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that only nineteen hundred men were avail-
able there for military operations, Peter
resolved to go himself to the north, and set
out at the end of April, taking with him his
son Alexis (then a boy of twelve), a numer-
ous suite and five battalions of the guard,
amounting to four thousand men. He was
thirty days on the road from Moscow. In
our times of rapid communication it is hard
to realize how any regular plan of defense



or war could be carried out in a country
where such enormous distances were re-
quired to be traveled, and where so much
time had to be spent on the journey. In a
stay of three months, which Peter made at
Archangel, there was little which he could
do in the way of military preparations. He
occupied himself with ship-building, and on
Trinity Sunday launched two frigates, the
Holy Spirit and the Courier^ constructed
by Eleazar Ysbrandt, and laid the keel of
a new twenty-six-gun ship, the St Elijah^
writing at the same time to Aprdxin that he
could do nothing more, as there was no
more ship-timber. In August the early fleet
of merchant ships arrived, much more nu-
merous than usual, for all the trade which
had before come through the Swedish ports
on the Baltic naturally turned to Archangel.
There were thirty-five English and fifty-two
Dutch ships, with a convoy of three ships
of war. These vessels brought the news
that the Swedes had given up any attack on
Archangel that simimer. Peter therefore
felt at liberty to depart, and went by sea to
Nitiktcha, on the Bay of On^ga, stopping by
the way for a few days at 3ie Solov^tsky
monastery. From Niuktcha to Povien6tz.
at the northern end of Lake On6ga, a road
eighty miles long had been made through
the swamps and thick forests by the energy
and labor of Stchep6tef, a sergeant of the
Preobrazh^nsky regiment. Over two of the
rivers it was necessary to build long bridges,
strong enough for the passage of the five
battalions of guards which accompanied the
Tsar. From Povien^tz Peter sailed through
Lake On^ga and down the river Svir, and
finally arrived, about the end of September,
at the town of Old Lidoga, on the nver V61-
khof, near Lake Lidoga. Here he was met
by Field- Marshal Sherem^tief with his army,
who had sailed down the V61khof from N6v-
gorod, and also by the artillery which
Vinius had collected for him. With a force
then of about twelve thousand men, Peter
advanced on the 6th of October to lay siege
to the fortress of Noteburg. Noteburg had
been originally built by the people of N6v-
gorod four centuries before, under the name
of Or^khovo or Or^shek, on a small island
of the river Neva, just where it leaves Lake
Lddoga. The island was in shape like a
hazel-nut, whence both the Russian and
Swedish names. It served for a long time
as a barrier against the incursions of the
Swedes and Danes, and protected the com-
merce of N6vgorod as well as of Lidoga.
In 1323, peace was concluded there between



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PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



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who were present at the foundation of tlie
town. The sketch which Peter sent repre-
sents a nearly regular pentagon, with bas-
tions at the comers named after the five
senses respectively, — Seeing, Hearing, Smell-
ing, Tasting, and Touching, — and gates
caOed Moscow, Vor6nezh, Schlusselburg.
Le Bru)m, the Dutch artist, accompanied
the Tsar on this journey. He says :

** One ooold not enter the house without passing
throogfa the gate of the fort, both being surrounded
W the same wall of earth, which, however, is not
01 great extent There are several fine bastions
weUgamished with cannon, covered on the one side
b^ a moontain, and on the other bv a marsh or
kmd of lake. When I entered where the Tsar
was, he asked me where I had been. I replied :
• Where it had pleased Heaven and our drivers, since
I neldier knew the language nor the road.' That
aade him laug^, and he told it to the Russian lords
who accompanied him. He gave me a bumper to
punbh me, and regaled us in perfection, having a
cannon fired at each toast. After the feast he took
us upon the ramparts, and made us drink different
fiquort on each bastion. Finally, he had sledges
prepared to cross the frozen marsh and see every-
tiung from there. He took me in his own sledge,
without forgetting the liouor, which followed, and
whkh wc did not spare. We returned to the ch&teau,
where the glasses began again to make the round
tod to warm us. Ki the fort had not yet been
named, his Majesty gave it the name of Oranien-
borg."

After many festivities at Vor6nezh, le
Bniyn asked permission of the Tsar to
sketch, which he immediately granted, say-
ing: "Wc have diverted ourselves well.
After that we have reposed a litde. Now
it is time to work." In making his sketches,
le Bniyn suffered much from the curiosity
of the Russians, who had g;ot up all sorts of
stories about him, one being that he was
one of the Tsar's servants, executed for
some crime by being buried up to his waist
at the top of a mountain, with a book in his
band. But when, a few days after, they
found that the supposed criminal had
changed place, it was necessary to get up
another explanation. When he took leave
of the Tsar to go back to Moscow, Peter
was "amusing himself, as he frequently
did, with an ice-boat By a sudden change
of course his boat was overturned, but he
immediately picked himself up. Half an
hour afterward he ordered me to follow
him alone, and went out in a hired sledge
with two horses. One of them fell into a
hole, but they soon got it out. He made me
sit next to him, saying : * Let us go to the
ihaioupe. I want you to see a bomb fired,
because you were not here when they were
fixed before.' " After this had been shown,



he was allowed to go. On the road, in the
neighborhood of Vor6nezh, Jie found many
post-houses, inhabited by Circassians, which
pleased him greatly, as they were very
clean, and tliere were generally some
musicians, who played wild airs. He was
particularly struck with the half-naked
children on the stoves, with the beauty
of the women and their costume, and
especially with the rufHes around their
necks.

Peter staid at Vor6nezh but a month.
He was unable to do much on the fleet in
the very cold weather, and was troubled, be-
sides, because the stock of iron had given out
and that an epidemic and great mortaUty
prevailed among the workmen. Good
news having come from Constantinople,
Peter left Vor6nezh and went to Schliissel-
burg, scarcely stopping at Moscow. Some-
thing there appears to have made him lose
his self-control and give way to an out-
burst of temper, for on reaching N6vgorod
he wrote to Theodore Aprdxin: "How I
went away I do not know, except that I
was very contented with the gift of Bacchus.
For that reason I ask the pardon of all if I
offended any one, and especially of those
who were present to bid me good-bye."

In pursuance of his plan of gradual con-
(][uest, Peter now set out with an expedi-
tion of twenty thousand men, and moved
down the right bank of the Neva to the
little fort of Nyenskanz. This was on the
Neva at the mouth of the little river Okhta,
where now is a shipping- wharf, just opposite
the Institute of Sm61ni and the Taurida
Palace. The place, though small, was pros-
perous, deriving its importance from numer-
ous saw-mills. On three sides of it, at a
little distance, were unfinished earth-works,
which had been begun the year before, and
which now served excellently the purposes
of the besiegers. Batteries were placed in
position, and the bombardment began on
the nth of May. The next day the very
small garrison capitulated. The fort was
renamed Slotburg and became the nucleus
of the future city of St. Petersburg.

That night came news that a Swedish
squadron was coming up the gulf toward
the Neva. It signifi^ to the fort its arrival
by firing two signal guns, which were imme-
diately answered, in order to deceive the
Swedes and draw them into a snare. A
boat was sent up the river, which was at-
tacked by the Russians, and one sailor
captured. He informed them that the fleet
consisted of nine ships, imder the command



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GIRL WITH OLD RUSSIAN HKAD-DRBSS. (FROM PHOTO BY VBLTBN, ST PETERSBURG,
or PAINTING BY S. ALEXANDROVSKY. )



troops in Swedish uniforms, and having a
sham fight with them on the road to Wesen-
berg. The Russians gradually retired as if
they had been beaten, and the Swedes came
out firom the town to attack them in the
rear, accompanied even by women and
children in the hope of booty. They all
fell into the ambush prepared for them: 300
men were killed and forty-six taken prison-
ers. When Field- Marshal Ogilvy, who,
through the intervention of Galftsyn and
Patkul, had just entered the Russian service
for three years, arrived at the camp, he
found fault with the siege works, and said
that it would be impossible ever to capture
Narva from that side. On his recommenda-
tM)n batteries were placed on the eastern
ode of the Nar6va, and the bombardment
began on Sunday, the loth of August. In
Vol. XXI. - 41.



the course of ten days over 4600 bombs
were thrown into the town, breaches were
made in the bastions, and Horn, the com-
mandant, was urged to surrender, but
repulsed all propositions. On the 20th of
August the Russians carried the place by
storm. After they were in full possession,
Horn, then too late, tried to capitulate, and
himself beat the drum with his fists for a
parley, but the Russians refused to listen.
The carnage was fearful, and neither women
nor children were spared. Out of 4500
men in the Swedish garrison only 1800
remained alive. Two hours after the surren-
der, Peter, Field-Marshal Ogilvy, and some
others rode about the town, and ordered
trumpets to be sounded in all the streets
to stop the pillage, and the Tsar himself
struck down one soldier who refused to obey

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CUAKO-ROOM OP THE ANCIBNT TBREM.

misted by him. Up to 1703, Peter always
addressed him in his letters as Mein Herz
and Mein Herzenchen, In 1704, it was
Min Libste Camerad^ Min Libste Vrient^ and
Min Best Vrient^ and after that always Min
Bruder. At the end of the letters is the
constantly repeated phrase : " All is well !
Only God grant to see you in joy again !
You yourself know."

The more opportunity Menshik6f had of
exercising his powers, the greater ability he
displayed, and his rewards were proportional.
After the capture of Noteburg he was made
governor of Schliisselburg, and subsequently
of Nyenshanz and St. Petersbiu-g, and not
long after governor-general of Ingria, Kar-
elia, and Esthonia. For the capture of the
Swedish vessels at the mouth of the Neva,
he, together with Peter, was made a cav-
alier of St. Andrew. In the winter of 1703,
Peter, on his journey to Voronezh, founded
near Menshikofs estate, and in his honor,
the town of Oranienburg. In 1703, through
the intervention of Galftsyn, the Russian
envoy at Vienna, he was made a Count of
Hungary, and, in 1705, on his own propo-
sition, the Emperor Joseph created him a
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. This
title was confirmed in Russia, and, two
yean later, when the Tsar had begun to
create new tides of nobility, he named Men-
shikof Prince of Izh6ra, with the title of



Highness, and gave over to him the dis-
tricts of Yamburg and Kop6rie. It is in-
teresting to note that, only two weeks
afterward, Menshik6f wrote to Korsakof,
the Landrichter of Ingria, to ascertain the
population, the number of parishes and es-
tates, and the revenue to be derived from
them, and ordered his name to be men-
tioned with that of the sovereign in the
public prayers, both in the Russian and the
Lutheran churches.

Unfortunately, Menshikof misused his
powers and position, as well as the confi-
dence which the Tsar so freely gave him.
He was ambitious and avaricious. At court
he was disliked and feared, and among the
people he was hated. In Poland, in Litde
Russia, in the Baltic provinces, — wherever
he held command, — his greed and his extor-
tions excited the discontent and the com-
plaints of the inhabitants. The familiar and
affectionate letters of Peter were interrupted
by outbursts of anger and indignation, when
some new misdeed had come to his ears.
Menshik6f wrote abject apologies, and had
a powerful protector in Catherine, and the
Tsar always relented. Menshik6f *s extraor-
dinary talents, his initiative, and his energy
rendered him indispensable to Peter in
carrying out his ideas and reforms, and his
personal devotion and sympathy made him
necessary as a friend. The immense fortune
which he had accumulated was scarcely
affected by the heavy fines which the Tsar
from time to time condemned him to pay,
and after a short period of disgrace he
always returned to favor and power. Affec-
tion made Peter inconsistent, and preserved
Menshik6f from the fate of Gagdrin and N6s-
terof, who expiated their crimes on the scaf-
fold. On one memorable occasion however,
the Tsar said to Catherine, after again grant-
ing pardon : " Menshik6f was conceived in
iniquity, bom in sin, and will end his life as
a rascal and a cheat, and if he do not reform
he will lose his head." But his fall, exile,
and death were to come only under Peter's
grandson, after he had reached the zenith
of power, and had been for two years the
real ruler of Russia.

At the old court of the Tsaritsas, in addi-
tion to the ladies of the palace and the
dames of the bed-chamber, there were always
a number of young girls of similar age to
the Tsaritsa, and to the princesses, who bore
the tide of Boyar Maidens. Their chief
duty consisted in being companions to the
princesses, in playing and talking with them,
and sharing theu* amusements. After the



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556



PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



death of the Tsaritsa Natalia, the life of all
the princesses became freer. The doors of
the Terem^ or women's apartments, were
more easily accessible to outsiders, and the
princesses themselves frequently made ex-
cursions into the town and country. Peter's
sister Natalia took up her abode with him
at Preobrazh6nsky, bringing with her a
small court. Among other maids of honor
were three sisters, Diria, Barbara, and Axinia
Ars^nief, the daughters of a governor some-
where in Siberia. Menshik6f, as a constant
companion of Peter, was admitted to the
court of Natalia, and there soon sprang up



some time in the year 1700, and when
Menshik6f returned to Moscow, in 170^
two of the Ars^niefe came to live in the
house which his two sisters kept for him.
Maria Danilovna Menshik6f in Deconber
married Count Alexis Golovin, the brother
of Theodore Golovfn, the Director of the
Department of Foreign Afi^aiis. The
family now consisted of Anna Menshik6f^
Barbara and Ddria Ars6nief, and their aunt
Anfsia Tolst6i. A few months later a new
member was added to the household —
Catherine Skavrdnsky, better known to us
as the Empress Catherine I.




BOMBARDMSNT OP NOTBBUKG.



a Strong attachment between him and
Ddria Ars6nief, which on account of his
absences brought about a regular corre-
spondence. Presents were also frequently
exchanged, — sometimes rings and jewels,
sometimes shirts, dressing-gowns, bed-linen,
and neck-ties, — and occasionally a little
souvenir was put in for the Tsar. Although
the letters were not long and were often
written on scraps of brown paper, yet Men-
shik6f kept his friends well informed of his
movements and his successes, although even
then he was frequently upbraided for writ-
ing so seldom. The intimacy had begun



The early history of Catherine is as ob-
scure as that of Menshik6f. She ^as in all
probability the daughter of a Lithuanian
peasant named Samuel Skavronsky, settled
in Livonia, and was bom in the vfllage of
Ringen, not far from Dorpat At an early
age, the little Martha — ^for so she was then
called — was left an orphan and destitute,
and was taken into the -family of Pastor
Gluck, at Marienburg, where, without being
exactly a servant, she looked after the diil-
dren, took them to church, and made her-
self useful in the household. A Swedish
dragoon fell in love with her. She was

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PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



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MBNSHIKOF.



the Pnith, that Catherine was publicly and
officially acknowledged as Petert wife.
But after the marriage of Menshik6f and the
breaking up of the common household, she
rarely left the Tsar, accompanying him
everywhere. The opposite of Eudoxia,
Catherine was the wife that Peter needed.
She rose to his level, and shpwed a remark-
able adaptability in her new position. Her
gifts of head and heart were such that she
was able not only to share his outward life,
his pleasures, and his sorrows, but also to
take part in his inner life, enter into his
views and plans, and sympathize with his
aspirations. Her conversation cheered him,
bCT presence comforted and consoled him,
and aided him to bear his sudden attacks
of nervous suffering. Their correspondence
is simple, unaffected, and familiar, and
shows constandy how well suited they
were to each other, how warmly they loved
^ch other, and what a human and lovable
nature Peter had, in spite of his great faults
^d imperfections.

Long before the formal public nuptials in
'7 'a, Catherine had given up the Catholic
'jdigion,in which she had been bom, and the
Lutheran, in which she had been educated,
*nd had been received into the Russian



Church. The Tsar6vitch Alexis acted as
her godfather, for which reason she added
to Catherine the patronym of Alex^ievna.

A fatality seemed to attend the many
children of this union. The boys all died
in childhood or infancy. Two daughters,
Anne and Elizabeth, lived, the latter to.
become Empress.

Even when on the throne Catherine never
forgot her origin. The widow of Pastoj
Gluck was given a pension, his children
were well married, or were put in positions
at court. She assisted the student Wurm,
whom she had known when he lived in
Pastor Gluck's house at Marienburg. At
her request Peter hunted up her family.
Her brother Carl Skavr6nsky, a stable-boy
at a post-station in Kurland, was brought
to St. Petersburg and educated, and subse-
quendy created a count. His descendants
married into the well-known families of
Sapi^ha, Engelhardt, Bagrati6n, Voronts6f,
and Korff.

After Peter's death, Catherine's two sisters
and their family came to St. Petersburg.
Christina, the elder, was married to a Lith-
uanian peasant, Simon Heinrich, who, to-
gether with riches and honors, received the
name of H6ndrikof. Anna, the younger, had



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56o PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



EMPRESS ELIZABETH, DAUGHTER OP PETER AND CATHERINE.



married the Polish peasant Michael Yefim, I family. The Empress Elizabeth gave ti>f
who became the founder of the Yefimdfsky | title of count to both families.



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A FAIR BARBARIAN.



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A FAIR BARBARIAN.*



BY FRANCES HODGSON BURNETl'.

Aathor of « That Lass o' Lowrie's,'* " Haworth's," " Surly Tim and Other Stories," " Louisiana," etc

(Copyrif^t, z88ok by Fiances Hodgson BiimetL All rights reserved.]



CHAPTER 1.
MISS OCTAVIA BASSETT.

Slow BRIDGE had been shaken to its foun-
dations.

It may as well be explained, however, at
the outset, that it would not take much of a
sensation to give Slowbridge a great shock.
In tbe first place, Slowbridge was not used
to tonsationSy and was used to going on the
evw and respectable tenor of its way, re- I
pitBkjjL the outside world with private dis- \
xnipS not with open disfavor. The new ,
ndkbad been a trial to Slowbridge — a sore j
txkL On being told of the owners' plan of |
biaUbg them, old Lady Theobald, who I
\iraslhe comer-stone of the social edifice of
Slovtridge, was said, b^ a spectator, to have
turaftd deathly pale with rage, and on the
first day of their being opened in working
ordfli^ ^e had taken to her bed, and re-
matned shut up in her darkened room for a
week, refusing to see anybody, and even
going so far as to send a scathing message
to the curate of St. James, who called in fear
and trembling because he was afiraid to stay
away.

"With mills and mill-hands," her lady-
ship announced to Mr. Laurence, the mill
owner, when chance first threw them to-
gether, — ^**with mills and mill-hands come
murder, massacre, and mob law." And she
said it so loud, and with so stem an aii*
of conviction, that the two Misses Briarton,
who were of a timorous and fearful nature,
dropped their buttered muffins (it was at
one of the tea-parties which were Slow-
bridge's only dissipation), and shuddered
hysterically, feeling that their fate was sealed,
and that they might, any night, find three
masculine mill-hands secreted under their
beds, with bludgeons. But as no massacres
took place, and the mill-hands were pretty



regular in their habits, and even went so far
as to send their children to Lady Theobald's
fiee school, and accepted the tracts left
weekly at their doors, whether they could
read or not, Slowbridge padually recovered
from the shock of finding itself forced, to
exist in close proximity to mills, and was
just settling itself to sleep— the sleep of the
just — again, when, as I have said, it was
shaken to its foundations.

It was Miss Belinda Bassett who received
the first shock. , Miss Belinda Bassett was
a decorous little maiden lady, who lived in
a decorous litde house on High street
(which was considered a very genteel street
in Slowbridge). She had lived in the same
house all her life, her father had lived in it,
and so also had her grandfather. She had
gone out, to take tea, fix)m its doors two or
three times a week, ever since she had been
twenty, and she had had her little tea-parties
in its fi-ont parlor as often as any other
genteel Slowbridge entertainer. She had
risen at seven, breakfasted at eight, dined at
two, taken tea at five, and gone to bed at
ten, with such regularity for fifty years, that
to rise at eight, breakfast at nine, dine at
three, and take tea at six, and go to bed at
eleven, would, she was firmly convinced, be
but " to fly in the face of Providence," as
she put it, and sign her own death-warrant.
Consequently, it is easy to imagine what a
tremor and excitement seized her when, one
afternoon, as she sat waiting for her tea, a
coach from the Blue Lion dashed— or, at
least, almost dashed — up to the fix)nt door, a
young lady got out, and the next minute
the handmaiden, Mary Anne, threw open
the door of the parlor, announcing, without
the least preface :

" Your niece, mum, fi-om 'Meriker."

Miss Belinda got up, feeling that her
knees really trembled beneath her.

In Slowbridge, America was not approved



• [•• A Fair Barbarian " was recently written by Mrs. Burnett, and printed in •* Peterson's Magazine,"
for which her earliest stories were written, and though it is quite foreign to our policy to reprint
aajrthing. this story is so good, and Mrs. Burnett's audience is now so peculiarly and habitually that which
«he finds among the readers of Scribner's Monthly, that we have asked and received Mr. Charles Peter-
too't permtssion to reprint here her story, which we know our readers will be very glad to see. The
text has had toe benefit of the author's revision. — £d. S. M.]



Vol- XXI.



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A FAIR BARBARIAN.



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her newly found relative stood before her,
making the most laudable efforts to recover
her equilibrium, and not to feel as if her
head was spinning round and round.



CHAPTER II.
** AN INVESTMENT, ANY WAY."

The; natural result of these efforts was
that Miss Belinda was moved to shed a few
tears.

** I hope you will excuse my being too
startled to say I was glad to see you,"
^he said. ** I have not seen my brother
for thirty years, and I was very fond of
him."

"He said you were," answered Octavia,
* and he was very fond of you, too. He
didn't write to you, because he made up his
mind not to let you hear from him until he
was a rich man, and then he thought he
would wait until he could come home, and
surprise you. He was awfully disappointed
when he had to go back without seeing
you."

** Poor, dear Martin," wept Miss Belinda,



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