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not strange that he should not be missed.
Who was he? — a disgraced, imfamiliar
man, among their kin and neighborhood.
Why should they think of him ? he said.

Yet he was glad that he could remember
them. He wished his living or his dying
could help them any. Things that his pa-
tients had said to him, looks that healmg
eyes had tinned on him, little signs of
human love and leaning, came back to him
as he lay there, and stood around his bed,
like people, in the dark hut.

" They loved me^^ he said ; " Lord, as true
as I'm alive, they did I I'm glad I lived long
enough to save life, to save life / I'm much
obliged to You for that I I wish there was
something else I could do for them. • • •
Lord 1 I'd be willing to die if it would help
them any. If I thought I could do anything
that way, toward sending them a frost

" No," he added, ** that aint reasonable.
A frost and a human life aint convertible
coin. He don't do unreasonable things.
May be I've lost my head already. But I'd
be glad to. That's all. I suppose I can
ask You for a frost. Thai*s reason.

" Lord God of earth and heaven I that
made the South and North, the pestilence
and destruction, the sick and well, the living
and the dead, have mercy on us miserable
sinners I Have mercy on the folks that pray
to You, and on the folks that don't ! Re-
member the old graves, and the new ones,
and the graves that are to be opened if this
hellish heat goes on, and send Us a blessed
frost, O Lord, as an act of humanity I And
if that aint the way to speak to You, remem-
ber I haven't been a praying man long
enough to learn the language very well, —
and that I'm pretty sick, — but that I would
be glad to die — ^to give them — a great, white,
holy frost Lord, a frost! Lord, a cool,
white, clean frost, for these poor devils that
have borne so much ! "

At midnight of that Saturday he dozed



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A CHAPTER ON TABLEAUX.



9'



Why sorrow, then, — with vain petitions seek
The lofty gods in their abodes eternal?
To live is pleasant, and to be a Greek :
To see the earth in garments fresh and vernal;
To watch the fair youths in their sports diurnal.
To feel against your own a maid's warm cheek.
To see from sculptured shrines the smoke ascending,
And with the clouds and ether vaguely blending.

And sweet it is to hear the noble tongue.
Pure Attic Greek with soft precision spoken!
And ah! to hear its liquid music flung,
In rocking chords and melodies unbroken,
From Homer's stormy harp — the deathless token
That Hellas' Titan soul is strong and young —
Young as the spring that's past, whose name assuages
The gloom and sorrow of the sunless ages.

Her fanes are shattered and her bards are dead,
But, like a flame from ruins, leaps her glory
Up from her sacred dust, its rays to shed
On alien skies of art and song and story.
Her spirit, rising from her temples hoary.
Through barren climes dispersed, has northward fled;
As, though the flower be dead, its breath may hover,
A homeless fragrance sweet, the meadows over.



A CHAPTER ON TABLEAUX.



Tablkaux — all have seen them, and very
few have seen them good. Many have
taJten part in them, but few intelligently.
It is very difllicult to give a receipt for
tibleiax as if one gave it for a pudding,
but many suggestions may be made.

To begin with, it is suggested that art
^ not personal display be the first object
It is not even necessary that people shall
be beautiful to look so in a tableau, for it
» wonderful how beautiful nature, properly
poKd and lighted, — in fact, seen under the
greatest advantages, — always is.

Intelligence, energy, gauze and lights,
«» eye quick to see types and use them
•<lTantageously, — ^these are the materials
fe the stage manager who has undertaken
tableaux. They need not be expensive; they
<Jo not demand real jewels or much rich
"latcrial, or a troupe of Venuses and Ado-
^^iKs. In choosing a person to assume a
<^baractcrin your picture, ignore age, and
^ for type. Mademoiselle Mars, at fifty,
played the "Ingenue" to delighted audi-
ences. Some of Peg Woffington's greatest
accesses in youth were in elderly parts.



Your work is a work of fiction, of repre-
sentation, of suggestion. I have seen a
beautiful girl of an English type in the part
of Miriam, dancing, with her timbrel held
aloft with plump, white arms. I have seen
an aristocratic Marguerite in white satin,
and a Rebecca with an Anglo-Saxon pro-
file, chosen for her black hair. I have seen
a young, blooming woman, decidedly in-
clined to emhonpaini, take the part of
Psyche, chosen for her pretty face I There
were women of forty in the audience who
could have looked the part better, with
the aid of a little paint or powder, and a
good deal of gauze between them and the
audience.

There are faces that are capable of taking
on more than one type — that is, of bringing
into relief, by one arrangement or another of
hair, or costume, or light, one of the several
types that they are composed of. Some
actors have had such faces, and we find
them among our acquaintance sometimes —
in slight degree what was true in great
degree of the face of Shakspere, as we
found by studying what there is reason to



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A CHAPTER ON TABLEAUX.



9S



bj pfettiness. Many a pretty personjs quite
inefifective in a tableau, and many a one that
yoo have called plain may make a charming
picture. Grace will go further than any
other quality to suggest beauty, proportion
will go further than detail, the t)rpe of
form further than color, which in some
degree you will be able to supply. Keep
always in mind that your work is a matter
of art You will not find even your actors
ready made; you must bring art to the
aanstance and explanation of nature. We
all know that, setting aside grace, nothing
in every-day life will make a woman
appear so beautiful as a fine complexion.
Aaoas the room it blooms like a flower; but
many a handsome woman is hidden beneath
an ugly complexion. Do not let beauty
escape you for an accident like this.
Powder and paint, so hideous in real life,
may, used vrith discretion and softened by




no. 5.— nXMIBHTIIfB FASHION OF HAUL

B» dipid if h does not curl natunlly . Fillet about hair to
■Ikoie over bow at side of (aoe, hair flowing down over



gauxe, give value to a fine form of feature.
Hot use them cautiously. In many cases a
ikin of fine, even tone, though it be thick
like the beautiful skin the French call
wtfr, is more brilliant by night than the
^nm^iarent, roseate, thin complexions, and
ilways those complexions inclining to the
ycDow tone are more effective by gas-light
than any other.

It should also be remembered that size is
* very relative matter. To represent height
Of weight, let judicious contrasts serve you.
We have seen a woman less than five feet
^ height so perfectly proportioned that
«he did not look small till she stood by other
women, but, by the queenly carriage of her
^e*d, seemed tall. Isolated in a frame,
^^^cssed with ruflfe and jewels, she might
wdl have passed for a stately, commanding
penonage.

'Hie Greeks sometimes exaggerated the




FIG. 6l— CRBEK FASHION OF HAIK.

A, Greek fashion with broad fillet and curia. Bind only upper
jrtion of hair as in B, and then dress in curb. Bnng up
wer portion and twist, &stening it invisibly with hair-pins.



portioi
lower



smallness of their statues' heads to give grace
and elegance, particularly to the women;
but to give force and dignity, the head
should not be very small. Jupiter shoidd
have a large head. Mercury a small one.
One-eighth the length of the entire body is
the perfect proportion for the head. The
most famous Greek statues measure thus,
but some of their small studies and some
statues measure even ten heads. This is
always and only used where grace, lightness,
and elegance are of paramount importance.
People look taller on the stage than in a
room, partly because they are seen on a





FIG. 7.— GRBBK FASHION OF HAIK.

A, a Greek fashion of hair dressed on top of head with bow
and curis. B, profile view of same. Bind as in C, with ribbon
in one mass at top of head. Divide in two parts (D and E).
Ribbon F. Make bow of upper lock E. Subdivide lower lock
D and curl, bringing curls forward and in middle of bow, as in
Aand B.

higher level and appear larger as figures do
seen against the sky, on the brow of a hill,
or on a house-top. But in bulk they seem
less, because of the sharper lights and
shadows. Thus a slender leg, very hand-
some in reality, may appear thin, while one
a trifle too heavy may seem gracefully
slender. A black silk stocking on the stage
should be worn over a white one, as neict to
the skin it makes the leg appear very small.
An exaggeration in fact is more effective
than over-refinement, unless an excessive
spirituahty is the effect aimed at. Jewels
on the stage should be larger than would be
worn in real life. For this reason, paste



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98



A CHAPTER ON TABLEAUX.



be, or be made, golden, with a flush of ex-
citement on the cheek. Tiie dress should
be of cr^pe, cream -colored, a ribbon of the
same color used for the fillets of the hair;
the sandals and sandal-thongs of gold. Let
the floor be gray or dun color, the curtain
amber, the plain curtain nearest the front of
a brighter, richer tone of the same. The
screen set back of the curtain should repre-
sent distance, not a wall, and therefore should
be of gauze, dark amber or rich brown, and
very faintly lighted, not to give light, but only
transparency. You will be a little limited,
probably, in the choice of a box. If you have
no very handsome carved one, an ordinary
wooden box, lined with yellow, and covered
at the end toward the audience by some
bass-relief, easily got at any plasterer's, of a
classic design, and gilded with Bessemer's



gold paint — a border manufactured in the
same way — would make the effect very
handsome. Let this tableau be lighted from
a point not yet tried with the others, viz. : the
front at the top, slightly to the right ; use
the hemispherical reflector, and cast the
light through a rose-colored glass.

" A Nun at her Devotions " is one of the
simplest of all. It hardly needs description.
A background of dark brown gauze, very
faintly lighted at the upper right-hand
comer; a dress of black serge or stuff, with
black veil and white coif; a crucifix and
rosary, — these are the very simple materials
needed. . Let the light fall from the left-hand
upper comer in front, and use the parabolic
reflector. Choose your mm for the beauty
of her eyes, the regularity and refinement
of feature, and the elegance of her hands.



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lOO



A CHAPTER ON TABLEAUX,



across, falling from the top to within three
feet of the stage. Two or three feet beiiind
this, hang a curtain of cambric or thick cloth,
coming within four feet of the stage. Several
feet behind this, have an absolutely opaque
screen, — if convenient, wood, otherwise
paper, — which shall leave an open space
of three or four feet above the stage across
its whole length, and let the space behind it
be very brilliantly lighted with lights shining
through yellow glass. This will give you
the effect of a sunset sky.

On your stage at the back, set a bush — a
wild bush, like a small thorn-tree, or furze-
bush. Cover your stage with cloth, flannel or
velvet, of a dull old gold, or golden brown,
to represent a reaped field. Let a sheaf
of wheat be set here and there, at judicious
distances, and your scene will be complete.

For actors, choose those capable of look-
ing the pjgt of French peasants, — not too
slender in figure, rather muscular; let the
complexion be, or be painted, dark, with
color in the cheek. Let the actress on the
right appear the youngest and be the slen-
derest, the feet bare or dressed in sabots.
(How many ladies import gloves or dresses!
It would be easy to import sabots; your
dress-maker could import them for you.)
The stockings should be blue woolen or



cotton, the skirt of blue woolen or cotton,
and a little woolen bodice of brown, laced
in front ; the cotton chemise is best of the
yellowish tone called unbleached ; a broad
ribbon of black may be tied on the
top of the head, in a flaring bow. She
holds beneath her left arm a sheaf of wheat,
and winds the right arm around the waist of
her taller neighbor, who may be dressed in a
deeper shade of blue, with a still deeper
blue bodice, a handkerchief on her head of
plaid cotton, in which the chief color shall
be yellow. Let the stockings oe gray,
and the feet in sabots, or bare. The third
peasant should wear a brown dress with
a blue cotton apron, in which she carries
a few blades of wheat. The handker-
chief on the head should be pink, and that
over her shoulders plaid, with pink intro-
duced, and some purple tones, if practicable
Let the stockings be of a yellow- brown.
You may vary the group by placing behind
the group of women a dark, muscular youth
carrying a sheaf of wheat on his left shoulder,
bare-headed and with black hair. His shirt,
if white, should be of a yellowish, dirty tone,
or it should be gray, open at the throat
The whole group must have the action of
moving forward and singing as they go.
Let the light be cast from the left upper



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JEAN^FRANgOIS MILLET— FEASANT AND PAINTER. 105




THK DIGGBKS.



field, they would pronounce, in a low voice,
some indistinct words which sounded like a
prayer.

MiDet had the idea of the sower in his
beart without knowing how to define it.
BarbizoQ formulated the work for him, but
the scene is laid at Gruchy. Although " The
Sower" was conceived and executed at Bar-
biwD, it was entirely with the remembrance
of Normandy. In point of fiact, the first
"Sower" by Millet was a young fellow of a
wild aspect, dressed in a red shirt and blue
breeches, his legs wrapped in wisps of
straw, and his hat torn by the weather. It
is not at all a man of Barbizon — ^it is a young
fellow of Greville, who, with a proud and
serious step, finishes his task on the steep
fields, in the midst of a flock of crows,
which fly down upon the grain. It is him-
selii Millet, who remembers his early life,
*wi finds himself once more upon his
pative soil Later, he made several draw-
ings and pastels of a ** Sower," all having
the look of the people at Barbizon. The
action is less dignified, the man is more
weighed down, like the people about Paris ;
*ncl in order that there should be no mis-
take, Millet made as a frame about him the



portrait of the country — the old tower and
plain of Chailly.

The first " Sower "♦ (1850) was executed
with fury, but having reached the end of
his work, Millet found, like Michael Angelo
with his statues, that the stuff was insuf-
ficient, the canvas was too short. He
traced the lines of his figure exactly and
produced the twin brother, which appeared
in the exhibition which opened at the end of
the year 1850. The Salon was then at the
Palais Royal. With "The Sower" Millet
sent " The Sheaf-Binders." " The Sower "
made some noise, the young school talked
about it, copied it, reproduced it in litho-
graphy, and it has remained in the memory
of artists as Millet's cluf-d^ornvre, Th6-
ophile Gautier was touched by it. In the
following quotation we see the impression
made by this virile work :

•* * The Sower,* by M. J.-F. Millet, impresses us
as the first pages of the < Mare au Diable * of George
Sand, whicn are about labor and rustic works.
The night is coming, spreading its gray win^ over
the earth ; the sower marches with a rhythmic step,

• The first " Sower " is owned by Mr. Quincy
A. Shaw, of Boston, who owns also a number of
other works by Millet



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JEAN^FRANgOIS MILLET— PEASANT AND PAINTER.



107



It k not surprising that one son combined
the religious ardor of the grandmother with
the tenderness of the mother.

She did not last much longer. A suffo-
cating asthma made her as weak as an
octogenarian. Life remained in her only
in the thought of her children, — the hope
of seeing her Francois, who had always
given her respect and affection. She waited
like the mothers in the old legends, — ^listening
ibr his footfall, hoping vainly for a surprise
which never came. Poor Fran9ois, too,
waited ; poverty, the fatal companion of his
life, did not give him a moment's grace.

She waited two years, tmtil 1853, and
died in prayer and hope. Her son, a
hundred leagues off, traced on paper the
sorrows of his mother. He thought of
Tobit and his wife, who also waited, and
he realized the story there, where the old
people hope for the return of their child.
He found the plastic expression of their
suffering, and sketched a scene where two
old people look toward the sky, and try to
find a human form amid the glories of the
setting sun. The " Waiting," a pioture ex-
hibited some years later, was here begtm.

Is art a natural language which all can
understand ? Is a particular education and
aptitude necessary to appreciate its beauties?
The common man, and even very poetic
intdligences, do they rebel against the
thoughts of painters and sculptors? We
leave to others the work of answering these
questions. Certainly our modem geniuses
have not shown an understanding of plastic
art, and, among the shepherds of men, many
seem to us blind in this matter. The state,
the natural protector of art, long went
astray, both in its public manifestations, and
in the choice of its acquisitions or orders.
"And yet," said Millet, "it seems tome
that the Pharaohs did not let the genius of
ancient Egypt die, and that Pericles was
hicky in the choice of a builder of the Par-
thenon; Alexander did not make humilia-
ting demands upon Praxiteles; theAntonines
allowed art, in their day, to attain to the
greatest beauty. But in our day it is nothing
but an accessory, a pleasing talent ; whereas,
of old, and in the Middle Ages, it was a
pillar of society, its conscience, and the ex-
pression of its religious sentiment.

** What have the great men of our day
done for the arts? I.»ess than nothing.
Lamartine (I saw him choose his favorite
picture in the Salon of 1848) cared only for
a sobiect which related to his political or
Ktcrary preoccupations. He would never



have found a place in his house for a picture
by Rembrandt. Victor Hugo puts Louis
Boulanger and Delacroix on the same line.
George Sand has a woman's prudence, and
gets out of the difficulty by beautiful words.
Alexandre Dumas is in the hands of Dela-
croix, but he cannot think freely outside of
the painter of Shakspere and Goethe. I have
never discovered a single well-felt page in
Balzac, Eugene Sue, Frederic Souli^, Bar-
bier, M6ry, etc.,— one page which could
guide us or show a real comprehension of
art ; and that is the reason I was cold in
meeting Prudhon when he came to see
Diaz."

In 1850, or *si. Millet had been in a dark
comer of Diaz's studio, when Prudhon came
in. Millet turned a moment to look at the
new-comer, and immediately began to work
again at his picture.

In the Sabn of 1853, Millet painted
" Ruth and Boaz," "The Sheep-shearer" and
« The Shepherd," all highly praised by Gau-
tier, Paul de Saint Victor and Pelloquet.
Millet received a second-class medal. His
" Ruth and Boaz" was bought by an Ameri-
can, and his two otherpictures were purchased
by Mr. William Morris Hunt. The latter had
lived for several years in Paris. A pupil of
Couture, he had become seriously enam-
ored of Millet's works, and, to study quietly
the man and the painter, made himself a
comfortable home in Barbizon, and led the
gay life of every American who lives in the
good land of France. Other strangers, such
as Mr. Hearn, painter, and Mr. Babcock, to
whom Millet had given some lessons in
1848, came to visit Mr. Himt. There was
thus formed a sort of colony of artists, fer-
vent disciples of Millet, who, by their pur-
chases, lightened his poverty. But these
windfalls could scarcely fill the holes made
by a life which had always been hard. Like
Rousseau, Millet had around him a group
of tradesmen, anxious and almost fierce,
whom he had to appease. A baker, the
only one in the place, threatened with oaths
to withdraw the daily bread. A grocer had
become his bailiff. A country tailor — the
antipodes of the patient Parisian tradesman
— sent the sheriff's officer to sell the furni-
ture in his studio, and he would not allow
the artist a day's, or even an hour's, grace.
Such scenes were repeated over and over
during many years.

When I re-read the letters of Millet,
written in these unfortunate times, I find
them always a dignified, calm statement
of his sufferings. He hides nothing, com-



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JEAN^FRANgOIS MILLET— PEASANT AND PAINTER.



109



THB ANGKLUS.



Ufc, - of his poverty. But of such a man
everything is of value, and to see him
a] wa3rs dignified and serene amid the storms
of life, meeting his fate by work, calm love
of his art and such persistent self-abnegation,
it win be admitted that his poverty ought to
raise him in our esteem.

The new buyer was not a casual passer-
by. Rousseau had discovered him, and,
according to his discreet fashion, had sent
him to Millet. M. Letr6ne did not stop;
he ordered two more pictures, among oth-
ers the beautiful composition of the woman
feeding chickens, whose price was the enor-
mous one of 2000 francs. Millet worth
2000 francs! and how would he use this
treasure ? To make his house comfortable
and enjoy his wealth ? Not at all. He
thinks of home, and goes off, in June, 1854,
with all his children, to La Hague. He
went for one month and staid four.

At Gr^ville, he found neither his father
nor his two mothers. Only his eldest sister
and one of his brothers remained in the
viQage — a new generation. The old friends



of his childhood were under the grass of
the cemetery. Tlie first days were sad
enough, but the fields, the active life of the
house, and the pure air from the cliflfe,
restored his tone. He wanted to point,
and he drew, with a son*s affection, every-
thing which the family had owned : the
house, the garden, the cider-mill, the sta-
bles, the orchard, tlie hedges, the pastures
and covered ways of the ancestral house.
These sketches and notes, taken in all the
neighborhood, served him later for his com-
positions.

One evening he was returning to Gruchy,
the " Angelus " was just ringing, and he
found himself at the door of the little church,
of Eulleville. He went in ; at the altar an
old man was praying. He waited, and when
the old priest rose, he struck him gently
on the shoulder, and said : *' Frangois."
It was the Abb^ Jean Lebrisseux, his first
teacher.

" Ah, is it you, dear child, little Francois ? "
and they embraced, weeping.

" And the Bible, Francois, have you for-



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114



ELIHU VEDDER.



love of it, or to persons who are on the
move, have plenty of money in their pocket,
and are taking a rose-colored view of every-
thing. In the former case he has exacting
buyers, who are not to be caught by chaff;
in the latter he has undiscriminating pur-
chasers, who, by large prices and frequent
orders, encourage him to do undigested or
slovenly work. This is the difficulty which
besets the foreign artist, who, allured by the
marvels of art in Rome, and delighted with
the novelty, variety, and ease of life abroad,
lingers on until he has become in some sort
a fixture. If he have any native force, he
is sure to be too individual, too national, to
become a citizen of his adoptive land ; he
remains a foreigner while he loses his grasp
on the current of thought at home. If he
be a weak man, the results are fatal to his
advance in art ; he remains stationary, if he
does not actually retrograde and lapse into a
mechanical fabricator of pictures or statues
on a few fixed types. In art, stagnation is



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