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Monitoring, Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



n

the current ambient sediments (Turgeon et al. 1989). No samples had anomalous values
typical of dredged material deposits for any of the geochemical analyses.

Although some survey data suggested the possibility of historic dredged material
within the 300 m radius of SE-REF, the evidence was rather ambiguous. Some possible
weathered dredged material was identified in the southwest section of SE-REF in the side-
scan sonograph (Figure 3-9). The mottled relief with no definite shadows typical of rocks
or boulders may represent disposed dredged material that has been on the seafloor for a
long time. This marked area could also be attributed to remaining glacial debris or
exposed bedrock associated with the small knoll feamre on the southern flank of the
reference area. If this is the case, the presence of the knoll and glacial debris may indicate
winnowing in the southwest section.

REMOTS® stations 300N, 300SE, lOOS, 200S, and 200SW indicated possible
dredged material in a few replicates. Replicate C at 300NW was indeterminate because the
surface was disturbed by either a large burrow or camera penetration, or possibly both.
Replicate lOOS C had a mottled sediment profile which provided the most convincing
indication of dredged material for REMOTS® photographs (Figure 4-8). Replicates A and
C at 300SE and B at 300N had high boundary roughness values and dark sediments with
very shallow RPD depths. Replicate C at 200SW also was very sulfidic and had a thin
RPD layer (Figure 3-13). However, as mentioned previously, sulfidic sediments are
characteristic of the western Long Island Sound region. The high boundary roughness
values are most likely due to recent physical disturbances at the sediment-water interface
(i.e., trawling, dragging of lobster gear across the bottom, etc.). Abundant lobster gear in
the area was observed in both September and March and is visible in the side-scan survey
images at SE-REF. Because fishing practices, such as lobstering, that affect the bottom
sediments are intensive at WLIS and the surrounding regions, some uimatural disturbances
of the substrate are expected at all reference areas that are within close proximity to WLIS.

In summary, the recent survey data indicated that SE-REF meets sufficient
reference area requirements to replace 2000W as the third reference area for WLIS. SE-
REF is within 1500 m of the WLIS boundary and appeared to have a moderate topographic
relief. The fine-grained sediments, primarily composed of fine sand, silt, and clay, were
similar to observations of grain size at WLIS and the previous reference areas. Due to the
widespread distribution of dredged material in the region, it is unlikely that a reference
area with a complete lack of evidence of dredged material will be found. Although the
side-scan and REMOTS® detected possible historic dredged material, the evidence was
equivocal. No methane bubbles, such as those seen in many replicates showing sulfidic
dredged material at 2000W, were present at SE-REF. All ten grab samples indicated

Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



73




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Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



74

ambient sediments. PCBs were absent, and PAHs concentrations were at or below mean
reference area values for WLIS.



Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



75_

5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The 1997 and 1998 monitoring cruises accomplished both the monitoring objectives
at the Western Long Island Sound Disposal Site and the new reference area investigation
and characterization tasks at SE-REF.

Comparisons with the 1996 report showed that a distinct mound, WLIS \, was
developed at the 1996-1997 buoy between the D and the G mounds. The I mound
contributed to the development of a containment berm and potential basins for future
capping operations of dredged sediments. The small to moderate size of the mound was
consistent with the volume reported in disposal barge logs. The apron of the I mound
appears to cover the area identified at D200S to the east of G mound that had a negative
OSI value in 1996. The benthic community on and surrounding the mound indicated a
healthy recovery and rapid recolonization rate. Stage I organisms were predominant in
September, although several replicates from both the September and March surveys
indicated advanced Stage III deposit feeder activity. The I mound, or alternatively the D
and G mounds, should be resurveyed in the next monitoring survey at WLIS to monitor the
continued recovery and health of the benthic environment over these disposal mounds.

REMOTS® surveys over the 1995-1996 H mound showed improvements in the
benthic conditions. Although the RPD depths in September were slightly depressed due to
the seasonal low oxygen conditions, the successional status had advanced since 1996. In
March, all replicates indicated feeding voids and, except SOW, a Stage III successional
stams and deeper mean RPD depth.

Seasonal conditions did affect the benthic conditions observed in the REMOTS®
sediment-profile photographs. Although hypoxia was not as severe as in previous years, the
low dissolved oxygen conditions in the bottom waters did reduce the RPD depths and OSI
values in September at both the disposal mounds and reference areas. Redox rebounds were
common at the H mound and present at a few stations at the I mound both in September and
March surveys. Despite observations of deep RPD depths in March, redox rebounds were
visible at the SE-REF which were not seen at the reference areas in September.

To continue the ongoing development of a containment berm and basins, future
disposal mounds may be placed south of G (1), C-E (2), and E-H (3) as well as between H
and the namral, steep slope near the southern border of the disposal site. The basins may
then be used to optimize capping or isolation of dredged sediments by containing the
spread of sediments on the seafloor. A larger basin area could easily be constructed with
additional placement of mounds at locations 4, 5, and 6 on Figure 4-1.

Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



76_

The side-scan survey conducted in March 1998 was useful in identifying a new
potential reference area near WLIS to replace 2000W and fulfill the DAMOS protocol for
three reference areas. The survey data and sediment characterization show that SE-REF
meets sufficient reference area requirements, including proximity to WLIS, grain size, and
sediment chemistry. No compelling evidence of historic dredged material was found.
However, the reference area should be accepted with some caution. Although the benthic
conditions and ecology appeared to be very similar to WLIS, the water depth at SE-REF is
about 10 m shallower than WLIS. A patchy area detected in the side-scan images in the
southwest section of WLIS potentially may be weathered, historic dredged material or
glacial debris related to the small knoll feature that is to the south of the reference area.
SE-REF and its southern flank should be investigated further with a comprehensive
bathymetric survey during the next monitoring survey at WLIS. To insure the absence of
dredged material within SE-REF, we also recommend that at least seven stations be
occupied in fumre REMOTS® monitoring surveys at the reference area.

Because historic dredged material has been detected throughout the region
surrounding WLIS, selection of potential reference areas is limited. Using a variety of
surveying techniques, we have located an area that is relatively free of historic dredged
material. The survey data show that SE-REF is a strong candidate for a reference area and
is representative of ambient conditions in the region.



Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



77_

6.0 REFERENCES

Charles, J.; Tufts G. J. 1996. Monitoring cruise at the Western Long Island Sound

Disposal Site, August 1993. SAIC Report No. 325. Final report submitted to U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

Connecticut DEP. 1997. The atmosphere and hypoxia in LIS nitrogen removal program,
http : //dep . state . ct . us/ water/atmoslis . htm and http : //dep . state . ct . us/ water/ water . htm

EUer, F. C; Williams, R. W. 1996. Monitoring cruise at the Western Long Island Sound
Disposal Site, July 1992. DAMOS Contribution No. 102 (SAIC Report No. C108).
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

EPA/US ACE 1991. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposal for Ocean Disposal -
Testing Manual. EPA-503/8/91/001, Washington, DC.

EPA 1997. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. EPASW-846. Laboratory Manual
Physical/Chemistry Methods. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
Washington, DC.

Fredette, T. J.; KuUberg, P. G.; Carey, D. A.; Morton, R. W.; Germano, J. D. 1993.
Twenty-five years of dredged material disposal site monitoring in Long Island
Sound: A long-term perspective. Proceedings of the Long Island Sound Research
Conference, New Haven, CT. 23-24 October 1992. 153-161.

Germano, J. D.; Rhoads, D. C; Lunz, J. D. 1994. An integrated, tiered approach to

monitoring and management of dredged material disposal sites in the New England
region. DAMOS Contribution No. 87 (SAIC Report No. SAIC-90/7575«fe234).
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

Horowitz, A. J. 1985. A primer on trace metal - sediment chemistry. U.S. Geological
Survey water supply paper 2277. U.S.G.S. Alexandria, VA.

Knebel, H. J.; Signell, R. P.; Rendigs R. R.; Poppe, L. J.; List, J. H. In Press. Seafloor
environments in the Long Island Sound estuarine system. Marine Geology.

Long Island Sound Study (LISS). 1990. Stams report and interim actions for hypoxia

management. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region I, Boston, MA and
Region II, New York, NY.

Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



78

Mendenhall, W. 1979. Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 5* Ed. Duxbury Press,
North Scituate, MA

Morris, J. T.; Charles, J.; Inglin, D. C. 1996. Monitoring surveys of the New Haven
capping project, 1993-1994. DAMOS Contribution No. Ill (SAIC Report No.
319). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

Morris, J. 1998. Monitoring Cruise at the Western Long Island Sound Disposal Site, July
1996. SAIC Report No. 383. Final report submitted to New England District, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Waltham, MA.

Murray, P. M. 1995. DAMOS Reference Area Data Analyses. SAIC Report No. 357.
Final report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division,
Waltham, MA.

Murray, P. M.; Selvitelli, P. 1996. DAMOS navigation and bathymetry standard operating
procedures. SAIC Report No. 290. Final report submitted to U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1997, 1998.
Oceanographic Products and Services on-line data, http://www.opsd.
nos.nooa.gov/opsd. html .

Revelas, E. C; Germano, J. D.; Rhoads, D. C. 1987. Reconnaissance of Benthic
Environments. Coastal Zone '87. WW Div./ASCE, Seattle, WA.

Rhoads, D. C; Aller, R. C; Goldhaber, M. B. 1977. The influence of colonizing benthos

on physical properties and chemical diagenesis of the estuarine seafloor. In Ecology of
Marine Benthos, ed. B. C. CouU, pp. 113-38. University of South Carolina Press.

Rhoads, D. C; Boyer, L. F. 1982. Chapter I. The Effects of Marine Benthos on Physical
Properties of Sediments: A Successional Perspective. Animal-Sediment Relations.
Planum Publishing Corporation.

Rhoads, D. C; Germano, J. D. 1982. Characterization of organism-sediment relation
using sediment-profile imaging: An effective method of Remote Ecological
Monitoring of the Seafloor (REMOTS® System). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8:115-128.

Rhoads, D. C; Germano, J. D. 1986. Interpreting long-term changes in benthic
community strucmre: A new protocol. Hydrobiologia 142:291-308.

Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



79



Rhoads, D. C; Germano, J. D. 1990. The use of REMOTS® imaging technology for
disposal site selection and monitoring. In "Geotechnical Engineering of Ocean
Waste Disposal." (K. Demass; R. Chaney, eds.). ASTM Symp. Vol. 1, January
1989, Oriando, FL, pp. 50-64.

SAIC. 1987. Monitoring surveys at the Western Long Island Sound Disposal Site, August
and October 1985. DAMOS Contribution No. 55 (SAIC Report No. SAIC-86/7510-
&C56). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

Turgeon, D. D.; Gottholm B. W.; McMahon K. D.; Robertson A. 1989. National Status
and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality: Toxic Contaminants in
Long Island Sound. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Ocean Assessments Division,
Rockville, MD.

USAGE. 1982. Final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for the designation of a

disposal site for dredged material in Western Long Island Sound: WLIS III. 1982.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division.

Wentworth, C. K. 1922. A scale of grade and class terms of clastic sediments. J. Geo.
30:377-390.



Monitoring Cruise at the WLIS Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998



APPENDIX A
Navigation Positions for REMOTS® Stations



Table 1.


Navigation Positions for WLIS September 1997 REMOTS® Survey


WLIS September 1997 REMOTS Stations NAD 1927


NAD 83 1


Area


Station


Latitude


Longitude


Latitude


Longitude




CTR


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.046' W




50N


40° 59.230' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.236' N


073° 29.046' W




100N


40° 59.257' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.263' N


073° 29.046' W




150N


40° 59.284' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.290' N


073° 29.046' W


WLIS


SOS


40° 59.176' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.182' N


073° 29.046' W


1 MOUND


100S


40° 59.149' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.155' N


073° 29.046' W


40° 59.203' N


150S


40° 59.122' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.128' N


073° 29.046' W


073° 29.072' W


50E


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.036' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.010' W


(1996-97)


100E


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.001 'W


40° 59.209' N


073° 28.975' W




150E


40° 59.203' N


073° 28.965' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 28.939' W




50W


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.108' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.082' W




100W


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.143' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.1 17' W




150W


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.179' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.153' W




CTR


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.706' W




50N


40° 59.255' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.261 ' N


073° 28.706' W




100N


40° 59.282' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.288' N


073° 28.706' W




150N


40° 59.309' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.315' N


073° 28.706' W


WLIS


SOS


40° 59.201 ' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.207' N


073° 28.706' W


H MOUND


100S


40° 59.174' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.180' N


073° 28.706' W


40° 59.228' N


150S


40° 59.147' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.153' N


073° 28.706' W


073° 28.732' W


50E


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.696' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.670' W


(1995-96)


100E


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.661 ' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.635' W




150E


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.625' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.599' W




SOW


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.768' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.742' W




100W


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.803' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.777' W




150W


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.839' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.813' W


Reference Areas












SOUTH


RefSI


40° 58.727' N


073° 29.197' W


40° 58.733' N


073° 29.171 'W


40° 58.688' N


RefS2


40° 58.704' N


073° 29.190' W


40° 58.710' N


073° 29.164' W


073° 29.201 ' W


RefS3


40° 58.684' N


073° 29.102' W


40° 58.690' N


073° 29.076' W




RefS4


40° 58.686' N


073° 29.287' W


40° 58.692' N


073° 29.261 ' W




RefSS


40° 58.726' N


073° 29.251 ' W


40° 58.732' N


073° 29.225' W




RefS6


40° 58.696' N


073° 29.251 ' W


40° 58.702' N


073° 29.136' W


SWREF


RfSW7


40° 58.397' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 58.403' N


073° 30.046' W


40° 58.487' N


RfSW8


40° 58.426' N


073° 29.875' W


40° 58.432' N


073° 29.849' W


073° 29.909' W


RfSW9


40° 58.476' N


073° 29.885' W


40° 58.482' N


073° 29.859' W




RfSWIO


40° 58.595' N


073° 29.871 'W


40° 58.601 ' N


073° 29.845' W




RfSW1 1


40° 58.466' N


073° 29.902' W


40° 58.472' N


073° 29.876' W




RfSW12


40° 58.468' N


073° 29.029' W


40° 58.474' N


073° 30.003' W




RfSW13


40° 58.505' N


073° 29.853' W


40° 58.511 'N


073° 29.827' W



Table 2. Navigation Positions for WLIS March 1998 REMOTS® Survey


WLIS March 1998 REMOTS Stations NAD 1927


NAD 83 1


Area


Station


Latitude


Longitude


Latitude


Longitude




CTR


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.696' W




100N


40° 58.355' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.361 ' N


073° 27.696' W




200N


40° 58.409' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.415' N


073° 27.696' W


WLIS Reference


300N


40° 58.463' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.469' N


073° 27.696' W


Area Investigation


100S


40° 58.247' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.253' N


073° 27.696' W


40° 58.301 ' N


200S


40° 58.193' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.199' N


073° 27.696' W


073° 27.722' W


300S


40° 58.139' N


073° 27.722' W


40° 58.145' N


073° 27.696' W




100E


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.651 'W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.625' W




200E


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.580' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.553' W




300E


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.508' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.482' W




100W


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.793' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.767' W




200W


40° 58.301 'N


073° 27.865' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.839' W




300W


40° 58.301 ' N


073° 27.936' W


40° 58.307' N


073° 27.910' W




100NE


40° 58.339' N


073° 27.672' W


40° 58.345' N


073° 27.646' W




200NE


40° 58.378' N


073° 27.621 'W


40° 58.383' N


073° 27.595' W




300NE


40° 58.416' N


073° 27.571 'W


40° 58.422' N


073° 27.545' W




100NW


40° 58.339' N


073° 27.773' W


40° 58.345' N


073° 27.746' W




200NW


40° 58.378' N


073° 27.823' W


40° 58.383' N


073° 27.797' W




300NW


40° 58.416' N


073° 27.873' W


40° 58.422' N


073° 27.847' W




100SE


40° 58.263' N


073° 27.873' W


40° 58.269' N


073° 27.646' W




200SE


40° 58.225' N


073° 27.621 'W


40° 58.231 ' N


073° 27.595' W




300SE


40° 58.187' N


073° 27.571 'W


40° 58.192' N


073° 27.545' W




100SW


40° 58.263' N


073° 27.571 ' W


40° 58.269' N


073° 27.746' W




200SW


40° 58.225' N


073° 27.823' W


40° 58.231 ' N


073° 27.797' W




300SW


40° 58.187' N


073° 27.873' W


40° 58.192' N


073° 27.847' W


WLIS


CTR


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.046' W


1 MOUND


50N


40° 59.230' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.236' N


073° 29.046' W


40° 59.203' N


50S


40° 59.176' N


073° 29.072' W


40° 59.182' N


073° 29.046' W


073° 29.072' W


50E


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.036' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.010' W


(1996-97)


50W


40° 59.203' N


073° 29.108' W


40° 59.209' N


073° 29.082' W


WLIS


CTR


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.706' W


H MOUND


SON


40° 59.255' N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.261 ' N


073° 28.706' W


40° 59.228' N


50S


40° 59.201 'N


073° 28.732' W


40° 59.207' N


073° 28.706' W


073° 28.732' W


50E


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.696' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.670' W


(1995-96)


50W


40° 59.228' N


073° 28.768' W


40° 59.234' N


073° 28.742' W



APPENDIX B
September 1997 REMOTS® Surveys



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Online LibraryPeggy M MurrayMonitoring cruises at the Western Long Island Sound Disposal Site, September 1997 and March 1998 → online text (page 7 of 8)