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his reputation. He had no knowledge of
the general interests of Russia, no sympathy
with the Russians. He took no broad
views of any subject. The whole aim of his
diplomacy seemed to be to obtain temporary
and even trifling successes on minor points,
and to gain advantages in quibbling and
word-twisting. His impetuous temper and
his prejudices made it difficult always to
trust to what he said. As Dolgoruky once
said to Golovin : " I think you now know
Patkul. One must carefully examine not
only his words but even his letters. If he
writes when he is in ill-hiunor, he will not
even give praise to God himself."

With his temper, his belief in his own

Eowers, and his constant interference, Pat-
ul made himself more enemies than friends.
He quarreled with Galftsyn at Vienna, and
with Matv^ief at The Hague; Dolgoruky at
Warsaw refused to be in communication
with him ; the officers of the Russian troops
in Saxony hated him ; and, worst of all, he
set the Saxon ministry against him. Even
King Augustus complained t6 Dolgortiky
that Patkul was bringing about misunder-
standings between him and the Tsar by his
personsd malice, and bitterly said : " I know
Patkul well, and his Tsarish Majesty will
soon learn also that Patkul abandoned the
service of his own master only for his own
plans and profit"

In consequence of the Treaty of October,
1 703 J eleven Russian regiments, with an
auxiliary force of Cossacks, made their ap-
pearance at the head-quarters of King
Augustus in the summer of 1704. The
Cossacks were under the command of Dan-
iel Apostol, and the Russians under that of
Prince Dimitri Galitsyn, who had distin-
guished himself diplomatically at Constanti-
nople, but who had no knowledge of war,
or of the management of troops. They
had taken two months to march from K(ef
to Sokal, on the Western Bug, and so great
had been the hardships of the march that
the Russians had been reduced in number
from over nine thousand to under seven
thousand fit for service, and of the six
thousand Cossacks only three thousand ap-
peared. They were badly armed and badly
clothed, "The men," wrote Patkul, who
had the command over this auxiliary detach-



ment, '< are so good that nothing better can
be desired. TTbey show perfect obedience,
and willingly do all that they are (»deied
But it is impossible to do anything with the
officers, and, therefore, the men goven
themselves." The officers, he advised,
should be immediately replaced by Ger-
mans. Patkul became at once involyed
in trouble with Prince Galftsyn, whom
alone the officers were willing to obey, and
complained of the harm that Galftsyn was
causing the troops by his stupid commis-
sariat arrangements, and his inconsistency.
" At one time he takes on himself the fi-
nishing of all the provisions, at another be
suddenly gives this over to the royal com-
missariat At one time he wants his sddien
to bake bread for themselves, at anothahe
suddenly makes a demand for baked bread,
and insists that it be fiimished in the twink-
ling of an eye." Words were scarcely strong
enough to express his opinion of the char-
acter, the cowardice, and the want of ded-
pline of the Cossacks. It must be admkted
that the Russian and Cossack officers retali-
ated in like wise.

With nine of the Russian battalions, Pat-
kul imdertook the siege of Posen, bat, after
waiting a month before the city for reen-
forcements and making a breach in tk
walls, he was obliged by the order of the
King to give up the siege on the very day
fixed for its storm, and retire into Saxonj.
Here he was joined by the renmants of fwir
other regiments which, under the command
of General G6rtz, had been cut to pieces by
the Swedes near Fraustadt, and was gives
quarters near Guben, in Lower Lusani.
Here they suffered great distress. All dK
resources of the province had been pien-
ously exhausted by the Saxon troops^ ind
Russian money was at such a discount thtf
the inhabitants were unwilling to receive n
and the Saxon officials refused to give fcf-
age and provisions. The artillery was r^
duced to such a state as to be utteriy useka
The men had tattered uniforms and no
shoes, and excited the sympathy of d*
German officers who, out of curiosity, caa«
to look at them. Galftsyn, in reporting tk
bad condition of his men, threw consafi
blame upon Patkul. Patkul, at the sa*
time, in writing to Golovfn, said that tb*
state was a shame to the Tsar. Thqr W
received no pay for a lon^ time, and if ofr
ters went on in this way, it would be nee*
sary for them to die on the spot, or to r^
away, become marauders, and fill Ac al-
lows and wheels. He, in his turn, Arc'

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PETER THE GREAT AS RULER AND REFORMER.



899



blame on GaHtsyn, whom he accused of
neglect and indifference. For the men
themsdves he had the highest praise, men-
tioned with surprise that during the whole
campaign no soldier had rendered himself
liable to capital pimishment, and even began
to think that something could be made out
of the Russian officers. They at all events
bew what obedience meant Finally he
raised large sums of money on his own per-
sonal credit, redothed the troops, suppHed
ton with provisions, and in eight months'
ime their appearance was so altered that
he Saxons themselves admitted that they
rere, in general, superior to any body of
jemian soldiers. Still no money came
rem Russia, and the credit of Patkul could
lot last forever. Again he wrote dispatch
tfter dispatch on the condition of the
roops, accusing the Saxon ministers of act-
ttg contrary to the orders of the King in not
;iving provisions, and in not furnishing bet-
er quarters. He proposed to the Tsar that
s it was impossible for the troops to return
Russia through Poland, which was occu-
«ed by the Swedes, an arrangement might
« maide with the Emperor by which they
hould enter the Austrian service. Peter
onsented to this on the condition that it
bould be done only in case of extreme
ecessity, and that diey should not serve
>r more than one campaign. To dear
imself from all responsibility in the deds-
m of this matter, Patkul odled a council
f war, and placed before the Russian
fficera five questions, as to the possibility of
^turning to Russia either through Prussia
r Austria without cavalry, as to the method
r obtaining provisions, and as to the safest
mte. At a second coundl he asked wheth-
r the present quarters were possible for
Qother winter, and whether the troops had
revisions and money, stating at the same
me that, in case of the impossibility of
iarching through Poland, the Tsar would
[ace them in Ae service of another state,
he unanimous reply was that it was im-
)ssible to stay there or go through Poland,
id that they were ready to serve wherever
le Tsar ordered. With this Patkul pro-
ieded to Dresden, and made a treaty with
ount Stratmann, the imperial envoy, by
hich the troops were to be taken into the
iperial service for a year, on advantageous
mditions. Several secret articles provided
larantees for Saxony and for Augustus.
Patkul had long been obnoxious to the
Lxon ministers. He had exposed thdr
)uble dealing, and had been unsparing in



his denimciations of them, both in his offi-
cial reports and in his private letters to his
friends. He had criticised the acts and
policy of Augustus in his dispatches to the
Tsar, for which he had b^n called to
account by the King himself, and shortly
before, when on a spedal mission to Berlin,
had discussed at length their conduct of
affiurs in Saxony. He thought he had dis-
covered that the chief reason of the vacil-
lation of the Court of Prussia was want of
faith in Augustus, and had defended that
monarch at die expense of his ministers, and
had promised that the Tsar would do his
best to have them removed. If Patkul
really saw no more into the motives which
guided Prussian policy at that time than his
dispatches show, he was short-sighted; if
he did, he aUowed his feelings of hostility
and revenge to get the better of his judg-
ment. However that may be, what he h«i
told and done came back to Dresden, and
made his enemies still more bitter. Even
the marriage that he was on the point of
contracting with Madame von Einsiedel, the
rich widow of a Saxon magnate, and lady
of honor to the Electress Dowager, was
made an accusation against him.* The
opportunity offered for revenge was too
good to be missed. The Saxon ministry,
although they had received notice of every
stage of the negotiations from Patkul him-
self, affected surprise and horror at this
injury to the King's interests, this insult to
his dignity, and on the proposition of Gen-
eral Schidenburg, Patkul's bitterest enemy,
arrested him at night in his own house, on
his return from his betrothal, and conveyed
him to the casde of Sonnenstein, near
Pima. His letters and papers were all
seized, and for a long time he was allowed
no communication with any one. Even
Danmitz, who had been sent by Augustus
with a verbal message from the Tsar, was
not permitted to see him alone. The
arrest of a foreign minister in the discharge
of his functions created a great sensation,
not only in Dresden, but everywhere on the
Continent. The Danish, Prussian, and Aus-
trian envoys protested, and some of them
withdrew from the capital, on the ground
that they were no longer safe. Prince
Galftsyn, in command of the troops, although
hostile personally to Patkul, wrote also a



* He had bought an estate in Switzerland, where
he intended to pass the rest of his days, having re-
solved to retire from the annoyances of his poutical
Ufe.



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900



THE DIFFERENCE.



strong protest, and demanded his immediate
release, putting it on the ground of the great
loss to which the Tsar would be exposed by
the protest of all the bills of exchange of
Patkul, who had sole charge of the finances
of the troops. The Saxon ministers alleged
in excuse tliat they had arrested Patkul, not
as a foreign minister, but as a military officer
imder the command of the field-marshal,
to prevent him fi-om committing an act of
treason against the King by the transfer of
the troops. Augustus appeared personally
well disposed, and accused Patkul of noth-
ing more than of his violent temper, saying:
" It is always a pity that the man is so fear-
fully vehement He has imcommon under-
standing, great capacity, and is extremely
good for all sorts of affairs; but when he
becomes wild, there is nothing to be done
with him." But he refiised to interfere with
the acts of his ministers, and Schonbeck was
sent to the Tsar at Grodno, with a long and
labored explanation and defense of the act,
and with many complaints of Patkul's quar-
relsome disposition, but with no other grave
accusation. Peter, although he maintained
that Patkul should have waited for another
order before concluding that the extreme
necessity had arrived for turning the troops
over to Austria, yet demanded that the
prisoner should be immediately sent to him,
with all his papers untouched ; insisted that
his envoy was responsible to him alone, and
promised to make a close investigation into
the whole affair. There were excuses and
delays. The Swedes were then at Grodno,
and the Saxon ministers knew that Peter
would be obliged tp content himself with
protests. And so it was. The numerous
demands of the Tsar were not complied
with, and Patkul remained a prisoner, first
at Sonnenstein, and then at Konigstein.

It was indeed difficult for the Tsar to do
anything in the matter. He was already
at war with Charles, and if this had brought
about a breach between him and Augustus,



the Saxons would have been only too
pleased, as it would have led to the conch-
sion of peace with Sweden. Undo- sudi
circumstances, there is no penalty for a
breach of international law. It is judged
only before the tribtmals of conscience, of
public opinion, and of history. Charles was
too much taken up with what die verdict
of history would be on his other exploits to
think of what might be said of his treatment
of Patkul, and Augustus was already hard-
ened to breaches of international law. Had
he not broken the neutralitjr of Austiia?
Had he not seized the prmces Sobtedd
without harm to himself? Had he iK>t
arrested the French minister, the Maiqtns
du Heron, for correspondence with Chailes,
imprisoned him, and sent him out of the
country, and yet Louis XIV. had not stirred
a finger ? Nevertheless, it is but fair to
say that Augustus did show some twinges
of conscience with regard to the sunender
of Patkul He hesitated and delayed a long
time about performing this article of the
treaty, and did so at last only under great
pressure. It is reported that even thai be
sent word privately to the commander of
Konigstein to allow Patkul to escape, and
that &e flight of the prisoner was only pre-
vented by the avarice of the commandant
who, knowing that Patkul was rich, inssted
on a heavy bribe, and that the time for
escape was spent in discussion of the amount
The truth of this story has been doubted by
later historians ; at all events it is character-
istic of Augustus.

Patkul was finaUy delivered to General
Meyerfeld on the i8th of April, 1707, and
on the roth of October he was executed at
Kasimirz, not far fiom Posen.

The contract between Patkul and Strai-
mann for the delivery of the troops to the
Emperor was not carried out, but they were
nevertheless not surrendered to the Swedes
on the arrival of Charies. They socceeckd
in marching back to Russia thrtiugh Silesia.



THE DIFFERENCE.

Touch me, kiss me, and keep me fast.
But glad and near as your strong arms hold me,
And close as your dear caress may fold me.
Time laughs it away — and it cannot last!

Grieve me, — leave me, — ^but if you give
The thought of your heart in any fashion,
In words of wisdom or words of passion,
It stays with me, while I breathe and live!



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IN CAMP. 901



IN CAMP.

Tis night upon the lake. Our camp is made
Twixt shore and hill, beneath the pine-trees' shade.
'Tis still, and yet what woody noises loom
Against the background of the silent gloom !
One well might hear the opening of a flower
If day were hushed as this. A mimic shower
Just shaken from a branch, how large it sounded
As 'gainst our canvas roof its three drops bounded!
Across the rumpling waves the hoot-owl's bark
Tolls forth the midnight hour upon the dark.
What mellow booming from the woods doth come? —
The mountain quarry strikes its mighty drum.

Long had we lain beside our pine-wood fire,
From things of sport our talk had risen higher.
How frank and intimate the words of men
When tented lonely in some forest glen !
No dallying now with masks from whence emerges
Scarce one true feature forth. The night wind urges
To straight ahd simple speech. So we had thought
Aloud ; no ^ell-hid secrets but were brought
To light. The spiritual hopes, the wild,
Unreasoned longings, that from child to child,
Mortals still cherish, though with modem shame —
To these, and things like these, we gave a name ;
And as we talked, the intense and resinous fire
Lit up the towering boles, till nigh and nigher
They gathered round, a ghostly company,
Like beasts who seek to know what men may be.

Then to our hemlock beds, but not to sleep, —
For listening to the stealthy steps that creep
About the tent, or falling branch, but most
A noise was like the rustling of a host,
Or like the sea that breaks upon the shore.
It was the pine-tree's murmur. More and more
It took a human sound. — These words I felt
Into the skyey darkness float and melt ;



" Heardst thou these wanderers reasoning of a time
When men more near the Eternal One shall climb ?
How like the new-bom child, who cannot tell
A mother's arm that wraps him warm and well I
Leaves of His rose; drops in His sea that flow —
Blind, deaf, insensate, they nor see nor know
Here, in this breathing world of joy and fear,
We can no nearer get to God than here."



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ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN THE MECHANIC ARTS. 903



ary instruction in the intelligent use of the
band itself must precede all attempts to ap-
ply the hand to specific trades.

In the consideration of this question we
win take up-
First. What has been attempted, and in
part accomplished, in the Mechanic Art
School of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.

Second. What may be done in a special
school auxiliary to the grammar and high
schools of cities and towns.

Third. What ought to and can be done
in primary and grammar schools without
special buildings or expensive apparatus.



THE MECHANIC ART SCHOOL OF THE IN-
STITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

This school is mainly an auxiliary to the
regular courses of instruction which consti-
tute the main piuposes of the Institute. If
suiuble preparatory instruction were given
elsewhere it would be much better ; but the
department was established almost perforce,
because there was no place where a boy
combining mechanical aptitude and mental
ability, and desiring to follow the profession
of a mechanical engineer or a scientific
architect and builder, could be trained in
the use of tools. Because of this want it
has happened that, while there are plenty
of engineers who are not mechanics, plenty
of draughtsmen who are miscalled architects,
plenty of builders by rule of thumb who have
no tide to the name, we have in this country
very few fully competent men in any of these
departments.

The necessity for adequate instruction in
the use of tools has been so urgent upon
some of the railways in England that de-
partments of instruction have been estab-
lished where young men of good education,
who are intended for the higher places in
the necessary work of conducting the traffic,
are adequately trained.

The plan of the mechanic art school in
the Institute was first tried in Russia, and is
now being adopted in Germany, with almost
the very same modifications that we have
made in the time occupied and the course
of instruction. The method is one by
which the hand is trained to the use of tools
at the same time that instruction is being
given in the school studies that constitute
a fit preparation, either for the active pur-



suit of any mechanical trade or for the
higher technical training that is given in the
regular courses of instruction in the Insti-
tute proper. The fundamental idea of the
school is, that the head, and its servant
the hand, must be trained to use tools in-
telligentiy before the tools are applied to the
construction of anything for the ptunpose of
sale, or before any idea of commercial value
is permitted to affect the product of such
use.

In modem practice, all the arts have be-
come so specialized, that any average bov
or young man who undertakes any branch
has littie opportunity to obtain what might
be termed a liberal trade education, but
rather risks becoming a mere part of a
machine, capable of doing one thing well
and nothing more. Hence, when an auto-
matic method is devised that displaces a
man who has been himself almost a part of
an automatic mechanism, he is almost help-
less, and incapable of turning his hand to
other mechanical pursuits. He has had no
elementary instruction, but only ignorant
practice in a small department of a trade.
The motive of this school is therefore ele-
mentary instmction; and the product in
finished work ma^ either be a good exam-
ple of metal forging, filing, or fitting, or a
simple bit of carpenter's work, of some value
or use to the pupil, or possibly of some use
in the further conduct of the instruction, but
one that has been made without any reference
whatever to the market Therefore the
time of the instractor has not been devoted
to any fiitile attempt to seciure a salable
product fi-om unskillfiil hands, but has been
given to the trying of the pupils in the
use of their hands and heads at the same
time.

A construction-shop in connection with
a school implies a large expenditure for a
variety of tools and machines, and the reg-
ular employment of a number of skillful
workmen who shall make up, as well as may
be, for the deficiencies of the pupils, and
finish or set up the work only partiy or
imperfecdy done by them. The school for
elementary instruction, on the other hand,
which we are describing, needs only a few
hand-tools and simple machines, a force of
competent instructors which is small in
proportion to the number of pupils, and
the use of a small quantity of inexpensive
material.

Let us consider two examples of the ordi-
nary methods now adopted to (qualify boys to
become mechanics or machimsts. We will



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9IO



NATURE'S BETRAYAL.



About the flowers, and children at their play.

And child and bird and bloom seemed to have part

Impartial in their mother Nature's heart.

Spring-time through summer wanes. In mid-September,
'Round cottage doors the poppy's glowing ember
Made sign to each fruit-laden apple-tree
That phoebe-birds should cry incessantly.
But the flame flickered on from vine to vine,
That over way-side walls most loves to twine,
Till up where ripe fruits were already red
From autumn leaves the summer green had fled.

Red gold and wan soon turned to russet sober,
And lifeless down the late winds of October
Rustled to earth. The light of noon waned pale,
And oft the stream upsent his mystic veil
At morn athwart the sky. The songsters fled;
The flowers before the early frost drooped dead;
The golden flies had lived their little day;
And now one of the playmates passed away.

At best the grave is narrow, chilling, dark.
Tearful they made it, where the meadow-lark
Upon a sunny slope 'mid waving grass
Had, nestling, watched the swift cloud-shadows pass.
Southward the wild-fowl held a funeral train;
The brook below through reeds seemed to complain:
And there they lowered the still smiling face —
Earth to cold earth; they strewed flowers 'round the place.

Meanwhile Aoidos stood as in amaze,
And, yet unknowing death, ceased not to gaze
Upon the grave, where parents' tears were falling.
The train moved slowly homeward ; hoarsely calling, *

The wild-fowl swept from sight against a sky
Of lead ; the reeds sighed, and the blast moaned high
In leafless tree-tops till the end of day.

Aoidos on the morrow stole away.
With footsteps fearful, to the dreary place ;
And, burying in the withered flowers his face.
He softly called his playmate by his name.
But, when to call and cry no answer came,
His young heart, in an agony of tears.
Melted within him. Not with changing years
Should he forget, amid this world's wild din,
That death is here — as yet he knew not sin;
And, though his childish tears were quickly dried.
Shadows of death left not again his side :
Though to his heart of youth sweet songs were sung,
Though year by year the enchantress Spring had flung
Over Earth's winter wreaths of fairest green —
Each brooklet babbling to the sky serene —
Though the great Mother smiled, yet nevermore
Might the child dwell with Nature as before.



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GREEK TERRA - COTTAS FROM TANAGRA AND ELSEWHERE, 911



GREEK TERRACOTTAS FROM TANAGRA AND ELSEWHERE.



Suppose we wish to picture as vividly as
we can the little coquettish ephemera of life
among the Greeks, what do we interrogate —
the race-course, the play-house, the drinker's
painted cup, the tray of jewelry ? No, the
tomb. The house of their anguish, all the
time taking notes, has kept the record of
their frivolities which literature, called im-
mortal, and architecture, called eternal, have
not been able to preserve.

What would we not give to rummage
through the sweepings which Attic charwo-
men ^rust, week by week, into the kennel
behind a temple ? In one of the little poems
of Pancrates, the temple-sweeper Kleio begs
Diana to look kindly on her two four-year-
old girls, and in due time to make them
two sweeping-women in place of one. What
would the archaeologist not pay for the finds
occasionally granted to the daughters of
Kleio?

I have poked fruitfully and quizzingly in
the rubbish raked into a comer of Pire La-
chaise, and among the wire foundations of
immortelle- wreaths in bead- work, and weedy
weeds of crape, and silver tears from the
embroidery of palls, have spelled with my



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