writing which are so pre-
valent m the community. In the next
edition the typographical errors ought
to be attended to. The present one
contains too many such errors.



LITERARY nTTELLIOBNCE.

Messrs. Murphy & Co., Baltimore, an-
nounce for publication at an early day
the following works : A new improved
and enlarged edition of Archbishop Spal-
ding's ** Miscellanea ;" a new edition of
** The Evidences of Catholicity," by the
same author; *^The Apostleship of
Prayer," a translation from the French of
the Rev. H. Ramifere, S.J. ; "The Manual
of the Apostleship of Prayer ;" new edi-
tions of " Ellen Middleton," " Lady Bird
and Grantlv Manor," by Lady Fuller-
ton ; and of " Pauline Seward."

P. O'Shea, New York, announces :
" The Life of St. Anthony of Padua;"
" The Life and Miracles of St. Philo-
mena ;" " The Christian's Daily Guide,"
a new prayer-book ; the second volume
of "Darras' History of the Church."

P. Donahoe, Boston, announces the
publication of a new illustrated maga-
zine for the young folk. It is to be called
" Spare Hours," and is to appear early
in December. There is room for such a
publication, and we hope it will prove
a success, and that Mr. Donahoe will
make it equal to anything of the kind
published in this country. A good
magazine for the young has been a want
long felt. The subscription price is
two dollars per year.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

From The American News Com-
pany, New York : " Aurora Floyd," by
M. E. Braddon. 12mo., pp 372. " The
Ordeal for Wives." A novel, bv the
author of " The Morals of Mayfair."
12mo., pp. 448. " Rebel Brag and Brit-
ish Bluster: A record of unfulfilled
prophecies, baffled schemes, disappoint-
ed hopes, etc., etc. By Owls-Glass."
Paper, pp. 111.

We have also received a neat little
pamphlet, of twenty-four pages, en-
titled : " Notes on Willson's Readers,"
by S. 8. Haldeman.

From the Hon. Wm. H. Seward,
Secretary of State, Washington : " Di-
plomatic Correspondence for 1864.
Parts 3 and 4."

From Charles Scribnbr, New
York : " Plain Talks on Familiar Sub-
jects," a series of popular lectures. By
J. G. Holland. 12mo., pp. 835.

From P. O^Shba, New Yoj^ : Num-
bers 14, 15, and 16 of" Darras* History
of the Church."

From D. & J. Sadlibr & Co., New
York : Parts 5, 6, and 7 of " D'Artaud's
Lives of the Popes.*



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CATHOLIC WORLD.



VOL. |L, NO. 11.— FEBRUAET, 1866.



Translated from Etudes Bellglenses, Historiqiies et Litt^ndres, par des Fdres de la Gompagnie

de J^sus.

CHARLES IL AND fflS SON, FATHER JAMES STUART.



Of aU the Stuarts who reigned over
Great Britain only one, if historians
can be trusted, abandoned Anglican-
ism and became a child of the Catho-
lic Church. It is true that to the
name of James II. that of his elder
brother, Charles IL, has sometimes been
added ; but the general opinion is that
Charles had no religion whatever,
and scoffed at all creeds alike. Docu-
ments, however, which have lately
been brought to light, enable us to
prove that both the sons of Charles L
abandoned Protestantism, and that in
their persons Catholicism occupied for
more th an tw enty years the throne of
Henry VnL

To understand how the religion of
Charles II. could remain so long an
historical enigma, we must recall to
min4 the peculiar circumstances in
which he was placed. Surrounded by
fanatical sectaries, who yielded him a
kind of insubordinate obedience, and
VOL. n. 87



kept him in continual fear of the axe
by which his unfortunate father had
suffered, he felt constrained to observe
in public the forms of worship which
he had sol^nnly renounced before the
altar. And to this we must add an-
other reason. Far from reforming
the disorders of a licentious youth, he
prolonged his excesses to the very eve
of death, and his unbridled passions
tended to extinguish in his naturally
weak and timid soul all the energy
alike of the man and of the Christian.
So, though a Catholic at heart, Charles
never had the courage during his
whole reign to avow his sentiments.
Some thought him a zealous Presby-
terian; others, a devoted Anglican.
Those who knew him better declared
he was nothing but a bad Protestant,
and for that declaration they had
more reason than they supposed.

There is no question that he died
in the bosom of the Church ; but that
he had returned to it long before he
died is a fact which has only lately



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Charle9 IT. and St$ Son,



been established. After Ijing for two
hundred years among the dusty ar-
chives of a religious order in Rome, a
remarkable correspondence has been
brought to light between the sixth
successor of Henry YIIL and Father
Paul Oliva, the general of the Jesuits.
The occasion of this singular inter-
change of letters between Whitehall
and Rome was the presence in the
Jesuit house, in the last named city, of
a young novice whom all the fathers,
even the general himself, believed to
be a French gentleman. Charles in-
fonned Father Oliva who this young
man was. By the right of paternal
authority he demanded that James
Stuart, the eldest of his natural sons,
should be sent back to him. He
wished to keep him for some time
about his person, and by his as-
sistance to instruct himself more
thoroughly in the Catholic faith, and
so finish the work which he had long
ago commenced. After reading these
letters, and penetrating the hidden
thoughts and mental tortures of the
conscience-stricken king, who knows
his duty, and fears, yet wishes, to fulfil
it ; a crowned slave, bearing beneath
his royal robes a yoke of iron, and
sighing in vain for liberty to believe
and worship after the dictates of his
heart, we cannot resist the conclu-
sion tliat Charles 11. was neither a
deist nor a waverer ; he was a Catho-
lic — a timid and a bad one, if you wil^
but firm in his convictions.

But, you may say, a conversion
such as this is not much for the
Church to brag of. Here you have a
prince bom a heretic, and becoming a
Catholic so quietly that his people
know nothing about it. The Church
declares that faith without works is
dead. Well, it is true that Charles'^
life was in perpetual discord with his
faith. We certainly do not propose
our neophyte as a model penitent ; it
is enough if the reasons which led to
his conversion afford his countrymen
another proof of the divine origin of
Catholicism. It is surely a startling
circumstance that this slave to volup-



tnousness should turn his back upon
the easy-going Anglican Church, so
complaHant even to the monstrous pas-
sions of Henry YHI., and choose the
most inflexible of all Christian com-
munions, the one which preferred los-
ing her hold upon the glorious and
powerful Island of Saints to conniving
at adultery; which defended the in-
nocent Catharine of Aragon against
her ferocious spouse, and might,
one hundred and« forty years LUer,
have protected Catharine of Porto-
gal also had a royal caprice again
attempted to displace a virtuous
queen in order to raise a vicious favor-
ite to the throne of England. This
monarch, timid by nature, and sur-
rounded by sanguinary &natics, knew
that the bare accusation of " popery"
would be enough to stir up his whole
kingdom against him ; yet he did not
hesitate to become a ^' papist^ — ^he up-
on whom the laws conferred the title,
so much coveted by his predecessors,
of supreme head of the Established
Church. Do we not see in this a sig-
nal triumph of God over man, of truth
over falsehood ?

Should it be asked why this corre-
spondence has remained so longun*
published, we answer that it was by
its nature strictly confidentiaL So
long, too, as the Stuarts maintuned
their pretensions to the English crown
the publication of such letters would
have seriously compromised them.
Then came the suppression of the so-
ciety, after which it would appear that
all trace of the correspondence was
lost, until it was recently brought to
light by the learned Father Boerow^
The original letters form part of a
collection of autograph manuscripts of
Charles H., Father Paul Oliva, Chris^
tina of Sweden, James 11., the queen-
mother, Henrietta of France, Catharine
of Braganza, and other celebrated per-
sons of the time. The letters of
Charles are impressed with the rojal
seal



* ZitoriadOlaeomfMrHom^taUi CMMa OaUoUea
4i Carlo H., B$ tflnffMUmxi, osMite ite Mr«-
tun amUnUcki 4ii origimaii.



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579



n.

It is easy enough to mention cir-
cumstances which would naturally
have prepossessed Charles ita favor of
the Church. In the first place, he
was indebted for his life, after the de-
feat of Worcester, almost entirely to
Catholics, who at great risk to them-
selves concealed him from the soldiers
of Cromwell and enabled him to es-
cape to France. In Paris he must
have seen many things to influence
his religious sentiments. The most
profound impression, however, was
made upon him by the venerable M.
Olier, the founder of St Sulpice.
** God opened to him," says his bio-
grapher, the Abbe Faillon, H the Eng-
Hsh monarch's heart. In the new
conferences which he had with this
prince, he showed him the beauty and
truth of the Catholic religion with so
much grace, force, and energy that
Charles IT. was cpnstrained to a^now-
ledge afterward to one of his friends
that although many distinguished per-
sons had spoken to him about these
matters, there was none of them who
had enlightened' him so much as M.
Olier ; that in his words he recogniz-
ed and felt an extraordinary virtue ;
in fine, that he had fully satisfied him.
There can be little doubt that M.
Olier had persuaded the king to ab-
jure his errors and to take the first
step toward a return into the bosom
of the Church; that is to say, by
sending a secret abjuration to the
Pope, who, as has been said above,
required nothing more. For, in the
first place, it was rumored all through
France and England that Charles had
sent to the Pope a secret abjuration ;
and beside, M, de Bretonvilliers, after
mentioning that his majesty recognias-
ed and felt an extraordinary virtue in
his conversations with M. Olier on
the truth of the Catholic religion, adds
these significant words: 'At pres-
ent, I can say no more.* This reti-
cence naturally leads us to infer
that Charles had taken some step
toward becoming a Catholic which



it was not then prudent to make
known."

Two years after his restoration to
the throne, and under the influence,
probably, of the queen-mother and the
queen-consort, he resolved to open
with the Holy See a negotiation which
he hoped might lead to the restoration
of the English people to religious
unity. It was necessary to proceed
with the greatest caution. He chose
for his envoy Sir Richard Bellings —
the same to whom he afterward in-
trusted the most secret and delicate of
his missions to the court of Louis
XIV. Sir Richard set out for Italy
under pretext of attending to affairs of
his own ; and as soon as he could do
so safely, he quietly went to Ron)e.
His finit business was to ask for a
cardinal's hat for Louis Stuart, duke
of Richmond and Lennox, better
known under the name of the Abb^
d'Aubigny. He was a near relative
of the king's, and had been summoned
from Paris to fulfil the functions of
grand almoner to Queen Catharine.
Charles wished to place under his
charge the affairs of the Church in
Great Britain. A memoir on this
subject was drawn up for Bellings by
Lord Chancellor Clarendon^, and
copied by Clarendon's son. It Is dated
October 25, 1662. Each leaf is au-
thenticated by the royal signature. A
minute of the instructions given by
Charles to his ambassador is preserv-
ed at Rome. It can only have been
drawn up by Sir Richard himself:

^ 1. His majesty solicits this promo*
tion for the advantage of his kingdom,
and in order to give the Catholic
party an authorised chief, iutimately



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