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amid the embarrassments of the crown,
we had prayed God to grant us the
opportunity of finding at least one
person in our realm in whom we could
confide touching the affiiir of our sal-
vation without giving our court
grounds for suspecting that we are
Catholic And although there have
been here a multitude of priests, both
in the service of the queen (a portion
of whom have dwelt in our palace of
St James and at Somerset House)
and also scattered throughout our
whole city of London; nevertheless
we could not avail ourselves of any
because of the suspicion we should
give to our court by^nversation with
such people, who, wnatever disguises
of clothing they may assume, are al-
ways known for what they are. Yet
despite so many difficulties, it seems
as if the providence of Grod had pro-
vided for and seconded our desires, by
causing to be born to us in the Catho-
lic religion a son to whom alone we
could confide ourselves in an afiair so
delicate. And although many per-
sons, perhaps better versed than him-
self in the mysteries of the Catholic
religion, might be found for our ser-
vice in this exigency ; nevertheless
we could not make use of others as
well as of him, who would be always
capable of administering to us in se-
cret the sacraments of the confession
and of tlie communion which we



desire to receive as soon as pos-
sible.

This our son is a young gentleman
whom we know you have received
with you at Rome under the name of
the Sieur La Cloche de Jersay, for
whom we have always had a peculiar
tenderness, as much because he was
bom to us when we were scarcely
sixteen or seventeen years old, of a
young lady of the highest rank in our
realm (rather from the frailty of
our early youth than from a bad
heart), as ako because of the excel-
lent nature we have ever remarked in
him and of that eminence in learning
wherein he has advanced through our
means. For this makes us all the
more esteem his conversion to the
Catholic religion, since we know that
he has been led to it through judg-
ment, reason, and knowledge. Many
important reasons touching the peace
of our realm have prevented us, up to
the present time, from publicly recog-
nizing him as our son ; but this will
be for a brief time only, because we
presently design to make a kind of
public recognition of him ere many
years, having, however, provided him,
in 1665, with^the necessary assurances,
in case we should come to die, so that
he may make use of them in due time
and place. And as he is not known
here in anywise, saving by the queens
—this affair having been managed
with great secresy — we could in all
safety converse with him, and exercise
in secret the mysteries of the Catholic
religion, without exciting in any one
of our court the suspicion that we are
Catholic, which we could not do with
any other missionary ; in addition to
the confidence that we should have in
opening to. him our conscience in all
freedom and sincerity as to a part of
ourselves. Thus we see that, although
he was bom in our tender youth
against the ordinances of God, the
same God has seen fit to preserve
him for our salvation, since it pertains
to himself alone to know how to
bring good out of eviL

We believe that the need we have



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587



of him has been snfficientlj explained
to your reverence, and if your rever-
ence write us, you will intrust your
letters to our son alone, when he comes
to us. For although we do not doubt
but that you would find secret ways
enough to do it, nevertheless you would
disoblige us excessively by intrusting
yoar letters to anybody but to this our
son, for many considerable reasons
whereof your reverence can conjecture
apart, but especially from the mischief
which it would bring upon us, as we
were subjected to great hazard on ac-
count of our receiving a letter which •
we had from Rome in reply to one
we had written to the deceased Pope ;
and although it was presented to us
with all necessary circumspection and
by a Catholic person, nevertheless it
could not be managed with sufficient
prudence to prevent the suspicion of
our most keen-sighted courtiers. But
having found means to stifle the sus-
picion which was abroad respecting
our being Catholic, we were obliged,
through fear of renewing it in men's
minds, to consent on several occasions
to many things that turned to the dis-
advantage of numerous Catholics in
our kingdom of Ireland. This is the
reason why — although we had written
with aU possible secresy to His Holi-
ness respecting our conversion to . the
Catholic Church at the same time that
we besought His Holiness to make our
very dear cousin, my Lord d'Aubigny, a
cardinal, whereof we were refused for
good reasons — ^we have not been able
to pursue our point.

And although the Queen of Sweden
is very wise and discreet, nevertheless
it is enough that she is a woman to
lead us to ^ar that she cannot keep a
secret, and, as she believes that she
alone knows the oHgin of our well-
beloved son, we have written her
again and have confirmed her in that
opinion. This is done in order that
your reverence shall manifest to her,
upon occasion, that you have no
knowledge of his birth, if she should
inquire of you. As also, we pray your
reverence not to make Jmown to her



or to anybody else, be it whom it
may, the design we have of becoming
Catholic, or that we send for our son
for this object If the Queen of Swe-
den asks where he is gone, your rever-
ence wiU find some pretext, either that
he is gone on a mission to our island
of Jersey or to some other part of our
realm, or still another pretext, until
we make our desires and wishes in
this matter again known to you.

We pray you, then, to send to us as
soon as possible our very dear and
well-beloved son — that is to say, at the
first time that this season or the next
permit. We believe that your rever-
ence IS too zealous for the salvation
of souls, and has too much respect for
crowned heads, not to accord to us a
request so just. We had had some
thought of writing to His Holmess and
disclosing to him what we have in soul,
and by the same means to pray him
to send our son to us. But we have
believed that it would be sufficient for
us this time to make a declaration to
your reverence, reserving for another
occasion — ^which we shall bring to pate
as soon as possible — ^the writing and
declaring ourselves to the Pope by a
very secret courier sent post by us.

If our dear and well-beloved son, li
not a priest, and if he cannot become
one without making publicly known
his true name and origin, or from
other circumstances (which we say be-
cause we do not know your mode of
acting in these matters), in that case
let him rather not be made a priest at
Rome than that he communicate
aught of wliat he is to the bishops or
priests; but let him pass through
Paris and present himself to our very
dear cousin the King of France, or, if
he prefer, to our very honored sister
the Duchess d'Orleans, to whom he
can make manifest on our part our
good desire in all safety. They know
well enough what is the wish of our
soul, and will readily recognize our
very dear and well-beloved son by the
tokens which we gave to him in Lon-
don in 1665, and, perceiving that
he is CathoHc, they woUld endeavor



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588



Charle$ IL and HU Son,



and would 'be.able to make him a
priest without any one's knowing what
he is, and with all possible secresy as we
believe. If, however, without so many
crooks and turns, he prefer to come
to us without being a priest — which
is, perhaps, the better course — then we
would do the same thing by means of
the queen our very honored mother,
or of the queen-consort, who would
have at their service bishops, mission-
aries, or others to perform the cere-
mony without any one's perceiving or
knowing anything about it. We say
this in the event of his encountering
difficulties in effecting this at Bome.

And although we wish our very
dear son to come to us, it is, neverthe-
less, not our design to draw him away
from your society. On the contrary,
we should rejoice if he remain in it all
his life if God inspire him to that vo-
cation, and, after having put our con-
science in order by his means, we shall
not prevent him from returning to
Rome, to live according to the society
to which he has attach^ himself; and
even during the time that he shall be
at our service we shall not prevent
him, if he so will, from pursuing, with
those of your body that are in our
realm, the life commenced in conform-
ity with the religious vocation which
he has embraced, provided that it be
not in London, but in some city or
village not far off from our city of
London, to the end that when we need
him he can come with the greatest
promptitude and facility. And the
reason why we do not wish him to re-
side in London among your people is
because of the danger of his being sus-
pected as a Jesuit, from his being seen
to enter those places which are the
residences of your people, already too
well known by many — a thing that
would turn to our prejudice. Now
we are well content, after being ab-
solved by him of heresy, ani after we
are reconciled to God and to the
Church, that he return to Bome to
lead the religious life which he has be-
gun, awaiting further orders from ns
— a scheme which seems to us quite



to the pomt, and we believe that yoar
reverence will be of our opinion and
counsel in this last particular. Thus
doing, when he shall have been here
some weeks or months, we will send
him back to Bome under the govern-
ment of your reverence, to the end
that, under your care, he may the bet^
ter fit himself for our service. And
during the short time that he shall be
at London, when he speak to any one
of yours let him guard himself well
in discoursing upon the object of his
coming. He can say that it is for
• some affair of importance in our court,
of which only your reverence and him-
self should have cognizance.

Li the meanwhile, though we can-
not openly manifest to your illustrious
society the affection and the good-will we
have toward it, this does not prevent
your reverence from making known
to us, by our very dear and well-be-
loved son, if there be any way in
which we can aid it, which we should
do all the more willingly because we
know that everything which we can
contribute will be employed in the
service of God for the remission of
our offenses. For the rest, we recom-
mend to your prayers oar realm and
ourselves.

Charles, King of England.

At Whitehall, the 3d of August,
1668.

Enclosed in the communication ad-
dressed to the father-general was a
second letter of the king's, which reads
as follows :

To OUR VERT HOyORED SDK THE

Prince SruARt, resident with
THE Jesuit Fathers under the

NAME OF SiEUR DE LA ClOCHE,

AT Rome : * •

Monsieur,— We have written very
ftilly to your reverend father-general;
he will tell you our pleasure. The
Queen of Sweden has asked of us, as a
loan, the sum of money that we bad
taken care to provide for your main-
tenanoe, which was sufficient for



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589



many years. Wo have ordered what
was necessary in the matter; and
this is a reason why you need not put
yourself to the trouble either of writ-
ing to her about it, or of speaking
nore thereof.

If the autumn season be too disa-
greeable to get out on your journey to
us, and if you cannot venture upon it
without putting yourself in imminent
danger of falling ill, wait till the com-
mencement of next spring, having es-
pecial care for the preservation of
your health, and keeping yourself in
all quiet, writing us nothing, for we
are not a little suspected of being
Catholic

The queens are very eager to see
you, as we have communicated to
them privately the news of your con-
version to the Roman religion. They
have counselled* us to tell you that we
do not forbid your living in the insti-
tute to which you have attached your-
self, and we should be rejoiced if you
remain in it all your life ; but desire
vou to measure well your powers and
your constitution, which has appeared
to us veiy feeble and delicate. Que
can be a good Catholic without being
a religious, and you ought to consider
that we design, before many years, to
publicly recognize you as our son.
But as neither parliament nor the
state of affairs has permitted it up to
the present moment, we have always
been constrained to defer it You
ought, moreover, to consider that you
can aspire to the same titles from us
as the Duke of Monmouth, and per-
haps to more ample ones. Beside, we
are without children by the queen
and those of the Duke of York are
very feeble ; while, for every reason
and because of the rank of your
mother, jou can- lay claim on our-
selves and on parliament to be pre-
ferred to the Duke of Monmouth. In
that case, bemg young, as you are, if
liberty of conscience and if the Catho-
Hc religion be restored to this realm,
yo\i would have some hope of the
crown. For we Can assure you that
if Grod permit that we and our very



honored brother the Duke 'of York die
without children, the crown will be-'
long to yourself and parliament can-
not legitimately oppose it, unless that
the &ct of your being a Catholic ex-
clude you ; as liberty of conscience is
not yet established, and since, at pres<
ent, only Protestant kings are eligible.
This, then, we are advised by the
queens to tell you. If, hi the mean-
time, all things considered, you prefer
to serve God in the Society of Jesus,
we do not wish to offer any resistance
to the will of Gk)d, whom we have al-
ready grieved too much by our of-
fences. We do not, therefore, forbid
your pursuing that vocation, if Grod
inspire you to it ; but we desire only
that you think well of it

We do not wish to write to the Pope
until we have spoken to you by our
own mouth. We had written to the
late Pope, to the end that he should
make our very dear and well-beloved
cousm, my Lord d'Aubigny, a cardinal ;
whereof we have not had the satisfac-
tion that we demanded. However,
we are not offended in this. His Holi-
ness having made known to us mani-
fold reasons why he could not con-
scientiously create a cardinal in our
realm, the affairs of religion and other
things being as they are.

Not long since we wrote to the
Queen of Sweden, and advised her not
to write to you, and to treat you
henceforth as simply a gentleman,
without manifesting that she has any
knowledge of your birth. This is a
reason why you should not take it
amiss if her majesty treat you after
that manner. Ijt is a no light burden
to us to see you always constrained to
live unknown, but have patience yet a
little, for before many years we shall
try to so conduct affairs and parlia-
ment that all the world will know who
you are. You will no longer live in
these hindrances and restraints, and it
will depend only on yourself to live in
the liberty and the pleasure of a per-
son of your birth, unless that God
strongly inspire you and that you '
ahould wish to continue absolutely the



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590



Chadei H and jSs Skm,



religious life which 70a have com-
menced.

Although we cannot, and ought not,
to openly show the good-will that we
have for the Society of Jesus, who
have received you, yet in the mean-
while if we cannot publicly favor them
with our royal munificence, there may
still be some place, room, or occasion
wherein they might need our aid, and
where we could contribute somewhat
We would do it all the more because
we know that all will be employed for
the service of God and the remission
of our offences, and because, also^ we
could desire that no one of your line-
age should remain with them without
founding something as a memorial
suitable to one of your extraction.
We will talk about this matter in Lon-
don, if you persist in your design of
living with them.

In the ineanwhile, believe that we
have always had you in our peculiar
affection, not only because you were
bom to us in our tenderest youth, when
we were scarcely sixteen or seventeen,
but particularly because of the excellent
nature that we have always remarked
in you, because of that eminence of
knowledge in which you have been ad-
vanced through ourmeans, because yon
have always borne yourself as a virtu-
ous man, and because you have been
especially obedient to our commands :
the which, joined to the paternal love
that we have felt toward you, strongly
govemi our desires in wishing all kinds
of benefits for you, beside the pity
that moves us in seeing you so un-
known and disregarded — a thing which
shall continue as brief a space as pos-
sible.

It is not easy for us to send private*
ly to Bome a sum of money adequate
for a person of your birth and suffi-
cient to put you in the condition and
estate of appearing before us, being,
as we are, neither willing nor able to
noise it abroad that we have any one
at Bome with whom we have commu-
nication. It is not possible that you
are not everywise modest enough to
eome to us, if not in the conditioii of



one gf your rank, at least as a simple
gentleman when you put foot in E^g-
iokd. Finally, pray God for ourselves,
Che queen, and our realm.
I am your affectionate finther,

CHABI.1E8,
King of Eng., Fr., Scot, and Ire.

At Whitehall, 4th of Aug., 1668.

Charles IL, in the letters we have
just given, left his son at liberty to set.
out at the end of autumn or even at
the winter season. Twenty-five days
have not elapsed when his resolution
changes. He wishes the novice at
Rome to make haste to precipitate hi^
departure. What was the cause of
this serious disquietude ? It was this :
Queen Christina, repenting of her
abdication and hating the north, re-
solved to seek an asylum for her re-
maining days in the shadow of the
Vatican. Charles was informed of
her intention, and at once took alarm.
Christina would then witness tiie de-
parture of James Stuart; entangling
the inexperienced novice in a network
of cunning questions, what secret could
escape her? Everything would be
discovered. Litde by little the rumor
W0UI4 spread from Italy to En^and.
Charles already saw his kingdom in
revolution and himself reduced to the
most grievous extremity. Such was
the object of the second letter to the
father-general :

To THE Reyerend Fathbb-geks-

BAL OF THE JeSUIT FaTHEBS AT

Rome:

Reverekd Fathbb^ — ^We send,
with the greatest diligence and with the
greatest secresy, an express to Bome
chioged with two letterp, one to
your reverence to the end that our
well-beloved son set out as soon as
possible ; the other to the Queen of
Sweden^— having commanded the mese:
senger to await the arrival of her
majesty in any Italian town through
which she may pass, not wishing even
that the aforesaid express should ap-
pear at your house, Aroogh fear of be-



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Father Jomei StuarL



591



ing recognized bj some of your order
who are English. As he ifi a person
of rank, we have in like manner for-
bidden his delaying more than one
day at Bome, fearing lest he should
be recognized by certain Englishmen
who are at Rome.

We say, then, to your reverence
that, since the first letter that we wrote
you, we have received trustworthy news
that the Queen of Sweden returns to
Bome, contrary to the anticipations
which we had formed — ^the which has
not a little embarrassed us in the mat-
ter of our salvation. This is the rea-
son that, upon this new accident, hav-
ing taken counsel with the queens, we
have determined to write in haste to
the Queen of Sweden, feigning to her
and persuading her that our very dear
and well-beloved son has represented
to us that he wishes assigned to him
something fixed for life, to the end
that in case he should not pursue the
religious calling he has commenced,
being now a Catholic, he may have
something to fall back upon ; and that
even if he should pursue it, he prays
us to settle a sum of money upon him
which he may dispose of according to
his devotion, whidi petition we have
granted him ; but since this cannot be
effected at Bome, we have ordered
him to go to Paris to find certain cor-
respondents of ours, and after that to
proceed to Jersey or to Hanton,* where
he will receive from us forty or fifty
thousand crowns in total, which may
be deposited in some bank; and that
we have instructed him not to tell his
superior of his birth; but that he shall
simply feign to your reverence that he
is the son of a rich preacher, who, be-
ing deceased some time since, his moth-
er, moved with a desire of becoming a
Catholic and to give him the goods
which belong to him, has written to
him, and that your reverence, desirous
of the salvation of this person, and of
making her a Catholic, and perceiv-
ing also that he can come by his es-
tate, has readily permitted him to go.
This we have arranged in order that
* Kow Sonthampion.— Sd. C. W.



she shall thus believe that she alone
has the secret, and will therefore not
break the matter to your reverence
from the friendship she bears him.
Thus we counteract any suspicion she
might have of your letting him come
to us and of our being Catholic But
above all it is necessary that our very
dear son do not wait, but that he set
out as soon as possible; for, as she
needs money (and so needs it that she
demanded at the last Swedish diet 35,-
000 crowns in advance), she would
embarrass him in such a way that the
drama which we wish to play would
come off but illy. This we have ar-
ranged touching the Queen of Sweden.
Your reverence will not be astonish-
ed then if this fear has led us to dread
the evils by which we are besieged ; a
fear all the more lively in us, because
these evils are greater and bear in their
train consequences more dangerous.
Now it is a truth received without dis-
pute among our wisest statesmen, that
of all the temporal evils which can be-
fal us, the proof that we are Catholic
is the greatest, since it would infallibly
cause our death, and at the same time
many convulsions in oUr realm. Your
reverence ought not, therefore, to be
astonished if we take so many precau-
tions and if we have judged proper to
write him this second letter also, as
well in the matter of the Queen of
Sweden as to supply omissions which
we made in the &«t, and at the same
time to retract some things contained
therein — that our very dear and hon-
ored son do not present himself to our
very dear cousin the King of France,
nor to our very honored sister the
Duchess of Orleans, as we advised be-
fore ; but only that he come to us, be
it through France or through Paris or
by other ways, as it shall pleasd your
reverence to determine. He will ab-
stain during the journey from writing
to the Queen of Sweden, lest she see
that those things are not carried out
which, as we have heretofore said, have
been pretended to her. This we have
decided upon with the aid of the queens,
fearing a discovery or some accident



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Oiarlet IL and HU Sm,



Moreover, we pray your reverenoe
(who are secretly acquainted, as are
her moet christian majesty the queen,
and our very dear sister, Madame the
Duchess of Orleans, with the warm dis-
position for becoming a Catholic which
We have for a long time shown), — we
pray you, nevertheless, to abstain from
writing to them in any fashion touch-
ing these matters, but to keep every-
thing quite secret until the providence
of God has otherwise disposed of af-
fairs.

Now as we desire, with all requisite
prudence in an affair of so great con-
sequence to ourselves and Uie peace
of our realm, that our very dear and
well-beloved son find everything which
is necessary in the business of our
salvation made easy for him, and to
avoid the inconveniences which might
spring upon this side, we have taken
counsel with the queen to this effect,
ihat when he shall arrive alome in
London — ^for such is our good will
and pleasure — he take time to clothe
himself, and dress himself as quickly
as possible, if he be not sufficiently
well-dressed — ^not having been willing
to do so for fear of soiling his gar^
ments by the bad weather and muddy
roads, which soil a carriage and also
all who are in it ; and having put him-
self in order and rendered himself
presentable, let him take occasion to
address himself to the r^gning queen,



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