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and calm energy. He was a man of an
absorbing presence, one whom you would
have instinctively noticed even in a crowd.
He bore himself with that unconscious grace
whidi people are apt to call aristocratic,
being apparently never encumbered by any



superfluity of arms and legs. His featiures,
whatever their ethnological value might be,
were, at all events, decidedly handsome;
but if they were typical of anything, they
told unmistakably that their possessor was a
man of culture. They showed none of that
barbaric frankness which, like a manufac-
turer's label, flaunts in the face of all hu-
manity the history of one's origin, race, and
nationality. Culture is hostile to type; it
humanizes the ferocious jaw-bones of the
Celt, blanches the ruddy luster of the Anglo-
Saxon complexion, contracts the abdommal
volume of the TeutAi, and subdues the ex-
travagant angularities of Brother Jonathan's
stature and character. Although respecting
this physiognomic reticence on the part of
Mr. Fern, we dare not leave the reader in
ignorance regarding the circumstances of
which he was the unconscious result.

After his flight fi^m Norway, Ame Orm-
grass had roamed about for several months
as " a wanderer and a vagabond upon the
earth," until, finally, he setUed down in New
Orleans, where he entered into partnership
with a thrifty young Swede, and established
a hotel, known as the " Sailors' Valhalla."
Fortune favored him: his reckless daring,
his ready tongue, and, above all, his extraor-
dinary beauty soon gained him an envia-
ble reputation. Money became abundant,
the hotel was tom down and rebuilt with
the usual barbaric display of mirrors and
upholstery, and the landlords began to aspire
for guests of a higher degree. Then, one
fine day, a young lady, with a long French
name and aristocratic antecedents, fell in
love with Ame, not coolly and prudently, as
northern damsels do, but with wildly tragic
gesticulations and a declamatory ardor that
were superb to behold. To the Norseman,
however, a passion of this degree of inten-
sity was too novel to be altogether pleasing ;
he felt awed and bewildered, — standing, as
he did, for the first time in his life in the
presence of a veritable mystery. By some
chance their clandestine meetings were dis-
covered. The lady's brother shot at Ame,
who returned the shot with better effect;
then followed elopement — marriage — ^retiun
to the bosom of the family, and a final grand
tableau with parental blessing and recon-
ciliation.

From that time forth, Ame Fern, as he
was called (his Norse name having simply
been translated into English), was a man of
distinction. After the death of his father-
in-law, in 1859, he sold his Louisiana prop-
erty and emigrated with his wife and three

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240



UNDER THE GLACIER.



at the sound of a voice, deep, distinct and
sepulchral, which seemed to proceed fiom
within the cotuge.

" I see a book sealed with seven seals,"
the voice was saying. " Two of them are
already broken, and when the third shall be
broken — then it is all black — a great ca-
lamity will happen."

" Pray don't say that, Gurid," prayed
another voice, with a touching, child-like
appeal in it (and he instandy recognized it
as Elsie's). " God is so very strong, you
know, and He can certainly wipe away that
black spot, and make it all bright again.
And I don't know that I have done any-
thing very wrong of late; and father, I
know, is really very good, too,' even if he
does say some hard things at times. But
he doesn't mean anything by it — and I am
sure "

" Be silent, child I " interrupted the first
voice. '* Thou dost not understand, and it
is well for thee that thou dost not. For it
is written, * He shall visit the sins of the
fathers upon the children, even imto the
third and fourth generation.* "

" How terrible 1 "

" Hush I Now I see a man — he is tall
and beautiful — has dark hair and rather a
dark face."

" Pray don't say anything more. I don't
want to know. Is he to break the seals ? "

" Then there is water — water — a long,
long journey."

Maurice had listened to this conversation
with feelings of mingled amusement and
pity, very much as he would have listened
to a duet, representing the usual mixture
of gypsy and misguided innocence, in an
old-fashioned opera. That he was playing
the eavesdropper had never entered his
mind. The scene seemed too utterly re-
mote and imreal to come within the pale of
moral canons. But suddenly the aspect
of afiairs underwent a revolution, as if the
misguided young lady in the opera had
turned to be his sister, and he himself under
obligation to interfere in her behalf. For
at that moment there came an intense, hur-
ried whisper, to which he would fain have
closed his ears :

" And does he care for me as I do for
him ? "

He sprang up, his ears tingling with
shame, and hurried down the beach.
Presently it occurred to him, however, that
it was not quite chivalrous in him to leave
litde Elsie there aloAe with the dark-minded
sibyl. Who knew but that she might need



his help? He paused, and was about to
retrace his steps, when he heard some one
approaching, whom he instinctively knew
to be Elsie. As she came nearer, the
moon, which hung transfixed upon the
flaming spear of a glacier peak, revealed a
distressed little face, through whose transpiar-
ent surface you might watch the play of
emotions within, as one watches the doings
of tiny insects and fishes in an aquarium.

" What have they been doing to my little
girl ? " asked Fern, with a voice fuU of
paternal tenderness. *' She has been crying,
poor httle thing."

He may have been imprudent in address-
ing a giri of seventeen in this tender fash-
ion ; but the truth was, her short skirts and
the two long braids of golden hair were in
his mind associated with that age toward
which you may, without offense, assume the
role of a well-meaning protector, and
where even a kiss need not necessarily be
resented. So far from feeling flattered by
the unwished-for recollection of Elsie's
feeling for him, he was rather disposed to
view it as a pathological phenomenon, — as
a sort of malady, of which he would like
to cure her. It is not to be denied, how-
ever, that if this was his intention, the
course he was about to pursue was open to
criticism. But it must be borne in mind
that Fern was no expert on questions of the
heart, — that he had had no blighting expe-
riences yielding him an unwholesome har-
vest of premature wisdom.

For a long while they walked on in sDence,
holding each other's hands like two chil-
dren, and the sound of their footsteps upon
the crisp, crunching sand was singularly ex-
aggerated by the great stillness around them.

" And whom is it you have been visiting
so late in the night, Elsie ? " he asked, at
last, glancing furtively into her face.

" Hush, you mustn't talk about her,"
answered she, in a timid whisper. *' It was
Gurid Sibyl, and she knows a great many
things which nobody else knows except
God."

"I am sorry you have resort to such
impostors. You know the Bible says it is
wrong to consult sibyls and fortune-teUers."

" No, I didn't know it. But you mustn't
speak ill of her, or she will sow disease in
your blood and you will never see anotb^
healthy day. She did that to Nils Saetren
because he mocked her, and he has been a
cripple ever since."

*' Pshaw, I am not afraid of her. She
may frighten children "



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ONE DUCK.



245



husky tremor in his voice. " Let him
alone, I tell thee. He might leave us in
peace now. He has driven us from hearth
and horae." Then, with indignant energy,
" He shall not touch thee, child. By the
heavens, he shall not."

Maurice smiled, and with the same sense
of serene benignity, whoUy unlover-like,
clasped her in his arms.

A wild look flashed in the father's eyes ;
a hoaise groan broke from his chest, llien,
with a swifr rekindling of energy, he darted
forward, and his broad han£ fell with a
tiger-like grip on Maurice's shoulders.
But hark ! The voices of the skies and
the mountains echo the groan. The air,
surcharged with terror, whirls in wild eddies,
then holds its breath and trembles. All
eyes are tiumed toward the glacier. The
huge white ridge, gleaming here and there
through a cloud of smoke, is pushing down
over the mountain-side, a black bulwark
of earth rising totteringly before it, and a
chaos of bowlders and blocks of ice fol-
lowing, with dull crunching and grinding
noises, in its train. The bams and the
store-house of the Ormgrass farm are seen
slowly climbing the moving earth-wall, then
follows the mansion — ^rising — ^rising — and
with a tremendous, deafening crash the
whole huge avalanche sweeps downward
into the fjord. The water is lashed into
foam; an enormous wave bearing on its
crest the shattered wrecks of human homes.



rolls onward ; the good ship Queen Anne is
tossed skyward, her cable snaps and springs
upward against the mast-head, shrieks of
terror fill the air, and the sea flings its
strong, foam-wreathed arms against the fur-
ther shore.

A dead silence follows. The smoke
scatters, breaks into drifting fragments,
showing the black, naked mountain-side.

The next morning, as the first glimmer-
ings of the dawn pierced the cloud-veil in
the east, the brig Queen Anne shot before
a steady breeze out toward the western
ocean. In the prow stood Maurice Fern,
in a happy reverie; on a coil of rope at
his feet sat Tharald Ormgrass, staring va-
cantly before him. His face was cold and
hard ; it had scarcely stirred fh)m its reck-
less apathy since the hour of the calamity.
Then there was a patter of light footsteps on
the deck, and Elsie, still with something of
the child-like wonder of sleep in her eyes,
emerged from behind the broad white sail.

Tharald saw her and the hardness died
out of his face. He strove to speak once
— twice, but could not.

" God pity me," he broke out, with an
emotion deeper than his words suggested.
" I was wrong. I had no faith in you.
She has. Take her, that the old wrong
may at last be righted."

And there, under God's free sky, their
hands were joined together, and the father
whispered a blessing.



ONE DUCK.



A POTOMAC SKETCH.



While on a visit to Washin^on in Jan-
nary, 1878, 1 went on an expedition down the
Potomac with a couple of firiends. Peck and
Eldridge, to shoot ducks. We left on the
morning boat that makes daily trips to and
fa>ra Mount Vernon. The weather was
chiDy and the sky threatening. I have sel-
A>m seen such clouds as those fail to bring
rain. They were boat-shaped, with well
defined keels, but they turned out to be
only the fleet of iEolus, for they gradually
^^BpcTscd or faded out, and before noon
the sun was shining.

We saw numerous flocks of ducks on the
P*»age down, and saw a gun (the man was

^oi^ccaled) shoot some from a " blind " near



Fort Washington. Opposite Mount Ver-
non, on the flats, there was a large " bed "
of ducks. I thought the word a good one
to describe a long strip of water thickly
planted with them. One of my firiends was
a member of the Washington and Mount
Vernon Ducking Club, which has its camp
and fixtures just below the Mount Vernon
landing; he was an old ducker. For my
part, I had never killed a duck^-except
with an ax — ^nor have I yet.

We made our way along the beach from
the landing over piles of drift-wood and
soon reached the quarters, a substantial
building, fitted up with a stove, bunks,
chairs, a table, culinary utensils, crockery,

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^58



THE RAILROADS AND THE PEOPLE,



THE RAILROADS AND THE PEOPLE.



In approaching the problem of the rela-
tions ot the railroads of this country to the
people, it musty first of all, be borne in mind
that transportation on sea and land has
developed under radically different princi-
ples. The ocean being free to all and open to
any individual who chooses to place his ship
thereon, a vessel could go wherever its owner
chose to send it ; the laws of competition,
and of supply and demand, which have here-
tofore been found potent to protect the pub-
lic interest, applied here, as in other branches
of trade, and answered their purposes fully.
So universal was the operation of this law
that it has been relied upon to govern the
relations of railroads to the public, and only
upon the larger development of the new
means of transportation has it become evi-
dent to all — what had been foreseen by a few
— ^that the conditions of the two kinds of
commerce are essentially different: that a
railroad is a natural monopoly, and must be
treated as such.

In 1874, the Senate of the United States,
in response to a general demand, appointed
a special committee on transportation, com-
posed of Senators William Windom, of Min-
nesota; John Sherman, of Ohio; Roscoe
Conkling, of New York; H. G. Davis, of
West Virginia ; T. M. Norwood, of Georgia ;
J. W. Johnson, of Virginia ; John H. Mitchell,
of Oregon ; and S. B. Conover, of Florida.
The committee occupied the entire summer
of 1874 in making an exhaustive examination
of the subject, and in their report we find
the following :



« In the matter of taxation, there are to>day four
men representing the four great trunk lines between
Chicago and New York, who po^ssess, and who not
infi-equently exercise, powers which the Congress of
the United States would not venture to exert They
may at any time, and for any reason satisfiurtory to
themselves, by a single stroke of the pen, reduce the
value of property in this country by hundreds of
millions of aollars. An additioniol charge of five
cents per bushel on the transportation of cereals
would have been equivalent to a tax of forty-five
millions of dollars on the crop of 1873. No Con-
gress would dare to exercise so vast a power except
upon a necessity of the most imperative nature ; and
yet these gentlemen exercise it wnenever it suits their
supreme will and pleasure, without explanation or
apology. With the rapid and inevitable progress of
combination and consolidation, these colossal organ
izations are daily becoming stronger and more imper-
ious. The day is not distant, if it has not ilready
arrived, when it will be the duty of the statesman to



inquire whether there is less danger in leaving the
property and industrial interests of the people thus
wholly at the mercy of a few men, who recognize no
responsibility but to their stockholders, and no prin-
dple of action but personal and corporate aggran-
duement, than in adding somewhat to the power and
patronage of a government directly responsible to
the people and entirely under their control.'* — Report
oftJu United States SenaU Committee on T^muporla-
tioH Routes, page 1^8,

In the State of New York, dissatisfaction
I regarding railroad management has existed
for a long time ; a statement of the griev-
ances su^red by the producing and other
interests has fix>m time to time been laid
I before the Legislature, and investigation of
I the same asked; but so many members were
controlled by the railroads that for several
years even an investigation of grievances — a
I thing which ought to be the common ri^ht of
every citizen — ^was denied. Public sentmient
regarding this question has been constantly
growing stronger, and last year the Assembly
appointed an able committee of nine mem-
bers, — Hon. A. B. Hepburn, chainnan, —
which occupied nearly nine months in an
investigation of the subject. It found the
principal charges "fiilly proven," and its
> comment upon the state of things then
developed was as follows :

I « The mistake was in not providing proper safe-
guards to protect the public interest, and ndd the
' railroads to a strict accountability for their transac-
' tions. Thus through the laxity of our laws and the
want of ^vemmental control (measurably excusable,
considenng the unforeseen possibilities of railroad
development at the time of the enactment of those
I laws, but no lon&;er pardonable in the li^t of the
I evidence herewim submitted), have crept in those
abuses hereafter mentioned, so glaring in their pro-
portions as to savor of fiction rather than actoal
nistory.'* (Report, page 7.)

Yet this investigation did not touch upon one
of the most serious phases of this question

! — the poUtical corruption directly resulting

I fh)m the departiu'e from correct principles
in railroad management. In order to arrive
at a proper understanding of this question, it

I is necessary to ^view briefly these prindf^
and sketch the progress of this greatest

I invention of the age.

I It is generally admitted that railroads,
being pubhc highways and common carriers,
should treat all shippers with equality under
like circumstances, and with relative equality



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THE RAILROADS AND THE PEOPLE.



261



dectiofis and to inflaence legislation. In the year
1S68 more than one million ($1,000,000^ was dis-
borsed from the Treasury for ' extra and legal serv-
^' For interesdng items see Mr. Watson's testi-



mony, pages 336 and 337.

** Mr. Goold, when last on the stand, and exam-
iaed in reladon to various vouchers shown him,
admitted the payment during the three years prior
tD 1872 of large sums to Barber, Tweed, and otners,
and to influence legisladon or elections; these
aiM>onts were charged in the ' India-rubber account.'
The memory of this witness was very defective as to
details, and he could only remember large transac-
tions : but could distinctly recall that he had been in
the habit of sending money into the numerous dis-
tricts all over the State, either to control nominations
or dectioas for Senators and members of Assembly.
Considered that, as a rule, such investments paid
better than to wait till the men got to Albany, and
added the significant remark, when asked a question,
that it would be as impossible to specify the numer-
ous instanrri as it would to recall to mind the
nnmero u s freight-cars sent over the Erie road from
day to day. " ( See testimony, page 556. )

The report of the Legislative committee
concludes with the foUowing remarkable
words:

*« It b not reasonable to suppose that the Erie
Railway has been alone in the corrupt use of money
for the purposes named ; but the sudden revolution
n the direction of this companv has laid bare a
ciiapter in the secret history of^raiuroad management
raim as Ins not been permitted before. It exposes
die reckless and prodigal use of money, wrung from
die people to purchase the election of the people's
representatives, and to bribe them when in omce.
According to Mr. Gould, his operations extended into
fitMir difierent States. It was his custom to contribute
' to influence both nominations and elections."



A recent editorial in the New York " Even-
ing Post," entitled " Wealth in Connecticut
Politics," discusses this subject as follows :

•• • • With slow but steady progress the
principle has come to be recognized, especially in the
Congressional dbtricts and by the Democratic party,
tiiat a man who wants an important nomination
most get it by the promise or implication of a liberal
contribatkm after the nomination b secured. The
result is the free use of money at Connecticut elec-
tions and a corresponding debauchment of the
political morals of the State.

**A good illustration of this evil appears in the
Fourdi Coneressional distric^ made up of Fairfield
and LitchfV^ counties. Thb is the oistrict repre-
sented in Congress for several years by William H.
Bamum, afterward United States Senator, and now
the dkairman of the Democratic National Committee.
Probably no man ever succeeded so well as did he in
organizing corruption. In each town was his band
oTworkers, charged with the dispensation of funds
on election day. He knew his men and his men
knew hhn, and after each election, when it was found
that * fiai ' Bamum had run ahead of his ticket all
over his district, men understood the reason why.
Presenthr the Republicans cauj^t up the trick and
practicea it in the Congressional election of two years
^o, when a comparatively obscure candidate for
Congress ran ahead of Governor Andrews in the
Governor's own town, where his well-deserved pop-



ularity was unquestioned. In every small town of
the district it has now come to be the fiu:t that a
venal band of from tT^enty to fifty electors offer
their votes to the highest bidder. A secondary
result has been that no man of moderate means can
afford to run for Congress or even for a State Sena-
torship. * * •

"All this, which every intelligent voter in Con-
necticut knows to be a ^t, is a most disreputable
and scandalous state of afiairs. * * * As it is
now, the fact of general and comprehensive bribery
at important elections is notorious, and it is no
small stigma on the good name of a New Ene^land
commonwealth that the crime b stimulated by a
moral cowardice in communities which prevents
alike the prosecution of the briber and bribed. A
little wholesome law and some independent voting
wiU go far toward remed5ringan evil that every good
citizen in the State sees, feels, and understands, yet
too often hesitates to rebuke." — New York " Evemng
Post," August 19th, 1880.

Mr. Bamum is a type of a ruling class in
both political parties, half statesmen, half
railroad men, who mix railroads and politics
for their own advantage. They differ
materially, however, from the John Adams
type of statesman, who, when elected to
Congress, immediately sold his stock in the
United States Bank, on the ground that no
representative should have a pecuniary
interest in any matter likely to come before
him in his Legislative capacity. The rail-
road statesman is found in both parties and
in every Legislative assembly ; while perhaps
not numerically in the ascendant, through
packing the principal committees, and " re-
taining " members of the legal profession
who happen at the time to be Legislators,
their ends are usually obtained. This feat-
ure is alluded to in one of the speeches of
Senator Beck, of Kentucky, as follows :

<' It is impossible to have an honest Legislature,
State or federal, so long as representatives are sent
who owe their election to, or are personally inter-
ested in, great moneyed corporations or monopolies.
No matter whether they call themselves Democrats
or Republicans, they are not the representatives of
the people; they are simply the agents and attorneys
of tnose who seek, by taxing the masses, to enrich
tiiemselves, whenever they owe their election to
monopolists, or are themselves interested in class
legislation."

That the great corporate interests of the
country do not stop at electing their own
men to shape legislation, is shown by a
recent revelation in Pennsylvania. The fol-
lowing "Associated Press " dispatch tells its
own story :

" Philadelphia, March 28th, 1880.— A consulta-
tion was held here to-night by a number of leading
politicians regarding the persons convicted of at-
tempted bribery, in order to devise plans for theii
pardon. The case is by no meansgiven up by
Kemble and his fellow defendants. The bitterness



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a64



THE RAILROADS AND THE PEOPLE.



t



Transportation of that body alludes to this
subject as follows :

" How oblivious of their obligations as common
carriers, and how regardless of public rights are the
great trunk lines, is illustrated by their making an
agreement with the Standard Oil Company (Article
4) to protect them * aminst lass or injury from compe-
tition,'* What has happened in the case of the
Standard Oil Company may happen in other lines
of business. With the favor of tne managers of the
trunk lines, what is to prevent commerce in the rest
of the great staples from being monopolized in a simi-
lar manner? Already, incteed, it is takin|^ this



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