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XLbc IbaMu^t Society







Albert Gray, Esq., K.C., President.

The Right Hon. The Lord Belhaven and Stenton, Vice-President.

Sir Clements Robert Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., Ex-Pres. R.G.S.,

The Right Hon. The Lord Peckover of Wisbech, Vice-President.
Admiral Sir Lewis Beaumont, G.C.B., K.C.^I.G.
Sir Thomas B. Bowring.

Lieut.-Colonel Charles Frederick Close, C.M.G., R.E.
Bolton Glanvill Corney, Esq., I.S.O.
Major Leonard Darwin, late R.E., late Pres. R.G.S.
William Foster, Esq., CLE.
F. H. H. Guillemard, M.D.
Edward Heawood, Esq., Treasurer.
Sir Everard im thurn, K.C.IM.G., C.B.
John Scott Keltie, LL.D.

Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B.
Alfred P. Maudslay, Esq.

Lieut.-Colonel Sir Matthew Nathan, G.C.M.G., R.E.
Admiral of the Fleet The Right Hon. Sir Edward Hobart

Seymour, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., LL.D.
H. R. Tedder, Esq.

Lieut.-Colonel Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE.
Basil Home Thomson, Esq.

J. A. J. DE Villiers, Esq., Hon. Secretary.















Introductory Note ...... ix

The War of Quito by Pedro de Cieza de Leon

(liii chapters), with notes .... i

Letter from the Bishop of Cuzco to the King . 132

Indictment of tlie Judges against the \'iceroy . 143

.Sequel 152

Letter from Carbajal to Gonzalo Pizarro . . 160

Gasca's voyage 162

Murder of the Inca Manco narrated by his son . 164

Mission of Figueroa to the Inca .... 170

Note on Molina 200

Index 201


CIEZA DE LEON, besides his two chronicles
(translations of which already form part of
the first series of the Hakluyt Society's volumes),
completed a history of the conquest and civil wars
of Peru. The manuscripts have not all been found,
but Jimenes de la Espada edited and published the
first part of the " War of Quito " by Cieza de Leon
in 1880. It is valuable because Cieza was the most
trustworthy of all the old writers on Peru, and be-
cause he was on the spot and acquainted with many
of the actors in the scenes he describes, Cieza is
always fair and impartial.

The interest attaching" to this recovered work of
Cieza is that it records the attempt of the Spanish
Government, at the instance of Las Casas, to be-
friend the Indians by enforcing laws for their
protection. It will be seen that the martinet who
was sent as Viceroy to carry out the policy of the
Government was a hopelessly impossible person.
The hopes of the Inca Manco were raised on
receiving the news of the Viceroy's arrival with the
New Laws, and he died in the full anticipation that
there was a dawn of better things for his people.


The narrative of Cieza is well told and full of
interest. But it comes to an end just before the
Viceroy's murder of the Factor Ulan Suarez de
Carbajal, which was the immediate cause of his
overthrow. To the narrative of Cieza is, therefore,
added in the present volume a letter from the
Bishop of Cuzco to Charles V which describes the
murder and subsequent events. The letter is fol-
lowed by the Indictment of the Judges against the
Viceroy, also giving their version of the murder
and of the events which followed.

To complete the story a Sequel has been written
by the editor, narrating the event.s from the assump-
tion of the government by Gonzalo Pizarro to his
complete victory and the death of the Viceroy at
Aiiaquito. From that date, for too short a time,
Gonzalo Pizarro was Governor of Peru, and in
possession of the only approach by Panama, with
none to oppose him.

His Camp Master was Francisco de Carbajal,
a veteran of the Italian wars, now verging on his
eightieth year, and very corpulent. His life story,
up to this time, will be found in the narrative of
Cieza, in the Sequel, and in notes. Carbajal is
accused of great cruelty. It is true that he showed
no mercy to traitors and deserters, from policy not
from innate cruelty. The treachery of nearly every
one in Peru is perfectly astounding, as will be seen in
Cieza's narrative ; and strong measures were abso-
lutely inevitable. But he was kind and indulgent
to his own men, and he had a wife who was
attached to him, a Portuguese lady named Leyton,
of good family. Carbajal was a soldier with forty


years of experience in the wars of Italy and by far
the ablest military man in Peru. He was well
educated, extraordinarily sagacious and far-seeing,
very witty and humorous, and possessed of almost
incredible physical endurance.

The wise old man saw that there could be no
forgiveness for Gonzalo Pizarro, and that it was
quite fiJtile to send envoys to Spain to explain what
had happened and to apply for the governorship for
Gonzalo. He, therefore, urged Gonzalo Pizarro to
assume the kingship, to create nobles, to grant en-
coiniendas in perpetuity, to marry an Inca princess,
and to enact judicious laws for the efficient protec-
tion of the Indians. By these measures he would
secure the support of all the Spaniards and all the
native population — there would be such unanimity
that attacks from without would be repulsed. The
only safety was in a bold front. The words of
wisdom were only listened to with favour, but not

The Sequel is followed by an interesting letter
from Carbajal to Pizarro in which he refers to the

Pizarro hesitated and was lost. There was the
basest treachery. Hinojosa and Aldana delivered
up Panama and the fleet to the cleric Pedro de la
Gasca, who had been sent out with full powers.

A translation of a curious document in the
King's library at Madrid follows, giving an account
of the storm encountered by Gasca on his voyage
to Peru.

Next there is a translation of Appendix No. i8
in P^spada's edition of Cieza de Leon's " Guerra de


Quito." It is only a fragment, but it contains the
account of the murder of the Inca Manco, given
by his son Titu Cusi Yupanqui, who was an eye-

The last document is the exceedingly interesting
-Report by Diego Rodriguez de Figueroa of his
mission to Titu Cusi Yupanqui Inca, between 1565
and 1568.





How the Viceroy Blasco Nunez Vela sailed from San
Lzicar, and ivhat happened until his arrival at the
city of Panama, ivhich is in the kingdom of Tierra

The Viceroy Blasco Nunez had been ordered to fit
out ships to sail from Spain, and to continue his journey
to the kingdoms of Peru. When everything was ready,
he sailed from that port, with the knights who were to
accompany him, on Saturday the 3rd day of the month
of November in the year of our redemption 1543^ Navi-
gating swiftly over the great ocean sea, he sailed on until
he arrived at Gran Canada. Here he took in fresh pro-
visions and was joined by the Licentiate Cepeda, who was
going out as a Judge. Leaving that island, the voyage

^ Forming Book III of the Civil Wars of Peru.

^ The official register of the Casa de Contratacion at Seville, shows
that the fleet of Blasco Nuiiez consisted of 49 ships. The Viceroy
took 50 servants. The total number of passengers was 915, among
them 36 married men with their wives, and 87 single girls with their
parents. The chief passengers were Agustin de Zarate, Accountant,
the Licentiate Zarate with his wife, Rodrigo de Contreras and his son,
Judge Lison de Tejada, the Licentiate Alvarez, and the Viceroy's
brother Francisco Velasquez de Vela Nuiiez.

M. Q.


was continued until the ships arrived at Nombre de Dios
three days after Epipliany in 1544. Here he remained
for 15 or 16 da}'s, at the end of which time he proceeded
to the cit)' of Panama with those who had accompanied

I deeply lament that a knight so accomplished as
was the Viceroy should have fallen into the hands of
such wicked and perverse men. For his want of judg-
ment and lack of prudence in public affairs did not merit
a death so cruel as he met with at Anaquito near the
equator. The things that must happen cannot be pre-
vented, and all is in the will of the most high God.

The Viceroy arrived at the city of Panama without
waiting for the Judges who, for some reason, did not
leave Nombre de Dios with him, but remained there.
The Viceroy found the Licentiate Pedro Ramirez de
Quinones, now Judge of the Confines, in Panama, He
was taking the residencia of Dr Villalobos and the Licen-
tiate Paez, who had been Judges of the Court established
in that kingdom. Presently the Viceroy took the royal
seal, and placed it in a box with the veneration which
was its due, with several chapters of the Ordinances^,

1 Tlie new laws.

The new laws, advocated by Las Casas, but opposed by several
experienced statesmen, some of them with much knowledge of the
Indies, were signed by Charles V at Barcelona on November 20th,

The first Ordinance was that after the deaths of those who
possessed grants of Indians, their wives or children were not to
succeed to them*, but that the Indians were to become vassals of
the King, the children of the former owners receiving certain fruits
of the labour of such Indians for their sustenance.

No Indian is to be made to carry loads without being paid, nor
to be farced to work in mines or pearl fisheries, nor to be obliged
to render personal service.

Bishops, Monasteries, and Hospitals to be deprived of Indians
granted to them formerly, as well as all officials.

All who fought in the war between Pizarro and Almagro, on both
sides, to be deprived of all grants of Indians. This would include
all the settlers in Peru.

* The original grants were for two lives.


intending to carry out the orders literally. They required
that all the men and women of Peru should be sent to
their native homes at the cost of those who possessed
them, it being the will of the King that they should be
free, as his subjects and vassals \ Notwithstanding that
the order was just and righteous, some of the Indians
evaded it because they were married, others because they
liked their masters and were tolerably instructed in the
matters of our Holy Catholic Faith. Even of those who
were ordered to depart many merely went to hide in secret
places so as not to go whither they were sent, and others
went to the churches, whence they were taken by order
of the Viceroy, and put on board ships, where man}-
died. So that very few returned to their native places,
and those that did went back to the rites and idolatries
they had formerly been accustomed to. There was thus
no benefit derived from compliance with this ordinance.
Some Spanish conquerors, who returned to Spain, had
lived with Indian women for many years, and had
children by them. These were to be sent to the native
places of the mothers at the cost of their masters. If
they disputed or complained they had to pay double
for freight and passage. Some had small children and
prayed that they might not be sent to die owing to
having no mothers. These were ordered to pay a still
larger sum.

The authorities, appointed to enforce the new laws in
Peru, were the Viceroy and four Judges of the Royal
Court of Justice-.

1 It appears that over 300 Indians had been brought from Peru
to Panama by their owners. The Viceroy ordered them to be released
and sent back.

- Blasco Nufiez Vela, native of Avila, then General Overseer
of the Guards of Castille, Viceroy and President of the Court of


When the Judges arrived at Panama there were some
entertainments, and it was reported that the Viceroy and
the Judges were not on very good terms, and that, in
secret, neither he treated them well, nor they him. Con-
sidering the severity of the new laws, and the difficulty
of enforcing them in Peru, owing to the resistance of those
in that kingdom, the Judges suggested to the Viceroy that
an intention to enforce them should not be shown until
they were in possession of Peru. When the Court was
established there, it would be easier to enforce the orders
of his Majesty. The Viceroy had received news of what
was passing in Peru, of the great number of people in that
kingdom, of the proceedings of the Governor Vaca de Castro,
and that there were many charges for artillery and arque-
buses and much gunpowder in the cities of Lima and Cuzco.
He was strongly advised to enter Peru quietly and with
consideration, for if he came in another way there would be
a rebellion against him. For besides the arms and people
actually in the country, more came every day, and are now
coming. But the Viceroy, unmoved by these reports,
replied that his single cloak and sword would suffice for
all Peru. Many, hearing these boastings, foresaw what

Justice, selected because he would enforce the royal orders with

1 Licentiate Diego de Cepeda, native of Tordesillas, then a Judge

in Gran Canaria — Judge.

2 Licentiate Lison de Tejada, a native of Logrono — Judge.

3 Licentiate Alvarez— Judge.

4 Licentiate Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, a native of Orduna, who was

then chief magistrate in Segovia — Judge.
Agustin de Zarate, then Secretary of the Royal Council, was
/ appointed Accountant. He had been for 1 5 years Comptroller
of accounts for Castille. He took as little part as possible in
the troubles, confining his energies to his own department.
On his return the Emperor made him Superintendent of
finances in Flanders. He collected materials for a book
which he wrote when he had leisure in Spain. It was
published at Antwerp in 1555, Seville 1577, and by Barcia.
He writes as an eye-witness of the events which led to the
expulsion of the Viceroy, but as a prejudiced partizan against
Gonzalo Pizarro.


they must be prepared for. As the ordinances were so
severe against men who had lived so freely as those in
Peru, and so heavy for them, it was evident that they
would take up arms, for it was their custom to contend
in war for very slight causes.


Of what other things Jiappoied at Panama^ and ivJiat the
Governor Rodrigo de Contreras and the Judges said
to the Viceroy respecting the ordinances.

There was no less commotion in Tierra Firme than
in Peru on hearing that the Viceroy intended to enforce
the ordinances and to hold the kingdom under a rule
of such right and justice that no one should live in
licentiousness, as had hitherto been the case. Rodrigo
de Contreras, who had been Governor of Nicaragua, was
at that time in Panama. He saw that the Viceroy
would not keep in his own bosom a single part of what
he had been ordered to do : but on the contrary declared
publicly, so that all might hear, affirming it with an
oath, that he will not have landed at Tumbez before the
Indians had been informed that they were vassals of the
Emperor our Lord, and that the Encomenderos had no
authority over them except for the collection of tribute
which the Indians were bound to pay: also that the
ordinances would be enforced as the King had ordered.

Contreras went to the Viceroy's lodging, and said ;
" I cannot believe that your Lordship is ignorant of the
alarm caused by your arrival with these new laws, among
the Spaniards in this empire of the Indies, from the
islands to this part. Even if your ears are deaf to this,
as the tumult has not yet ended, you must have heard


the clamour that is made over it. Neither I nor those
here complain that his Majesty has sent the new laws
for, like so very Christian a prince, he desires that affairs
here should be ordered with rectitude and moderation.
For we hold for certain that his ministers who come to
execute laws, zealous for his service, will see that the
state of affairs renders it advisable not to enforce them.
I regret, therefore, that }'our Lordship has publicly de-
clared that you will not have landed in New Castille
before the new laws are published and enforced. The
ordinances which I brought out, not only did I not
publish, but I was in the province a year and more and
had not promulgated them. Later, when it is clear that
the provinces are quieted and that there is no trouble,
I shall decide what should be done. For if the ordi-
nances were hastily enforced it might cause great evils.
In this country the Spaniards are not of low degree, but
all consider themselves great lords of noble parentage,
and would be ready to die rather than submit to the
new laws, nor would dissensions and wars be wanting,
the discontent being so great."

When Contreras said this, the Viceroy replied : "If
on all sides the evil is preferred to the good, and tyranny
comes before loyalty, and if the King has no more part
in these realms than those who are here like to give
him, I can believe that what you say is correct. But if
you say that his Majesty's intention is not altered, how
is it that they do not wish to comply with the ro}'al
order .-* You know very well the poverty under which
our fathers came to discover this empire. It is not
so many years since Columbus sailed from Spain, and
avarice has grown rapidly among those who have settled
here. To gain riches they have done many evil things,
almost totally ruining the provinces. If these laws had
not been enacted, in ten years there would be nothing


left but ruins, and the rivers and mountains. Let no
one think that ministers of the King will be guided by the
appetites of those here, nor be surprised if I behead them as
traitors." Saying this the Viceroy retired into his chamber :
and the Governor Rodrigo de Contreras departed.

Soon afterwards the Licentiate Zarate, regretting that
the Viceroy should have said that he would soon enforce
the new laws, and not wishing to speak of a thing which
was so hateful to all, entered where the Viceroy was.
He then said that, hearing what was talked about con-
cerning the new laws, and understanding that they were
to be enforced, he thought it would be proper not to
allude to the subject ; rather keep it at the bottom of
a box until the land of Peru was reached, and it was
ascertained whether the laws could be conveniently pro-
mulgated. To this, and to what the Judges Cepeda,
Alvarez and Tejada said, the Viceroy replied that he
would do what he thought proper. As to what the
accountant Juan de Caceres affirmed, that, from the news
he had received from people in Peru, he gathered that
if the ordinances were at once enforced, the people would
take up arms rather than obey, the Viceroy told him
harshly that if he was not a servant of the King he
would order him to be hanged.

These and some other things having happened, the
Viceroy hurried his preparations to go on to Peru, while
the Judges continued to talk about the ordinances, ad-
vising that before they were promulgated, time should
be given for the court of justice to be formed, so that
then the orders of his Majesty might be carried out,
after mature deliberation. But the Viceroy thought
little of their advice ; replying that his duty was to
obey his orders, and for doing so he alone sufficed. So
the want of confidence between him and the Judges
was increased.



How Francisco de Carbajal arrived at the city of the
Kings with a great desire to return to Spain, and
how the Viceroy embarked at Panama for Peru.

Francisco de Carbajal, desiring to leave the
kingdom, had obtained the consent of the Governor
Va'ca de Castro and of the municipahty of Cuzco, and,
with the help they gave him, he set out from that cit}'
with all the money he could collect, wishing to return
to Spain and obtain some rest. Antonio de Altamirano
and Lope de Mendoza and many others would have lost
nothing by his departure^ But it was already decreed
by God, for our very great sins, that this man should
become a cruel scourge, as the narrative will presentl}-
give you to understand. Leaving the city of Cuzco,
Carbajal travelled until he reached the city of the Kings,
and dismounted at the house of the Treasurer Antonio
Riquelme. The Treasurer feared that he had come to
kill him by order of Vaca de Castro, by reason of the
enmity between them ; so next day, by all the cunning
ways he could think of, he sought how to get rid of such
a guest. But Francisco Carbajal was very tiresome and,
seeing what the Treasurer wanted, he continued to lodge
in his house. At the end of some days after his arrival
at the city of the Kings, he gave the letters he brought
from Vaca de Castro to the members of the municipality,
touching his voyage to Spain. The letters represented
the advantages the kingdom would derive from his de-
parture, because his Majesty, through him, would be well

' People he afterwards put to death.


informed of the affairs of Peru, and of the injury that
would be done to the conquerors, if the new laws were
enforced in their entirety. Vaca de Castro wrote in the
same way, and requested that Carbajal should be em-
powered to negotiate in Spain, in the interests of Peru.
The members of the municipality, having read the letter
of Vaca de Castro, and heard what Francis Carbajal had
to say, gave an evasive answer. As the Governor, by
his letter, announced that he would shortly arrive at the
city of the Kings, they told Carbajal that he should wait
until Vaca de Castro came, as he would give orders as
Governor for the King. They gave this answer at an
official meeting in the municipal building. Carbajal
thought that he was looked upon by them as an unim-
portant person to whom they could give a frivolous
answer. He came out of the building with a feeling of
having been insulted ; while those within were laughing,
and making a joke of it. For they thought that when
Vaca de Castro did come to the city of the Kings the
country would already be under the new Viceroy, who
would not molest them for not having cared to send
Carbajal to Spain'.

^ Francisco de Carbajal was born in 1468 at a village called
Ragana near Arevalo, in the diocese of Avila. His quotations and
frequent references to ancient history show that he received a fairly
good education. But he must have been young when he entered
upon a military life. He served under the great Captain, Gonsalvo
de Cordova, Colonna, Leyva, and other well-known warriors of the
Italian wars. He was at the battle of Ravenna in 15 12, when he
was aged 44, and must already have seen much service. He fought
at the battle of Pavia in 1525, and at the sack of Rome in 1527. At
Rome he took for his share of the booty all the papers in a lawyer's
office. The ransom for them enabled him to go to Mexico with his
wife Catalina Leyton, of a noble Portuguese family. In 1536, when
he was 68, he first went to Peru. He was sent by the \'iceroy of
Mexico, Don Antonio de Mendoza, to assist Pizarro, at the time when
he was besieged by the Indians in Lima. Pizarro sent him to settle
in Charcas. Arriving at Arequipa on his way he knew no one, and
was standing at the corner of a street with his wife and family, not
knowing what to do. Miguel Cornejo, a citizen, saw them, heard their


At this time the Viceroy Blasco Nunez Vela was very-
anxious to leave Tierra Firme and, embarking on the
South Sea, to navigate in haste to the coast of Peru. He
desired to establish the court of justice in the city of the
Kings with as little delay as possible, considering that it
would be easy to enforce the ordinances. He was very
angry, and was with difficulty induced to listen, if any one
expressed a different opinion.

Leaving the Judges at Panama, and taking with him
the royal seal, he embarked at the city of Panama on the
loth of February of the same year, and arrived at the port
of Tumbez in nine days. This was the quickest voyage
that had ever been made. From Tumbez he wrote his
letters to the city of San Francisco del Quito, to Puerto
Viejo, and to Guayaquil, to announce his arrival in the
kingdom and the duty with which he was charged by
order of the Emperor our Lord. He added that his

story, and took them to his house, treating them hospitably. At the
battle of Huarina, ten years afterwards, Cornejo was taken prisoner,

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