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persistent click -click-click of the Morse
instruments is telling of revolutions in gov-
ernments, of frustrated designs upon the
lives of kings, of debates in the Senate, of
pageants in London, of carnivals in Rome,
and of matters that concern the whole world.
The voice is metallic, and it speaks of all
things with a uniform precision and firmness.
It patters out the Queen's message to her
lords and gentlemen assembled at West-
minster, and it tells a mother of the death
of her son, and brings tidings to some
wife from an absent husband. We glance
out of the windows upon the dark ambiguity
of the bay and rivers, and upon the faint



extreme nervous activity ; and the messages
^that pour in from all quarters come from
sources where there is the same urgency and
sleeplessness. I'here is a sort of screen, not
many feet square, in which all the wires are
gathered, and if one could epitomize and
comprehend at once the rushing flood of
words springing from every motive, aimed at
every end, that finds its inlet here, nearly aU
human nature would be unmasked. As
fast as the operators fulfill their appointed
hours of service, they are replaced by others,
and not until the daylight is broad and
the lamps extinguished, and then and all
through the day the patter of the instru-
ments continues in the same whirling storm
that greets our ears as we first enter the
room.

Above the operating-room, and imme-
diately under the roof, there is a complete
manage for the use of employes. There are
laundries, kitchens, linen-closets, and pantries.
The dining-room is spacious and well-venti-
lated, with windows that look out upon miles
and miles of roofs, and up the Hudson to

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NEW YORK ATTICS AND HOUSE-TOPS,



887



It is discouraging to explore such a lo-
cality as this at any season. The loaferish
men, the slatternly women, and the vocif-
erous children are here at all times. The
same sin, misery, and ignorance disturb us
and appeal to our sense of the ill-adjustment
of society, whether we look upon the scene
in winter or summer. But it is in the sul-
triness of August or September that the dis-
tress is most poignant. Come here in one
of the breathless nights of midsummer. All
the population seems to be out-of-doors and
gasping for air; but the energy of move-
ment and conversation tliat we have seen
before is missing. The atmosphere seems
to have reached its equilibrium. The scant-
ily clothed women sit with their heads
thrown back and bodies unerect, as in a
muscular atrophy; the children lie uneasily
wherever there is space for them. There is
moaning, disquietude, and deep exhaustion.
So compact is the crowd that it strikes us
all the tenements must have been emptied
into the street. But come farther; let us
pick our way through the blockade of
women and children on the steps and in
the hall of one of the big houses. The
doors and windows are all wide open ;
there is no privacy, and, as we walk upstairs
from floor to floor, we find that the crowd
below is but a surplus — that each of the
miserable little rooms is occupied by almost
as many as it can contain. There, is a
German shoe-maker sitting upon a stool and
hammering upon a last, with a brood of chil-
dren sprawling around him ; there, a laborer
is eating his supper by the light of a kero-
sene lamp, while a tall, spare, pale woman
waits upon him with a baby dragging at her
breast ; there, a laundress is ironing linen,
and complains in expletives as the beads
of perspuration, falling upon her work,
blister the crisp starch ; and in otiier apart-
ments, where the lights are out, we see
shadowed movements and hear loud voices.
Children are screaming and women scolding
everywhere. Each successive floor is lower
in price and occupied by a poorer class than
that below it, and at last we reach the top,
where the rooms are little larger than prison-
cells and the dwellers are the most abject.
The comparison of prison-cells is, indeed,
an unfair one, for in penal institutions the
hygiene is admirable, while here the walls
and floors are filthy, and a family of several
persons is granted no more space than would
be allowed to one felon.

When we think of the throng in the street
and of the innumerable inmates we have



seen in their apartments, — of the many per-
sons who have brushed against us in the
corridors, — we cannot imagine that we have
not seen all to whom the house gives shelter.
But there is a fire-escape ladder leading to
the roof, — a ladder so steep and narrow that
it would be like water to Tantalus — a treach-
erous failure to succor — if once the flames
obtained possession of this wasp-net; and,
scaling it, we emerge upon the roof, where
still more of the tenants are gatliered. The
air that is sultry and impure below is not
perceptibly firesher here. The moon is a
fiery orange color, and the sky itself seems
to glow with hidden heat; a long bar of
opaline cloud floats motionless imder the
moon, and the infrequent stars beat feebly
in the haze. Stretched out at our feet, and
all over the roof, are men and women, who
have come up here in vain for a breath of
cool air. They roll from side to side and
moan for repose, which they cannot obtain.
As the night advances, their number is in-
creased by others, who crawl up the narrow
fire-escape, and before morning all the space
is covered by a restless, murmuring throng.
The adjoining roofs are also occupied, and
as we glance to them firom the uneasy objects
at our feet, and think of the unlimited valle5rs
that invite tillage, and the forests that wait
for the ax, we endeavor, without success, to
understand the perversity which holds these
suffering masses of humanity in the over-
populated city.

There is abundant picturesqueness among
the roofs. Between some of the big tene-
ment-houses of modem date, gaps have
been left, in which stand old buildings with
quaint curb roofs and dormer windows,
'foo often, as is generally the case with the
picturesque, these ancient houses are more
objectionable from a sanitary point of view
than the most defective of later buildings;
but sometimes they give a ghmpse of do-
mestic felicity and retirement that cannot
be found in the vaster hive of tenements.
There is one litde comer we know of where
decency of life has made its benefits mani-
fest, despite all the surrounding poverty and
thrifdessness. It is the second story of one
of the old houses that we have mentioned,
and is under a slanting roof which is becom-
ing concave under the weight of its years.
The door oudets upon a frail little balcony,
around which some flower-pots are placed;
and there is a window of scant dimensions,
which is draped with a white muslin curtain.
We have not the least idea as to whom the
tenants are, but in spring and summer even-



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NEW YORK ATTICS AND HOUSE-TOPS.



891



between it and the depth below. At one
side is a bencli with deep pots of color upon
it, and at the other is the white canvas with
a faintly sketched design upon it, which the
artist is filling in with apparently chaotic
and unmodulated dashes of paint. He has
neither mahl-stick nor palette ; his brush is
flat and some eight inches broad, and he
wields it with the careless vigor of a bill-
poster. He is dressed firom head to foot in
white canvas overalls, and the hand which
he holds out to us is speckled like a trout.
From time to time he calls to his assistants,
and the scene is elevated or lowered as he
requires. A strong light is thrown upon
the canvas by a row of gas-jets with tin
reflectors; a pungent vapor rises from a
kettle of sizing which is simmering on a gas-
stove. Neither the atmosphere nor the
glimpses we frequendy obtam of the gully
beneath us are stimulating ; but the painter
is in high spirits, and tells us that it is a
pleasure for him to be up here, — that he
actually loves the odors and precipitous
surroundings of the paint-loft. When the
scene is complete it is rehearsed, and the
artbt views his own work from the audi-
torium, under the lights by which it will
be seen by the audience. The inspection
and the criticism of the manager may satisfy
him, but if they do not, the canvas is once
more hauled up, for revision. At night the
paint-lofl is hoisted still nearer the roof,
and the " flies " are lighted up by many
gas-jets, each of which is protected by a
wire mask.

Near Tompkins Square, in the upper
story of a factory, we see a row of pale-
faced girls who are painting toys — an in-
dustry of modem introduction in America,
which, having superseded the necessity for
importation, is now acquiring large pro-
portions as an export. Not much art is
applied to it ; the colors are used lavishly,
and without any restrictive adherence to
fact. Horses are painted blue and pink,
and other liberties are taken with nature
which are sanctionable, perhaps, from the
childish demand for brilliance of hue.
" That, sir," said an overseer once, as he
exhibited a crimson lion with a golden
mane to us, — " that, sir, is the most perfect
animal made in the trade " ; and, no doubt,
the infidelity of color gave it the preemi-
nence. The girls cannot be even classified
as skilled artificers ; they are paid little and



have long hours to work for a living ; but
they are unconsciously preparing future sur-
prises and joys for thousands of children
whom they may never know.

We must close this rapid chronicle with
one more glimpse of the city, fi-om one of
the old and almost obsolete watch-towers
of the fire department, where, in a small oc-
tagonal house, nearly one hundred and fifty
feet above the level, and supported on iron
pillars, a man is stationed to scan the roofs
below for any sign of fire. The street patrol
is so numerous, and the telegraph alarm-
boxes are so widely distributed, that fires
are usually announced by them before they
can be seen from the bell- towers, which
have all been abandoned save the one to
which we refer. This is in Spring street,
and a few nights ago we spent an hour in
it with the watchman. Passing through the
engine-house, with its suggestive preparations
for emergencies, we toiled up the dark spiral
stair-way, and tapped at the trap-door which
admitted us into the litde house on the
apex. The man was alone and without a
light ; the solitariness of his situation seemed
to impart a tremulous pathos to his voice.
" It's good enough up here in the long
summer evenings," he said, puffing the while
at his pipe; "but in the north -westers,
which shake the house so as to upset a
bucket of water, there's no keeping warm,
and in a thunder-storm it's awfiil, the way
the lightning plays around." We looked
below on the roofs, which in this neighbor-
hood are mostly old-fashioned, with gables
and steep sloped; it was Hke looking at some
broken sea of lava, dark and undistinguish-
able. The main thoroughfares threw tracings
of reflected light against the sky, and a few
double files of yellow lamps were visible.
There was no motion and litde sound.
" Yes," continued the watchman, in response
to a word of ours ; " there's plenty to think
about down there, but it kinder makes me
sad ; I don't seem to belong to it, and in
the blackest part of the night I seem to see
things — ^liundreds of things — going on under
them roofs, when there's really nothing."
The watchman did not understand his own
spiritual sense, but with him as with us the
profundity and vastness of the life of the
city are emphasized by the concealment,
and, as we have said, what the eye could
not see the heart feels with extreme solem-
nity.



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THE CALHOUN SUMMER HOME.



893



white men were scattered all through the
country separately, and down below here a
piece they built a stockade. One time
there was some trouble, and the white men
and friendly Indians in the garrison were
pushed right smart by the enemy who sur-
rounded them. Finally a girl named Nancy
Hart managed to get through, and she
jumped bareback on a horse, and started
up this way as hard as she could ride, rous-
ing everybody to go to the relief of the
garrison. As she rode along, she gave every
creek coming down out of the mountains
the name of the distance it was from the
stockade. And so you'll find *em — Six, that
is Six-mile Creek, Ten, Twelve, Eighteen,
Three-and-Twenty, and so on up to Ninety-
six, where she stopped. I reckon she guessed
at it, but 'pears like she calc'lated right close."



upon the crest of a long, steep ridge which
approaches close to the margin of a placid
stream now called the Seneca River. There
is a vague story of early Indian fights on
this ridge, and, in plowing it, many stone
relics have come to light. Later, when the
sturdy mountaineers were rallying for the
new republic in '76, and resisting tiie sol-
diers whom the Crown landed on the Car-
olina coast or marched down from Virginia ;
when Marion was ranging the woods with
his squirrel-hunters, and King's Mountain
saw a day of bloody battle on its rounded
summit and along its abrupt sides, then
this pleasant hill by the Seneca was again
fortified and garrisoned under the name of
Fort Salvador, after its commander, and
more than one half-Indian skirmish took
place within sound of its one small cannon.



Calhoun's ofpick.



It is a gradual ascent to the central part
of the estate, where " Fort Hill " holds its
commanding position. Calhoun found the
name ready for him when he came,- and
well-supported by history, or, at least, by
tradirion. When the Six Nations, of which
the Senecas were the chief representatives
in this region, were at their fullest power,
they had extgiided their sway as far south
as here, driving back the Indian tribe which
previously had held possession. It was a
frontier post of their domain, however, and
here they built a stockade for defense



Around this garrison grew up a small set-
tlement, and a well was dug to guard
against being cut ofif from a supply of
water. Tradition says that after Salvador
had been killed in one of the fights, and
General Wilkinson had taken command,
disasters followed and the place was aban-
doned, but that first a large amount of val-
uables and of war material was buried in
the old well. It is the Captain Kidd's
treasure tale of the region.

When, half a century ago, Calhoun
bought this place, to which he had been



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PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER,



895



somber room, though; there is not a bit of
brightness or light to relieve the sober array
of books, tlie heavy furniture, the dark paint,
and dull, groined ceiling.

When John C. Calhoun sat, and wrote,
and attended to his af&irs in this gloomy
library, he was a man not only of imbounded
influence, but of great wealth. Besides this
princely domain, he was proprietor of a
great plantation in Alabama. He owned
from three to five hundred slaves, and kept
them aD busy. He would send a detach-



ment down to his cotton-fields, as long as
ihey could stand it, and then bring them
back here to the brisk mountain air for
recuperation. At one time this home-estate
amounted to fifteen hundred acres, but now
it is not more than half as large, and is
going into a melancholy decay for lack of
money to make its cultivation profitable or
its beauty available for any one's pleasure.
It still remains in the family, but a pur-
chaser for the larger part, if not for the
whole, would probably be welcomed.



PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.* VI.



CHAPTER XXllI.



PATKUL.



We have seen that the surrender of Pat-
kul was one of the conditions of the peace
of AltranstUdt. The political career of this
unhappy man is inseparably connected with
the war between Charles and Peter.

We have already spoken of the way in
which Patkul was identified with the early
history of the war, the share he had in
bringing it about, and in forming the alli-
ance between Augustus and Peter. In the
battle on the Duna, he commanded one
wing of the Saxon troops under Field-Mar-
shal Steinau, was severely wounded, and
was taken to Mitau. Six weeks later, in
September, 1701, Prince Gregory Dolgoniky,
the Russian envoy at Warsaw, wrote to the
Tsar : " Patkul has hardly got well firom his
wound, but he has been to see me, and said
that he does not intend to serve any longer
in Poland, on account of the way in which
the King has treated his aUies ; that for a
time he will live in Breslau and look about
lo find some place to serve." Peter, who,
like all Patkul's contemporaries, had a great
opinion of his abilities, immediately invited
him to enter his service. This opportune
offer was taken into consideration, and Pat-
kul started for Moscow, where he arrived
in Passion Week, in 1702. The Tsar re-
ceived him kindly, consulted with him on
several occasions, and renewed his offers,
which were ultimately accepted by Patkul,
who then received the rank of privy coun-
cilor, and was subsequentiy appointed a
lieutenant-general. There exists in the



archives at Moscow a curious document of
this period, written by Patkul in German,
in winch he sets forth in detail his acquire-
ments, experience, and qualifications; dis-
claiming all knowledge of marine affairs,
and any special acquaintance with artillery
or cavalry, but asserting his thorough com-
petence in all relaring to the infantry, to en-
gineering, mathematics, architecture, and the
construction of fortresses. During the three
weeks which Patkul remained in Moscow,
he had many interviews and conversations
with the Tsar and with Golovfn on the sub-
ject of procuring foreign officers for the
army, and gener^ly with regard to inviting
foreigners to take service in Russia. The
famous manifesto of April 27th, 1702, invit-
ing foreigners to settle in Russia, was issued
on the advice of Patkul, and was submitted
to him for approbation. On the same day,
the Tsar commissioned him to enter into
various negotiations with the King of Poland,
and to engage at his discretion foreigners
for the Russian service, fixed his salary at
one thousand reichsthalers a month, pre-
sented him with an estate of four hundred
families of serfs, and his portrait set in dia-
monds, valued at three thousand rubles.

"It is suffidentlv known," said this celebrated
manifesto, *' in all tne lands which the Almighty has
placed under our rule, that since our accession to the
throne all our efforts and intentions have tended to
eovern this state in such a way that all of our sub-
lects should, through our care for the general good,
become more and more prosperous. For this end,
we have always tded to maintsun internal order, to
defend the state against invasion, and in every way
possible to improve and to extend trade. With this
purpose we have been compelled to make some
necessary and salutary changes in the administration.



• Copyright, 1880, by Eugene Schuyler. All rights reserved.

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PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



897



ras expressly stated that all previous laws
ind decrees restricting the arrival or the
leparture of foreigners were thereby re-
^ed, that all who came with the intention
if entering the Russian service would re-
eive a free passage and a full protection;
ind that they might experience no diffi-
iilties arising from their ignorance of the
lussian laws, they should be placed imder
be jurisdiction of a special tribunal com-
osed of foreigners, where all proceedings
hould be conducted, not according to the
lussian law, but according to the Roman
ivil law. More than that, the principle
f religious tolerance was set forth in this
lecree almost as fully as by Frederick the
jreat, half a century later. ''And as in
»ur residence of Moscow," the manifesto
joes on to say, " the free exercise of religion
f all other sects, although not agreeing with
»ur church, is already avowed, so shdl this
le hereby confirmed anew in such wise that
re, by the power granted to us by the Al-
mighty, will exercise no compulsion over
be consciences of men, and will gladly allow
very Christian to care for his own salvation
t his own risk." No one was to be hin-
lered or oppressed in either the private or
mblic exercise of the reHgion of any Chris-
ian sect. It will be noticed that the free-
lom of religious exercise granted by Peter
xtended only to Christians. From these
rivileges he, by implication, excepted the
ews. At another time he expressed him-
elf particularly on this point. " I would
ither," he said, "see among us the best
eople of the Mohammedan and heathen
eUefii than Jews. They are rascals and
heats. I root out evil and do not spread
. They shall have no abode and no trade
1 Russia, however much they may try to
et it, and however near to me may be the
eople they bribe."

A few days after the departure of the
'sar for Archangel, a curious honor was
aid to Patkul. All the Swedish prisoners
rere collected on the great square of the
Lr^mlin, and there, in tibeir midst, the exe-
utioner pubhcly burned aU the pamphlets
nd accusations which had been printed in
tockholm against Patkul. This was in
eply to a similar action on the part of the
wedish Government, which, four months
•efore, had burned in Stockholm various
lamphlets published in PatkuPs defense.

From that time on, Patkul was active in

he Tsar's service, first in Vienna, negotiat-

ig with Kaunitz, and engaging such men

a Ogilvy, Ronne, and Huyssen to enter

Vol. XXI.— 66.



the Russian service; then in the Ukraine,
negotiating with Mazeppa and Palei, and
hoping to arrange the border disputes be-
tween Poland and Russia; then at the
foundation of St Petersburg, high in the
favor and confidence of the Tsar, and then
in Saxony, in command of the auxiliary
troops, and planning, plotting, and counter-
mining, both at Dresden and at Berlin. He
was ever on the alert, ever active, ever
ready with word and pen wherever there
seemed to him a point to be gained or an
opportunity to be used. He advised and
criticised Matv^ief at The Hague, he dis-
puted with Dolgor6ky at Warsaw, he di-
rected Huyssen in his literary campaign to
influence public opinion throughout Europe,
he carefully watched the maneuvers of the
Court of Berlin, and gave personal counsel
to King Augustus.

Yet Patkul did not fulfill the expectations
of Peter. His incessant activity, his labori-
ous intrigues, his careful reports, led to no
practical result. The great object of his
life was, as we know, to forward die interests
and preserve the privileges of the Livonian
nobility. It was for this that he did his best
to bring about the war. It was for this that
he took service first with Poland and then
with Russia. It was therefore natural that he
should straiil all his influence with the Tsar
to induce him to leave the Baltic provinces,
to unite his forces with those of Augustus,
and to attack Charles. His conduct was
loyal, but his personal views in this, as in
other things, conflicted with those of his new
master. He was not a Russian, and, like
many well-educated foreigners, looked on
the Russians with contempt The Tsar, in
employing foreigners, intended them to be
teachers and instructors, and to serve as
examples to the Russians. He was willing
to put up with an occasional mistake or
error, if his subjects gradually improved.
Patkul's plan was to officer the whole army
with foreigners, leaving each general fi'ee to
choose his subordinates. In the same way,
as he had a contempt for Russian diploma-
tists, with their inexperience, their ignorance
of languages, and dieir lack of knowledge
of society, he desired to make himself a sort
of general diplomatic representative of the
Tsar abroad, residing at Dresden or The
Hague — ^with a number of secretaries, resi-
dents, and chargh d'affaires under his direc-
tion. He finally succeeded in persuading
Peter to adopt his plan in pait, and the
Germans whom he recommended — Urbich,
Neuhausen, and Lita^— were appointed resi-

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898



PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER,



dents in Vienna, Copenhagen, and Berlin;
but while they ftimished the Russian Gov-
ernment with valuable and interesting re-
ports, they were not placed under the
supreme control of Patkul. As a diploma-
tist, Patkul did not show himself worthy of



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