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of thunder, or rather as the flash of li^tning, into the
retirement of my monk's cell, roused me at last from
my mystic sleep. They have left me — ^what do I
say ?~-they have m4ide me Cathouc more than ever
before ; my fifuth has become more sacred, now that
I separate it from the abuses added to it by men. I
said to myself, as the nun of Port Royal : ' Since the
bishops liave women's hearts (though is it not injus«
tice to women, so often heroic in their weakness, to
ascribe such hearts to them?)— since the bishops
have women's hearts, the simple priests must have
bishops' hearts.' On that day, to oecome altogether
fiuthfol, I became altogether bold."

His letter rings with the courage of a
martyr and the rhapsody of a saint.

We all know the story of the Council, t
to which, in the yet imbroken faith of his
heart in the Roman Church, Loyson ap-
pealed. The great majority of Italian
bishops, overwhelming and bearing down

• Con/hence s of 1 879.

t He describes the result of the Council himself:
<< Liberal Catholics have been crushed by Ae anath*
emas of the Vatican. The Council of 1870 has
introduced into the code of beliefs a do^ma abso-
lutely new, an opinion without foundation in ecclesi-
astical antiquity, and always combated by the Church
of France. All consciences are bowed down under
the authority of a single man — the Pope." And he
auotes as prophetic of this result Montalembert's
description of the *' lay theolo^ans of absolutism,"
who sought ** to immolate justice and truth, reason
and history, as a holocaust to the idol which they
have erected at the Vatican"; and the words of
Archbishop Sibour of Paris, in l8«: "The new
ultramontane school leads us to a double idolatry :
the idolatry of the temporal, and the idolatry of tne
spiritual power."



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826



FATHER HYACINTHE.



all opposition, forced upon the Roman
Catholic world the dogma which makes
internal reform finally impossible — the
dogma of the Infallibility of the Pope.

Hyacinthe came at once to America. A
student all his life of the philosophy of his-
tory, he had clear and just conceptions of
this country. In one of the Conferences of
1867, speaking of sovereignty as firom God,
whether in the sovereignty of the prince or
in the sovereignty of the people, he says of
'' the gigantic nation of the United States
of America " :

"Oh, bow mnd that nation was ! how grand it
continues stfll! O people, thou art like the lion's
whelp that is gone np to seize the prey ! Thy prey
is the wealth of both the hemispnercs, thy P^Qci
independence, thy vast and«fertile continent Thon
bast coached between the two oceans, in the shadow
of thy lofty mountains, on the banks of thy rivers,
that are like seas I Thou hast roared like the lion,
and like the lioness thon art slumbering in th^
nught. Who shall dare rouse thee up ! Quis susct-
tameumf^ Wen, then, who is it that holds the sov-
erei^ty in this nation ? None but itself. The very
diy It was bom in pangs of travail, it erasped the
sovereign^ in its own bloody and jealous hands,
and to this day it has not let it go. There every
man is at once citizen and king."

It is not too strong language to use of
the condition of the Pfere's mind, at this
time, to say that it was afloat. Coming
froni the severity and seclusion of the clois-
ter ; ignorant of the world ; utterly unable
to speak or to understand English ; broken
loose, by a convulsion, fi-om all the tradi-
tions and landmarks of his life, — he was
seeking for some haven of rest for his souL
Welcomed here as orator and protestant, he
fell into various hands, and made various
acquaintances. At the Evangelical Alli-
ance, on platform or in lecture-hall, the
guest of Chiurchman and of Congregation-
alist, he avoided committing himself to any

? articular phase of religious life or faith,
t is a part of the beauty of the man's
nature that, sudden as the revulsion was
which sent him fi-om his early religious
home, he never felt or uttered the bitter
hatred against Rome which mars too often
the fi-esh enthusiasm of those who come
out of that communion. As lately as 1878
he speaks thus of Rome :

" When one has received from the Church over
which the Papacy presides that which I have received
from it, for my intelligence and for my heart, it is
impossible to share the illusion of those who only
see in this great institution the power of Antichrist :
It is impossible to speak of it without a sentiment of
respect I do not ignore its errors and its faults.

* Genesis, xlix. 9.



Even now I openly proclaim them ; but I roa
that it is impossible, at least for me, to speak c
Rome without a feding of respect, min^ yk
love and with grief."

And again, after urging that no oai
abandons his own country because it i
badly governed, he says :

** When one has the honor to belong bj his edi
cation, his baptism, and his faith to the greit Citfai
he Churdi, one may resist its govcmmeoL Oi
must, whenever it puts itself in opposition to t|
fiuth of God and the conscience of man; botmd
one for that abandon the Churdi, shake off tpiai
it the dust of his feet, the gall of his lipt, and M
hatred of his heart? Never, gentlemen, nefcr! Ol]
the contrary, one must become more ardently U& I
ful to it in the time of its trials, and, m order to bed
its unhappy present, neither forget its past nor d^
spair of its future."



Nor had he yet made his way ycry far
toward recognizing the lines of dificrena
between the old faith and the new convic-
tions. Probably, and apparently, he simply
went back firom 1870 to 1563, from die
Italian Council of the Vatican to tfic as
un-Catholic Coimcil of Trent And dice
were needed time and thought, the riow
separation of truth from error in his ideas
and feelings, before he could take die pos-
itive position, which is essential to compkte
the negation of a protest against ontnith
and error. Hyacintne's life at Geneva was
a time of stir and progress. He found him-
self in the midst of questions, political and
ecclesiastical, of whidi, when he undertook
his mission there, he had littie thought TTic
radicals in politics claimed him, and tk
religious radicals, disposed to use agaost
ultramontanism the weapons of its ovn
warfare, pressed him hard. He resisted
nobly, and with great cost to himself. His
preaching was the preaching of the gospd
of peace. The writer remembers die ear-
nest lu-gency of his sermon on the parable of
the Grod Samaritan, in the hall in Genera,
in 1873, when, for the first time, LoysOJ
said mass in the "vulgar tongue." • Andii
was about this time that, through the Liffi
copy of Bailey's " Ordinum Sacrontm tf



* " To speak of * vulgar tongues * is a i
expression which constitutes a real ontiage to li
speech of our mothers and of our country. As ■
the dead languages of pa^^an antionity were the ^
noble tongues; and as if French, the magni^
idiom of Christian dvOizatioii, were only t vd|R
dialect! What ! Our language has been tibe ta
guage of Bossuet smd of rasod. And shsH ^ ^
only a pro&ne tongue, unworthy and incaptbk ^
express religious things ? Every language b c^
crated when it has served as die orgjui of »
gospel." — Conferences of 1878,

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FATHER HYACINTHE.



829



ns sjrstem contains within itself two opposite
iements : the negative element, which makes it a
jiism, and most commonly a heresy ; and the posi-
ve element, which preserves for it a greater or less
lire in the ancient heritage of Christianity. Not
nly distinct but hostile, they are very near to each
her, even in their conflicts; darkness and light,
fi; and death, mingle without being confounded, and
lere results from it all what I would call the deep
k1 intricate mystery of the life of error. For my
irt, I do not render to error the undeserved honor

supposing it able to live of its own life, breathe
r its own breath, and nourish with its ovm substance
|als which are not without virtues, and nations not
ithout greatness I Protestantism, as such, is that
!^ve element which you have renounced, and to
tiidi, with the Catholic Church, you have said,
aatbema. But Protestantism has not been the
Jjr thbg in your past religious life ; by the side of

negations nave been its affirmations, and, like a
vory fruit inclosed in a bitter husk, you have been
possession of Christianity from ^our cradle. Be-
re coming to us, you were a Christian by baptism,
tidly received, and when the hand of the minister
rinkled the water on your brow with those words
eternal life, • I baptize thee in the Name of the
itber, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' it
IS Jesus Christ himself who baptized vou. • The
nd is nothing,' says Saint Augustine ; * be it Peter's
Paul's, the hand b nothing — it is Christ that bap-
es.' It was Christ who betrothed ^ou, who re-
ived your fiuth and pledged to you His own. Tlie
pth of ^or moral nature, that sacred part of noble
ols which instinctively shrinks from error, the
ord has consecrated to Himself, that He * might
esent it to Himsdf as a chaste virgin,' reserving it

heaven. • • •

•The free exercise of private judgment, under
: spirit of which vou have grown up, is doubtless
s source of numoerless errors ; but— thank God
lin for this — ^besides the Protestant principle, there
also the Christian principle among Protestants ;
tides private judgment there is the action of the
;>ematiiral grace received in baptism, and of that
^erioas influence of whidi Saint Paul speidcs
en he sa^s : * We have the mind of Christ,' and
which Samt John said : ' Ye have an unction from
; H(dy One, and ye know all things.' "

With all this, he held strongly to the dis-
ction, even to the separating points and
inciples, of church order and authority,
his latest Conferences he says :

* Whatever may be the ties which bind me to
ny Protestants, — and these ties are close, — what-
T may be my esteem for that which truly evan-
ica] Protestantism has of Christianity, of freedom,
I of frnitfulness, I am not, I never shall be, Prot-
mt. I think I may add, without being a prophet,
t if ear country hi^ not become so within the last
ee hundred ^ears, neither religious eflbrt nor
itical calculations will ever bring back this possi-
ty, vanished without hope of return. France will
Catholic — reformed Catnolic, in the sense of the

£d and of liberty, but she will always be Catholic,
e will cease to be."

He shared and shares most strongly the
eviction of the first Protestant minister in
ris, M. de Pressense, as to the necessity
the historic Church to reform and rule



the religion of France.* Prelacy and the
primacy are as clearly scriptural and primi-
tive to Loyson, as the Papacy is modern,
and false, and fatal.

What we have quoted from Loyson has
the double disadvantage, first, that he speaks
to eye and not to ear, with the loss of
that rise and fall of power in his tones,
like the west wind blowing over the strings
of the responsive harp ; and secondly, that
even to the eye he speaks through the dis-
torting medium of a translation. But even
so he is great, for he is not merely an orator.
In voice, in articulation, in choice of words
in his own incomparable language, and in
every natural grace, he has the gift of ora-
tory; but his sermons and conferences are
not bom from the end of his tongue amid
the stir of popular assemblies; they are not
merely concefved of the fancy and begotten
by the emotions; they pass through the
wondrously fertile chambers of his imagina-
tion, and over the warm surface of his
kindled heart, and out of the portal of
a "golden mouth." But behind all this,
they are mighty achievements of study and
thought and toil. No man can read them
and not realize that the fire of their burning
and illuminating words, lighted almost by
inspiration, is fed and furnished by an
amount of material gathered from remote
and various store- houses — as well the col-
lected coal of burned-out systems of philos-
ophy and the old heathen poets, as the fuel
found in the still green and Hving forests of
contemporaneous thought. Plato, Confu-
cius, Socrates, Voltaire, and Kant ; the Dic-
tionary of Philosophy, and the decisions of
the Lambeth Conference, find their place
among the references of his lectures. I
select from his latest pubUcation a speci-
men of the line of the Pore's thought and
teaching, and of the power and purity of
his style. In the first Conference on Chris-
tianity and Natural Religion he says :

''These two so widely different states of natural
religion, the French tongue expresses by two words,
separated, the one from the other, in language bv a
consonant, in thought by an abyss — deism and the-

* He quotes as sustaining his own opinion the
words ofthe pastor E. de Pressens^, whom he calls
one of the most distinguished spirits of Protestant-
ism : *' I am convinced that France will not receive
the gospel, under the form of mere Protestaadsm.
Protestantism may help to hasten a reform, greater
and more effective, but it will never accomplish it
alone. At every cost that must be born ana devel-
oped in the bosom of Catholicism, on condition that
Catholicism transform itself, and break with idola-
trous and unbridled ultramontanism."



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A GEORGIA PLANTATION.



ism. To avoid the possible confusion of these two
words, so nearly aliJce in pronunciation, we shall
speak of deism and monotheisnu Deism and
monotheism are both religions of the twilight, if I
may so say, with the difference which there is be-
tween the two twilights. If the eveninc twilight
has certain characteristics in common wim the twi-
lip;ht of the coming dawn, it has others that mark the
difference between them. The eye sees on the hori-
zon, like a band of gold, or like draperies of purple,
the light of a hearth-fire, not yet visible or just dis-
appearing from sight; and yet what a difference !
At dawn it is the trembling of all nature, with the
nnntterable ^lan* of creation toward the visible
source of life. A breeze passes over the earth,
which carries to the east all its perfumes, all its
songs. At sunset, on the contrary, a wearied wind
touoies the sun, and seems to fold its wings; the
flowers droop upon their stems, the songs die out
upon the nests. In the one case it is the sun which
rises ; it is the day which is coming ; in the other it
is the light which dies — it is the nig^t that advances.

"All idols are not cut out of stone, nor made of
gold or of wood ; there are others that are fiishioned
each dav in the Uioughts of men. These are spirit-
ual idols — the most criminal, the most dangerous.
The God of deism is of this class. ** He has eyes
and he sees not," as the Psalmist says. He wears,
like a thick bandage over His reason, those general
laws of the world to which He submits, thoughdess
and inactive, and through which He distinguishes
neither particular beings nor their individual acts.
He is not like the God of the |;ospel, who feeds the
birds of the air, who clothes with glory the lilies of
the field, who knows the number of the hairs in our
heads, and of the tears from our eyes, even as of the
stars in the firmament ; and who watches us with His
dear-seeing justice to reward or to punish us. He
has ears and heareth not Voice of prayer and of
love, joyous song of adoration, movement of the
wings of ecstasy, tears falling one by one in night
and silence, sound of choking sobs, piercing cry of

* Bound.



remorse or of grief, you have not moimted» 70Q en
never mount, to His ear! The deists have ddbed
prayer as ' a solilocjuy of the soul with itsdf* * Tbe
soul speaks and listens to itself^ and in this iSiisofj
division of itself it finds at last the comfort and tlie
strengUi which is wanting in its natural oiiaiess,tBd
which it would ask in vain of the ertnd deafioess nd
dumbness of the Infinite. 'He has ears and hem
not ; He has a mouth and speaks not' t No, Hebs
never replied to man within himself bv one of tkft
inarticulate, 3ret living, words, whio, vfaen out
heard, can never be forgotten. All these are ojsii-
cal illusions. God does not interfere by His grace
in the secret and tremendous drama of the ooe-
science, nor by the writers of His revdation and Hk
prophecy in the ordinary life of mankind. Above
all. He has no bowels of compassion or of tendencs,
by which we used to believe the <monun£ stir iss
visited us firom above-' How shouW He km as
since He knows us not? How should He be 6idKr,
since He is the All-Powcrful ? • • • ^Tat
we must have is a God easily found, a God very
simple, and, above all, very loving,— a God wbo,
without ceasing to be grand, and therefore mysloi*
ous, nevertheless humbled Himself even to as, and,
having glorified poverty by being bom in a stable,
has Quuk suffering divine by dying upon tbe aoss.'

Only God knows what shall be Ac issoc
of this man's life and work. But it caanot
in the end be fruitless. His teaching, as \s&
own striking figiu-e has it, must be like dje
grain of wheat in the hand of the mummy:
" When it has been sown in souk prepared
to receive it, this grain of God will lift itsdf
and grow, at once new and old; it will grow
like the forest of Libanus; and the future
shall sit, in joy and peace, imder its sbadov,
and feed upon its fruit."



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A GEORGIA PLANTATION.



That in many parts of the South (and
notably the State of Georgia) the labor-re-
lations of the two races are adjusting them-
selves and working out a solution of the
dreaded "negro problem" in a practical
way, has been known to all observant resi-
dents or visitors. The confident prophecies
of the croakers that Southern plantations
would go to waste, and that nothing but
ruin lay before us, have proved the merest
bosh. The enormous increase in the cot-
ton crop of the South alone shows that the
colored people, as firee laborers, have done
well, for it is not to be disputed that they
fonA very nearly the same proportion of the
laborers in the cotton fields that they did
when they were slaves. I do not wish to
be understood as stating a proportion in



which free labor is to slave labor is U
cotton crop since the war is to the cottoc
crop before the war. This is not tnK;
the yield of cotton has been increased bj
other causes. But I do say- that under w
circumstances could worthless labw h2«
produced the enormous increase in 2fl
crop.

In Georgia, the negro has adapted hifl-
self to his new cirtumstances, and fieedoc
fits him as if it had been cut out and matif
for him. It is not true that the negwff
have formed a restless, troublesome po?*"
lation, nor is it true that they arc Iftc a ic*
of huddled sheep, frightened at the approach
of strange white men, in dread of the teni^
Ku-klux. As far as I know, our phflosophci
have presented them in one or the other 0*



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A GEORGIA PLANTATION.



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ip, and there is a large quantity of un-
uliivated land for pasture, so that the
mly cost connected with catde is ten
ir fifteen doUars purchase money. An
ipen pen, called the " cuppen," in this
nild climate serves in place of cow-
tables. On the opposite side from the
3t, the house is flanked by the garden,
unounded by what is known as a
wattle" fence. This fence is made
»f split pine boards, " wattled *' around
hree horizontal rails, fastened to posts,
he first at the ground and the others
espectively two and four feet above.
Dseparable from this garden is a patch
f " coUord greens." The negroes think
coUord greens, biled with plenty fat
aeat, hard to beat," when you are con-
idcring table delicacies. The only
ther noteworthy feature in connec-
m with this home is the 'possum dog,
rho is the first to greet your approach,
fou will know him by the leanness of
is body, the fierceness of his bark, and
be rapidity of his retreat.

The labor of the farm is performed by
be man, who usually does the plowing,
nd his wife and children, who do the
oeing, under his direction. Whenever
ley have heavy work to do they call on
^eir neighbors, and receive willing aid.
Tieir crops are principally com and cot-
)n, but they have patches of such things
s potatoes, melons, and sorghum-cane,
om which they make their sirup. They
lant whatever they please, and their land-
>rd interferes only far enough to see that
efficient cotton is made to pay the rent,
hich is seven htmdred and fifty pounds
f lint-cotton to each one-horse form. The
sual quantity of land planted is between
rcnty-five and thirty acres, about half of
hich is in cotton and the rest in corn and
atches. An industrious man will raise
irce times the amount of his rent-cotton,
esides makmg a full supply of com, simp,
nd other provisions, while really good farm-
ig would require about five times the rent
) be raised in addition to the supply of pro-
isions. Candor compels the admission that
nly a few tenants reach this standard of
ood (arming ; the others work sufficiently
ell to pay their rent, and make money
aough to buy their clothes and spend at
•hristmas, and let the rainy days of the
iture take care of themselves. It is a point
f honor with them to pay their rent, even

they find it necessary to mistake whose
3ttOD they pay it with.




A GBORGIA rLANTATION AS IT IS IN x88x.
* Negroes who liTed oa this pUnUtion when slaves.

There is one misfortune which, to our
Georgia tenant, dwarfs all others, and this
comes when his mule dies. Thanks to mul-
ish endurance, this does not often happen,
but when it does, the owner invariably ex-
presses himself "broke up." He has to buy
another on time, and work hard and live
dose the next year in order to pay for him,
or else make his crop with a steer. An en-
terprising colored man* will buy the mule,
but I have frequently known tenants to resort
to the steer. Whenever they get into trouble
of this kind, they remind their landlord in
pathetic terms that he is their old master,
and generally get off with the payment of
half the rent.

The slight supervision which is exercised
over these tenants may surprise those igno-
rant of how completely the relations between
the races at the South have changed. Mr.
Barrow lives on his plantation, and yet there
are some of his tenants' farms which he
does not visit as often as once a month, and
this, too, because they do not ne6l over*



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A GEORGIA PLANTATION.



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neat food. They generally have to buy
ome meat during the year, however, for
Fhich they pay in the fall.

The land of this plantation is rich, and
he tenants are, perhaps, better off than in
ome other places, but an industrious negro
nil pay good rent for land and make
Qoney for himself almost anywhere in
diddle Georgia.

The last census showed three white and
nc hundred and sixty-two colored people
t) this plantation. I mention this to show
hat there must be many children among
•ur country negroes. The adage, "poor
3lks for children," finds no exception here,
liere is one woman on the place who
as three babies, Shadrach, Meshach, and
ibednego, and fine children they are, too,
od well cared for in spite of the number,
t was commonly thought that the negroes,
rhcn freed, would care very little for their
bildren, and would let them die for want
f attention, but experience has proved this
annise unfounded. On the contrary, I sup-
ose they take as good care of them as do
be same class of people anywhere.

It will be seen by reference to plot of the
lace " as it is," that one comer has been cut
% and a church and school-house built on
: This has been given to them so long as
^ use it for church and school purposes.
Tic church building is forty by fifty feet, and
i a frame house, the Lord's house being
ere, if not elsewhere, better than the
eoplc's. They have a membership of about
vo hundred, fix>m the plantation and the
ountry around, which is in charge of the
lev. Deny Merton, a colored man, who
reaches there twice a month. He has had
harge of this church nine or ten years, and
as other churches under his care. For its
jpport, the male members pay fifty cents
nd the females twenty-five cents per annum,
n addition to their regular church services,
ley have a Sunday-school, with a member-
hip of one hundred and fifty or more,
hich has a regular superintendent, one of
\t tenants on the place. They use regular



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