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and a new baby has ceased to be a wonder.

To redress Uie wrongs of these little exiles, in the



matter of brightening their place of retirement is *
task outside the limit of any society as yet organized
in behalf of injured innocence, but none the less b t
worthy and important one.

We enter the average nursery to find it, perhaps,
darkened by heavy moreen curtains of a style com-
pelling their retirement from any of die modernized
rooms down-stairs ; with a velvet or Brussels arpci
¥rith half-ef&ced pattern of lilies and roses, loo;
since trodden into dingy uniformity of tint and a
rug of another color that as they say in France,
swears at all the rest The paper upon the waDs,
soiled by finger-marks, has a pattern of green a»d
yellow stripes. The furniture is cumbrous aad
shabby ; the fire hidden from sight l>y an iron gmrd,
where draperies forever hang. Homely articles of
wearing apparel depend from door and chair-btcks;
combs and brushes mingle with medicine bottks isd
spoons, upon the dressing bureau. If the nurse nl-
lies, in a frantic attempt to put things to rights, btr
idea, generally, is to dear the floor of Uocks and
toys, and rigidly taboo their re-appearance — hid(fin{
the children amuse themselves, very mn<^ as Miss
Havisham solemnly exhorted poor Flp to play, wbes
he, looking about vainly for the ways and mesas
thereto, conceived a vague idea of turning somer-
saults ! Over all, there is a tenement-hoose air thit
can hardly be realized by the visitor who his as-
cended, by slow degrees, through every stage of i
beautifully decorated home.

This, not so common as of old, will be, in a short
time, I hope, only the exception to the mle. Tbert
are sundry conditions leading to reform that caocot
be too strongly enforced. It seems hardly necessary
to suggest diat the first essential is Ug^— tl»
pitiless foe to untidiness, the inspiration to cheerfo)
thoughts, happy tempers, and healthy bodies. A
nursery should, if possible, have a southern expos-
ure, and the windows be guarded without by an im
net-work, which may be painted green with giWed
top, rising above the level of the child's shoolder.
lest it should be seized with a &ncy to stand op there
and survey the world when nobody is near. Insiie
this net-work an ivy may be trained, and a few poO
of hardy scarlet geranium, wall-flower, and mignoo-
ette be placed, when spring C(Hnes in. To water these



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CULTURE AND PROGRESS,



473



bles. An old, greasy marble may be made as good as
new by taking it out-of-doors and scrubbing it power-
foDy with soft-soap and a scrubbing brush. TTie
dost having settled before the windows were finished,
pm a dean cloth about the broom and vripe the
dost firom the cornice and wall-paper, going over its
whole snr&ce. Next, remove the dusting sheets
from the furniture. Dust the furniture and the
wood-work of the room, gathering up the dust in
the duster without dropping a grain on the carpet,
and shaldng it from the window. Boiled linseed-oil
and an old-&shioned rubbing, not sparing labor, will
take scratches from varnish. Some people go over
the carpet again with a damp cloth or broom, to cap-
tore the light dust settled there, but this is hardly
necessary in a room that has its weekly sweeping.
Bring back the banished furniture, light the fire,
and your room will look like a work of art, and, with
a daily dusting and light brushing up will stay
bright a whole week, no matter how mudi it is used.

Mary Dean.

The Open Book.

Oks of the first things provided for in house fur-
nishing should be the dictionary. Let it have a stand
or table of its own, where nothing ever need be placed
open its open pages. A sloping shelf, either fastened
as a bracket to the wall, or, better still, on an up-
ri^t stem and solid ba^e, will help the little ones



to remember not to load it with their valuables.
To it every child in the family should be directed
for the many little bits of information which they
are continually interrupting older people to ask
for. A heavy dictionary in a book-case, low down
as such heavy books always are, comes to be of
little practical use, but a book always l3dng open,
frankly inviting the passer-by to take a sip of knowl-
edge on the wing, as it were, is a perennial fountain
of information, and has more to do with developing
the real intelligence and mental activity of a family
of children than many expensive lessons, and much
wearisome study. A first-class unabridged diction-
ary, besides the spelling, definitions, or derivations
of words, contains in its appendix a large and gener-
ally unsuspected fund of biographical, geographical,
scientific, and literary information. Then there is
the small chapter on scientific and musical hiero-
glyphics, and the valuable directions for proof cor-
rection. These are especially to be commended, for
young writers are often at a loss to know how to
correct their proof, and editors and printers are
mystified in attempting to follow the corrections.

In spite of the objection that it changes the subject
too often, a good dictionary affords wonderfully in-
teresting reading. One curious fact affords a com-
ment upon its use, — ^it is the intelligent, the thinking,
the reading people, who use dictionaries, and not the
ignoramuses. S. B. H.



CULTURE AND PROGRESS.



Mr. Aldrlch'a Selected Poems.*

Whin a poet dies, the world is apt to open its
eyes to the loss and make some stir about his
vork; after that comes the process of gradual
fcrgetting that such a person ever existed ; this in
its turn gives place, should the poet be really a poet,
(0 revivals of his fome, during which it happens
qoite naturally that his better work is brought for-
ward and his poorer creations overlooked. Mr.
Aldricfa has forestalled this inevitable course of
tkii^ and, without waidng for the verdict of pos-
terity, issued an elenchus of his lyrics and sonnets
inbKshed hitherto. It need hardly be said that
Ainc poets oat of ten who should attempt such a
dang wouM fiul to hit the best Mr. Aldrich, how-
<^v, is plainly that tenth poet to whom belongs
the onusual ^ft, not only to write beautiful verses,
Iwt to know whidi among them are the most
tboDghtful and polished. Among the forty-eight
•hort pieces reprinted in this most fiistidious little
^ame diere is not one unworthy of quotation.
The dainty vellum dress, reminding one of the pub-
iJotions of Th^hile Lemerre, the Parisian book-
•«Der ; the dean-cut type ; the title-page in carmine

•XXXVI Lytici aod XII Sonnets Selected from "Qoth
J'GoW- and '« Flower and Thorn." By T. B. Aldrich.
rS^'' Ho<*fhtoo, BftftiD & Ca The Rivenide Pien, Cam-
■Mft xMi.

Vou XXI.— 35.



ink that repeats without exaggeration the style of
many centuries ago; all these outside matters are, for
a wonder, duplicated by the subject matter within.*
Mr. Aldrich, who belongs to the English branch of
fabricators of '< chiseled verse," of which Th^hile
Gautier was lately the acknowledged chie^ proves
himself a worthy member of the guild. '* Flower
and Thorn " and *< Cloth of Gold '' contained too
many sketches and inferior pieces not to make one
feel the chisel too much, and cause a longing for
something more rugged and Titanic But here the
finest bits of sculpture are in place; the reader
who should refuse the little collection a cherished
corner in his book-case cannot have a very wide
and catholic love of poetry. Fineness of thought
and finish of execution are not so often to be seen in
intimate blending that one should not be grateful
for many pieces of the collection.
An example of this combination is found in the

*• NOCTURNB.

** Up to her chamber window

A slight wire trellis goes,
And up this Romeo's ladder

Clambers a bold white rose.

* For the introduction^ into England and America of this re-
fined style of book-making, — already current in France, — ^we
beHeve the public is indebted to the taste and influence of Mr.
E. C. Stedman, whose essay on Poe is simultaneously reprinted
from the May Scribnbr in the same dress.



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CULTURE AND PROGRESS.



475



as yet,



has powerful rivals already in the field, and must
show novelty and skill to make the old &vorites
acceptable in their new dress. Were one in any
per|4ezity as to whether the subject is what lends
** The L^ht of Asia " its chief significance, or Mr.
Arnold's share in the English dress, this book offers
at once aa occasion for decision. Should he be
found strongly poetical in verses entirely his own,
it would be fair to hail him as a new poet of at least
as great a caliber as Mr. Matthew Arnold. But no
one poem can be found which comes up to the nuurk.
Many show yet more strongly than "The Light
of Asia " the impress of Tennyson ; a few sound
^ain with the lyre of Matthew Arnold, but not on
his finest strings. •* The Rajpoot Wife," for instance,
begins as follows :

"Sing •omethtng, Jymul Raol for the goats are gathered

And no more water is to bring;
The village gates are set, and the night is grmr as
God hath given wondrous &ndes to thee, sing!

Then J^mufs waip[^ fingeis, with a touch that doubts and
fingen.

Sets athrin the saddest wire of all the six;
And the girls sit in a tangle and hush the tinkling bangle,

WhUe me boys pile the flame with store of sticks."

The introduction and body of this tale are dry, and
bddng in poetic instinct. The lines are often want-
ing in truth of rhythm. It is like similar work of
this dass by Sir John Bowring, the diplomate, to
whom the old saying has been implied that he knew
crery language on the g^obe save his own. Bulwer-
LyttOQ may be ranked as a paraphraser several
grides higher. ** The Caliph's Draught " is more
ipirited, having a good plain swing of its own, well
suited in meter (as those chosen by Mr. Arnold too
often are not) to the fierce and martial tale. ** King
Saladin," a tale from Boccaccio, is unduly drawn
out, and suffers from want of melody and poetic fire.
Sometimes the lines run haltingly :

** One day it chanced Sabdin rode afield
Widi shawled and turfaaned Ambs, and his hawk»-
Lcfaaaoo-bred* and mewed as princes lodge-
Flew foul, fo^t their feather, huns at wrist.
And slighted call The Soldain, qmck in wrath,
Bade slay the cravens, scourge the folconer.
And seek some wight who knew the heart of hawks.
To keep it hot and true. Then spake a Sheikh :
'There is a Frank in prison by the sea
Far-»en herein.' * Give word that he be brought,'
Qnodi Sabdtn."

"Two Idyb from Theocritus " and « The Lament
of Adorns '* firom Bion should be set aside as excel-
lent pieces of work, not in any sense moving, but far
Ahove the average in that line of literature. In the
opening of " Thyrsis," notice how Mr. Arnold uses
•^iteration — that bugbear of modern critics — to get
tn effect of the noises of the woody landscape :

''SoWyAe fway of the pine-branches murmun a melody,

^^Sh^oerd I

'^ovB ^^ rim of the fountain, and aofUy dost thou, on

AePso-pmes
■^ to ibe pioes: neart to Pan, thou bearest the bell for

we Bosac
Say that he wins a great-hom'd goat, then thine is a she-

a«r that the she-goat is his ; but thine is the kid, then, and



^>*«> the meat of the kid, till she comes to the bearing
■BdaAiDg."



What Mr. Arnold plainly lays most stress upon,
however, is ** The Indian Song of Songs," a para-
phrase of almost the whole of the Gita Govinda,
written by a Hindoo poet of the 12th century named
Jayadeva, or Conquering Deity, and published in
1836 by Lassen, with a Latin prose translation and
some analysis of the metrical forms of its various-
parts. The Gita Govinda is a love-poem as volup^
tuous as any ever written, as might, indeed, be ex^
pected of Orientals of Hindustan, who are not
restrained by certain prejudices of Western peoples,
save where religious tenets are menaced. A hidden
religious meaning has been sought for in the CMta
Govinda by those who try to defend its exceedingly
amorous character, but not always with success. It
is true that Professor Albrecht Weber likens the
poem to the Song of Solomon, but others find in cer-
tain parts of the love-drama only the slenderest
foundation for the belief. Mr. Arnold has made his
paraphrase on this theory, but, as he acknowledges,
'* not without occasional difficulty. '' He has been care-
ful to weed the poem of its redundant imagery, restrain
the outbursts of passion, and, in the case of the out-
spoken last chapter, omit entirely. By this means
he keeps to the main line of the drama and retains
much of the flavor of the original, at the same time
fitting his poem for the dravdng-room. For, al-
though it still remains a love-poem -of unusual
warmth, it can hardly be said to offer anything offen-
sive ; the purificatory process — if that term be right
in the premises, and not, in itself, the rankest Philis-
tinism — has popularized the Gita Govinda for Eng-
lish-speaking people. This, indeed, seems to be
Mr. Arnold's main effort at present, namely, to pop-
ularize in the West the religion and poetry of Hin-
dustan. The effort is a good one, and not ill-done ;
but in the doing of it Mr. Arnold cannot strictly be
said to prove a title to poet, even of the second
rank. To give merely one instance where he shows
a want of tact, to say the least of it, attention need
only be called to the long Sanskrit words introduced
into the titles of the canticles. When one reads
<' Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled
Snigdhamadhusudamo,^* one is tempted to laugh at
the incongruity of the long Sanskrit compound with
the passionate English of the verses that run before.
Such things are trifles, to be sure, but it is on just
such ^rifles that the best work of the kind depends.
It has to be done with the greatest tact and delicacy.

As a love poem, the Gita Govinda will alwajrs
have to be a curiosity to us rather than a moving theme,
unless some poet should paraphrase it so loosely that
he could make it simply the basis of a work of gen-
ius in which the original has only a minor part
Here and there we find a good measure, interpret-
ing a fine, glowing fancy. Thus, the longings of
Krishna in Sarga the Fifth are sung by a hand-
maiden to Radha, whose purer and more fiery
charms have estranged Krishna fi'om the wood-
nymphs, with whom he had been dallying *

" To him the moon's icy-chill silver

Is a sun at mid-day:
The fever he bums with is deeper

Than starlis^t can suy.



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CULTURE AND PROGRESS.



477



In his acooont of the Trojan legend, he
has not distingnished with sufficient clearness be-
rvreen the inddents given by Homer and those
foond only in writers of a far later date, and often
doe, in all likelihood, to the fancy of those writers.
In his consideration of the Homeric controversy,
while yielding to the evidence which has well-nigh
convinced the world of scholarship that the Iliad
and the Odyssey are not the works of one poet,
and that die Iliad, as we have it, is not a single
artistic conception, he yet clings to the conservative
views of Mr. Grote, which have /been abandoned or
qualified by the highest authorities. And in his
view of the topography of Troy, he awards to the dis-
coveries of Ihr. Schliemann at Hissarlik an impor-
tance which cannot be allowed to them as evidence
upon this question, however curious and weighty
they may be as relics and illustrations of a phase
of ancient civilization which is otherwise litde
known. But, notwithstanding these defects, Mr.
Benjamin's work stands alone in the English lan-
guage, as one from which the general reader may
obtain precisely the information he needs concern-
ing the earliest epoch of Greek history, — that period
before all known dates, names, and events, in which
is seen only the advancing shadow of a mighty race
to come, — and concerning the chief of literary con-
troversies, that in which the principles of all histori-
cal and religious controversies are involved.



Von Hoist*! ** Constitutional History of the United
States." Vol. XL*

It is to be regretted that the translation of the
second volume of this work is not more read-
able. Mr. Lalor, the translator, may be a good
German scholar, but he very often fails to express
the original in intelligible English. It b necessary
lo read over many of his sentences two or three
tiooes in order to understand them. But, notwith-
standing the rudeness and obscurity of the transla-
tion. Professor Von Hoist's book is one which
should be left unread by no person who is inter-
ested in American political history. The author's
position and abilities are such as to entitle him to
attention. The bxX of his being a foreigner gives him
sooke advantages. While we cannot go to the length
of the ofnnion which he himself expresses, that a his-
tory of the United States can be better written by a
foreigner than by a native, it is certainly true that a
foreigner is better able to judge the true relative
character of public sentiments than a native, who
umst share the sentiment which he judges. The
difficnlty of the foreigner, on the other hand, is that,
not having the sentiment in his consciousness, he
does not really see it, — that is, he does not see it
distxncUy or delicately. This is, indeed, a difficulty
which insight and imagination may overcome, just
as reason, reflection, and wide knowledge may enable

*Tba CooMitudoiud and Political History of the United
ScaiaK. Bjr Dr- H. Von Hoist, Professor at the Univeruty
ti Frdbcn. Translated from the German by John J. Lalor,
A. 11. fM-i846w Vol II. Jackson's Administration— An-
■esadsa of Texas. Chicago : CallagHkn & Co.



a native correctiy to judge the sentiments of which
he is conscious. Professor Von Hoist has in a rare
degree the necessary insight He has read every^
thing he could get his hands on, and has been
able to discern clearly the national sentiments.
He judges us, therefore, with the advantages both
of distance and of nearness. His chief fault is that
he is too violent and too apt to call name&. Hi&
manner — ^we do not say his spirit — is rather that
of an advocate than of a judge. And we do not
think that he has suffidentiy taken pains to see
that the fiiry and the tyrannical arrogance of the
slave-holders were a certain consequence of the
institution of slavery. Wherever the institution of
slavery exists one must find that tyrannical violence,
which is partiy ferocity, partiy panic, and parUy the
angry assertion of self-respect against the opinion of
civilization. . The history of the abolition of slavery
in the West Indies shows the slave-holder there to
have been precisely the same person as the slave-
holder in South Carolina. Professor Von Hoist's
account throws an atmosphere of meanness over our
entire history. We do not believe this to be just
These people whose names he flings about so freely
were, no doubt, in their way very respectable, and
had many redeeming qualities. We think that he
especially fails to do justice to the patriotism and
real dignity of the Democratic party of the time of
Jackson.

Parrer'a ''Primitive Manners and Cuatoma.*'*

Books dealing with the vast accumulations of
travelers of ancient and modem times, especially
with the latest reports of investigators of savage
life, cannot fail to be merely tentative. But what they
lose by vagueness they gain by curiousness. Noth-
ing, of course, can be more interesting to those who
are seeking for an actual definition of the right
place of human beings in nature than conclusions
arrived at in the course of a study of savage and
primitive man. A person who takes up this
volume has a right to ask of Mr. Farrer: Have
you come any nearer to a solution of the problems
attaching to savage and primitive man ? Are you
any surer than you were that primitive man is
really primitive, that is to say, an undeveloped man
who represents the phase of progress through which
our own ancestors passed to attain their present
bustling eminence among the millions of the earth ?
To this Mr. Farrer might answer yes, but it would
have to be a very cautious yes. On the whole, the
evidence seems to be that savages may be gradually
weaned from their barbarous customs, and reach a
lower stage of what we, in our conceit, call civiliza-
tion. But Mr. Farrer does not, by any means, bear
strongly on this point. When we have read the
book, we find that we have been entertained by a
mass of curious and deeply interesting fects,
some of them being indubitable, while others are of
slender authority; but the upshot is that, in-
stead of getting a clearer idea of the mental and



* Primitive Manners and Customs.
New York : Henry Hok & Co. 1879.



By Jai



I A Farrer.



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CULTURE AND PROGRESS.



479



And, strange to say, in none of his attempts is he
fmsQCcessfoL It may be that he does not equal
an (rf* his predecessors, bat the attempt is all
^ more creditable, since comparisons must neces-
sarily be drawn between him and them, and because
he lacks the element of comparative novelty which
gave mudi life to their efforts. His book on Hol-
land has modem as well as older competitors in
every great language of the West, and yet, by the force
of his imagination and the alertness of his style,
he is able to supply a sketch of the people, litera-
ture, art, and chief cities of that surprising little
country which is often original, and even when not
original, is certainly most sprightly and entertaining
to read. He knov^ just how to mix history, politics,
art, literature, description of country and town,
quotations from natives and comparison with other
ooontrtes, in order to form a pleasing compound
after the manner of a good salad, in whidi one
tastes, but never tastes too much, each one of the
several ports. A most relbhable compound it is
that he prepares. Perhaps to a fastidious taste
some of the ingredients are not of the first quality,
bat the neatness and balance of the whole redeem
them. Thus, on the old topic of Dutch art, Edmondo
deAmids ventilates some very ingenious theories,
whidi are more suggestive than convincing. He
accepts the old theory for Dutch realism in art, as
the following passage shows :

"What that art would necessarily be might have
been guessed, even had no monument of it remained.
A pacific, laborious, practical people, continually
beaten down, to quote a great German poet, to
prosaic realities by the occupations of a vulgar
borpiher life ; cultivating its reason at the expense
of Its imagination; living, consequentlv, more in
clear ideas than in beautiful images ; takine refuge
from abstractions; never darting its thoughts be-
yond that nature with which it is in perpetual
battle; seeing only that which is, enjoying only that
vhich it can possess, making its happiness consist
in the trananu ease and honest sensuality of a life
without violent passions or exorbitant desires;
soch a people must have tran(^uillity also in their
«rt, they must love an art which pleases without
startling the mind, which addresses the senses
nther than the spirit, an art full of repose, pre-
ci^on, and delicacy, though material like their lives ;
in a word, a reahstic art in which they see them-
selves as they are, and as they are content to be.
The artists began by tracing that which they saw
before their eyes — the house," etc, etc

After touching on the next steps in Dutch art, viz.,
the hndscape, animal painting, marine, this agree-
able theorizer finds another step in the large pict-
ures containing portraits of burghers ten, twenty,
thirty at a time, representatives of guilds and cor-
porations. As to light, which he thinks leads all the
rest as the distinctive feature of Dutch painting :

" The light in Holland, by reason of the particu-
w conditions of its manifestation, could not foil to
p»e rise to a soedal manner of Minting. A pale
hghl, waving witn marvelous mooility through an
^Jjo^phere impregnated with vapor, a nebulous
*« continually and abruptly torn, a perpetual strug-
v^ between light and shadow, such was the specta-



cle which attracted the eye of the artist He began
to observe and to reproduce all the agitation of the
heavens, the struggle which animates with various
and fantastic life the solitude of nature in Holland ;



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