Pennsylvania. Dept. of Agriculture.

Annual report of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture online

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which it is derived, a branch of learning considered as having a cer-
tain completeness. Penetrating and comprehensive information,
skill, expertness and the like.

Scientific facts may be secured in a dairy barn as well as in a
chemical laboratory. The testing of facts or supposed facts secured
in a laboratory may be carried on by methods similar to those used
in the laboratory, and when facts are secured and arranged they
are scientific facts. The results secured by milking cows twice,
thrice or more times daily may secure facts and hence add to science.
Even more than this, the method by which the cows are milked may
increase our scientific knowledge.

Scientific research has discovered the method by which the rela-
tive values of milk may be easily and quickkly ascertained. This has
been of great benefit not only in the past but is to be of much greater
benefit in the future when all come to realize that the amount of
butter fats in milk determines their relative values with a practicable
degree of accuracy.

The scientist has taught us that the amount of butter fats pro-
duced by cows may be enormously increased by improved methods of
feeding. He has also proven that the proportion of fat to the other
solids cannot be changed only through inheritance. The clearing
away of the mist which has obscured this law of milk production
has been of great value since it points out the direct means and the
only means by which milk containing either a high or a low per cent,
of butter fats may be secured. The dairyman may now discover the
profitable and unprofitable cows in the herd by methods which give
assurance of scientific accuracy. He may do far more than this, for
research has furnished him with knowledge by which he may so com-
pound the animal's ration that the maximum results may be reached
at minimum cost. This knowledge alone is worth more to the dairy-
man than can easily be computed. Intelligent effort may now be
directed into those channels which give the highest rewards for the
least outlay.

The scientific application of facts already well known has done



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No. 6. DEt>ARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 255

much for the advancement of the dairy industry, and has resulted in
the Babcock milk testing machine and the centrifugal cream sepa-
rator. But the value of the cream separator would be greatly re-
duced if some cheap, quick and efficient means had not been dis-
covered whereby the residuary butter fats in the separated milk may
be easily determined. These two discoveries have, in many ways,
wrought marked and beneficial results in the dairy. They have made
it possible to get at the facts, thereby making it possible to discover
and adopt better and more scientific methods in the breeding of dairy
animals.

The bacteriologist Jias been able to identify and classify many
organisms which were formerly unknown, and which are of vital im-
portance to the dairyman. Science has given to the dairyman the
knowledge by which he may control the bacteria which are con-
stantly tending to destroy his products. The beneficial organisms
have also been discovered, and may now be utilized to improve both
the quantity and quality of dairy products. Eesearch has changed
the business of dairying from one of mere blind chance, governed by
witches and hot horse shoes, to a profession which may now be
classed as one of the arts.

The chemist is noV able to detect adulteration in cattle foods with
such certainty that laws governing the sale of them may be certainly
and intelligently executed, for it is now as easy to detect adulterated
foods as it is to detect adulterated alcohol. But few of the laws
enacted to protect the dairy interests could be executed if modern
science had not come to our aid.

Science has left her cloisters and gone to the field for material for
her crucible and retort. Nature with her complex and numberless
modes of action offers rich and abundant material for research. If
we look over the literature of agriculture, which has grown to enor-
mous proportions during tlve last quarter of the century, it is seen
that science has been steadily at work solving many of the mysteries
of the soil. So many useful and interesting things have been dis-
covered relating to dairy husbandry that even a bear mention of them
cannot be made here. A few of the discoveries, however, are so far
reaching and helpful that they cannot be passed over. But for the
researches of the scientist how could we know that the soil contains
vast stores of potential plant food, or that the plant food in most
soils is lazy, or that the soil frequently furnishes but a scanty and un-
balanced ration for the plants which grow upon it.

The chemist has joined hands with the farmer; the one with retort
and balance has discovered the kinds and amounts of plant food in
the soil, while the other with plow and plant has determined the
availability of the plant food. In some cases the farmer is in ad-
vance of the chemist. By research he has discovered that a con-



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266 ANNUAL REPORT OF THB3 Off. DoC.

tinubus and full supply of moisture in the soil is as necessary, eveu
more necessary, than plant food itself, if full use of the nourishment
which the land contains is secured. The chemist and biologist have
discovered many valuable truths in regard to the action of lime, but
the farmer has also discovered many facts governing its application
and economic use.

Who but the farmer discovered the wonderfully beneficial effects
of clover crops, what to sow, when, where and how to plant? The
botanist, the biologist and the chemist have discovered many of the
laws which govern the growth of plants; the farmer by his researches
in the field has revealed how, when and where these laws affect pro-
ductivity. Science in the early days too often kept a one-horse
hobby in the laboratory. She now drives d fast four-in-hand through
all the land.

The dairyman has experimented with silage until he knows its
value and the best methods of storing it, while the biologist and the
chemist have lagged behind him. The mysteries which a modern silo
contains are as yet too complex for them.

I have now to speak briefly of the intellectual stimulus which
modern research and invention has given to the world. Until re-
cently those engaged in dairy husbandry were still carrying on their
business by methods in vogue at the beginning of the century.
Steam, electricity, the self binder and the mowing machine alleviated
the toil of the mechanic and the general farmer long before research
and invention came to the aid of the dairyman, but now scientific
research in shop, in field and laboratory has come to the aid of the
dairy industry.

The subject so far has been treated from the utilitarian, the finan-
cial standpoint, but there is a broader, a better and more far-reaching
standpoint from which to view it. A close observer of men and
things once remarked that those engaged in fruit growing were the
most intelligent and those engaged in dairy husbandry the least
intelligent of the farming community. This may have been true
once, I trust it is so no longer.

Let us see what penetrating knowledge, comprehensive informa-
tion, skill and expertness have done to develop the dairy industry.
First, it has taught many farmers to think, inspect and compare. It
has served as a potent, intellectual stimulant, especially to those
engaged in dairy husbandry. Had science done nothing else than
this it would be a full compensation for the cost and labor of securing
and classifying the mass of facts related to dairy husbandry. The
late Honorable George Geddes once said that the intellectual uplift
given to the farmer by reason of improved agricultural machinery
was a full equivalent for the cost of all the improved machinery



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No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 257

which had been built. What then must be the intellectual value to
the dairyman of the knowledge reached by modern research? If the
definition of science, previously quoted from distinguished authority,
is correct, then some credit should be given for the skill and expert-
ness which the scientific farmer has promoted among the dairymen.

But for the beneficence of the federal and State governments the
dairymen would still be underlings. What is this uplift worth? 1
mean the intelligent uplift. Far more in my opinion than it has cost
and far more than the financial benefits which have been secured.
As long as mind dominates matter the intellectual results of science
will be more valuable and precious than the economical and financial.
A fact may be valuable. How to use fact is invaluable. To secure
new facts and to acquire skill, to apply them logically, much time
and money are usually necessary. Therefore, the Commonwealth
should deal liberally by the institutions engaged in education and
research along industrial lines. A tax of one cent per capita in this
State would produce f 60,000, which might well be added to the sums
already spent ^or the promotion of agricultural knowledge. Can the
Keystone State afford to permit her educational institutions devoted
to the advancement of the industries to languish for want of full sym-
pathy and liberal support? Can we afford to go back to old methods
or even to stand still?

Finally, let me present to you some figures which set forth most
graphically what science in work shop, field and laboratory has done
for the dairyman and the grain grower. Mr. H. W. Quaintance, of
Champaign, Illinois, has made a most extensive study of the days
labor required to produce the leading farm crops, corn, wheat, oats,
rye, barley, potatoes and hay, of the United States by the old or
hand method and by the machine method. He finds that 81.5 per
cent, of the days work formerly required is saved by the use of
modern mechinery. By the kindness of Mr. Quaintance I have been
allowed to use the final results. He will, in the near future, publish
extended tables which will give the saving of days labor by the new
over the old method. These tables will be very valuable, and they
lead to the conclusion that the reason the per cent, of the population
engaged in farming is steadily decreasing is that a given unit of
product can be produced for nearly one-fifth as many days labor in
the field as it could formerly.



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2S8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc.



REQUIREMENTS OF AN UP-TO DATE BUTTER MAKER.



RT GEORGE C. CORNELL.



It is a very great pleasure to me that J havt been permitted to meet
here with you in grand old Chester county, the father (so to speak)
of the dairy industry in the old Keystone State, and listen to the
very able papers and addresses that have preceded me.

It is no use for me to take time telling you, that I am no orator,
no public speaker, and the like, for if you are not already acquainted
with this fact, you will be before I am done with this subject. Let
me say that I am just a common, everyday butter maker, nothing
more; and only out of courtesy to our secretary (who requested me
to talk along this line), and from a desire on my part to be of any
service I consistently can to the Union, have I consented to address
you. I have no paper prepared for this occasion, neither have I an
elaborate speech prepared. I will just talk to you, as the good old
Quakers say, "as the spirit moves."

Before proceeding to the requirements of this up-to-date butter
maker, let us consider for a few moments the material that will be re-
quired, out of which we must make this butter maker. First, he
must be physically strong and robust, as the requirements of a
butter maker are such that none but those who are strong, and well-
developed physically should enter the profession. Second, he must
be intellectual in the highest degree. It has been said in the past,
when a man or boy was rather below the average in intelligence,
"well, we will make a farmer of him." Now don't do this; neither
would I try to make a butter maker of such a man or boy. We want
the very best material both for farmer and butter makers.

The up-to-date butter maker must have the qualities of a success-
ful business man. Strength, with good health, intelligence, indus-
trious, honest, persevering, thorough and systematic in his work.
In fact, he must represent the highest type of manhood, physically,
intellectually, socially and morally. He will be temperate in all
things, and especially so in the use of intoxicating liquors; these he
will abstain from altogether. He will also abstain from the use of
tobacco, not only because it is a useless and filthy habit, but because
it will impair the sense of taste and smell, which are so essential to
the success of the up-to-date butter maker. These are a part of his



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No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 259

Btock in trade, a part of his capital, which will bring him good returns
if cultivated instead of deadened. He will also abstain from the use
of profane and vulgar language, for various reasons. Its use always
lowers his position socially and morally. Then again if he indulges
in such language, he must not only allow, but expect his patrons and
associates to do the same; and I can assure you that when the butter
maker and patrons both get to using profane language, especially
both at the same time and same place, namely, at the weigh can, the
creamery is a back number, or will be soon.

Having found what is required, the question comes up, where can
we obtain all this? I answer in the homes of these farmers and
dairymen now before me. Right here in Chester county, away up in
Bradford county, in fact in all the counties of this grand old State,
such material can be found on the farms. The very best material for
perfect manhood and business qualities have come from the farms in
the past; it comes from the farms in the present* and it will come
from the farms in the future.

Now, having found the boy or man, as the case may be, with the
qualifications necessary for this very important position, let us look
to his education. He will be required to be highly educated, in the
direction of course in which his profession requires. We now as-
sume that the object of our selection has arrived at the age of say six-
teen to twenty-one years, and has had the advantages of the best
schools with which his surroundings are provided, and that he has
made the best of these privileges. We now send him to our State
College, not simply for the creamery or dairy course and the short
course at that, but for a full course in creamery and dairy study; also
the agricultural course as well.

The requirements later on will be such that all this education will
be practical. His patrons will not only want to know how to pro-
duce more and better milk,, care for ihe same, etc., etc., but he must
be able to enlighten them as to the growing of forage crops, com-
pounding rations, also on silos alid' silage, fertilizers, and many other
things that will come in his line. There is no danger of too much
education for one who possesses the requirements we have previously
named. Such a one will put all the education possible to good use.

We now find the subject of this talk ready for the battles of life.
We find him next in charge of a creamery. My remarks now will be
particularly applicable to the co-operative creamery butter maker,
as this is the creamery I am most familiar with; although in general
my talk can be applied to any kind of management. We assume that
at about this time in the drama of life, our young butter maker takes
the most important step in all his life. He gets married. We as
sume this because we know that his success as a butter maker de-



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260 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc.

pends largely upon this step. Of course he will be required to use
the same care and caution in his selection of a helper that we have
used in selecting our butter maker, but he will need this helper. It
needs a woman's eye to tell us just when the windows need washing,
and when the cob-webs need sweeping down, etc., etc. She will
probably see that these things are all done, just before they really
need it. All the above being realized, we now have the picture of
the butter maker in his home. This home will usually be a few
inconvenient rooms in the second story of the creamery, or worse
still, a cheap tenement house at some inconvenient point from the
creamery, and the joys of the butter maker's life have now really
commenced. He will be required to accept these inconveniences
without murmuring.

We now start in Monday morning for the day run. We find our
butter maker up at three o'clock in the morning. He first starts his
fire under the boiler; he will be required to look to the water in the
boiler before starting the fire, instead of one-half hour, or an hour
later (provided he and the plant are there), as some butter makers
have done. Next he will examine his cream in the vat, ascertaining
the temperature, also the degree of ripeness.

He will be required to take the temperature (not as our mother did
by touching the forehead) but with an accurate thermometer, and
then read it accurately. He will be required to test the acidity of his
cream; not simply by taste and appearance, but by some reliable acid
test.

We again assume that he finds both temperature and acidity as
they should be from best results. If they are not, he is off. The up-
to-date butter maker will be required to set his cream to such a
degree of perfection the night before that (barring sudden changes
in temperature, or like unavoidable conditions) his cream will be
right to churn at a given time next morning. Having found his
cream ready for churning, he prepares the churn and runs the cream
into it. He now takes the coloring, not by throwing in what he guesses
is right in the haphazard way, but he is required to color by some
fixed rule, so that each churning shall be absolutely alike. If neces-
sary a part of two churnings can be placed in one tub and no differ-
ence in shade of color observed. The churning is now put up, and w*^
find the stream raising. He next carefully oils the engine and all
machinery needing it, and by this time there being sufficient steam to
run the churn, he starts up. It is now four o'clock.

He will be required to churn at a temperature that will bring the
butter in about three-quarters of an hour. While this is in progress,
he will get his packages ready, steaming and soaking tubs, preparing
tub linings, washing the vats and utensils, etc., etc. He will be re-



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No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 261

quired to keep busy. This is one of the pays of a butter maker's life.
He is never obliged to sit down and wait. By the time all these
little odd jobs are done, the churning will need his care. It must be
stopped at the proper time, butter properly washed with water at a
proper temperature. It must also be properly salted, not by guess,
but the requirements demand that it shall be salted, as colored, by
some regular method that will give the same results day in and day
out.

The working will also require much care and skill. It must be
worked enough, it must not be worked too much; this up-to-date
butter maker mu-st know just when to stop the worker. . The same
care and painstaking will be required in putting up for the market,
either packing or printing.

There is a right and a wrong way, and our up-to-date butter
maker will do it the right way. It is now six o'clock A. M., having
taken one hour to get started, and about two hours to churn, and care
for the butter, and put it up ready for shipment, he now steals the
time for breakfast if possible, but lucky is the butter maker that
doesn't go without breakfast many a day in the busy season.

The conditions will require this, and he will be required to accept
the conditions without complaint. He now starts his separator, and
by the time speed is up there is a patron at the door. Now comes in
the greatest requirements of all; that of successfully dealing with
all this great variety of human nature, in all the different stages of
intellectual and educational developments. This up-to-date butter
maker will be required to do this, and when he can successfully
manage, then he is entitled to a seat in Washington, D. C, among
our great statesmen, or a position as prime minister to some foreign
country; for he will have shown himself as great a diplomat as have
any of these great men.

The correct sampling, weighing, testing, and many other items
too numerous to discuss now, are some of the requirements of the
modern butter maker. We must pass them hj вАФ 1 have already
spoken too long. One thing, however, I must mention, and that is
the testing of skim milk and buttermilk. The up-to-date butter
maker will be required to know the per cent, of fat left in both (no
guess work) not only once in a while, but all the time. A composite
sample should be kept and tested regularly when the other testing
is done. The skimming now done, he must proceed at once to care
for his cream, and prepare for the proper condition for next morning.
He must clean up thoroughly; and I want to say right here that this
up-to-date butter maker will be required to use more live steam and
hot water than is used by many. If in a co-operative creamery ho
will be required to mark up and ship this butter. He is required to



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262 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc.

look up a luarket and sell this butter and get the best prices; no
up-to-date butter maker in Pennsylvania should sell butter on com-
mission. The western States should supply this trade. Our State
consumes more than we make, and the butter maker will be required
to get a home market for his butter, at a much better price than
the commission man can give him.

He must be a good collector, as well as a good salesman ; he must
be a competent book-keeper, and a successful man in earing for the
correspondence of the creamery, as much of his success in selling
will depend on this. A-s he cannot see his customers face to face, he
must draw them to him by his correspondence.

The up-to-date butter maker will be required to buy many, or per-
haps all the supplies. He must be a judicious and close buyer; he
must study the market both for buying and selling; in fact he must
be a constant reader, when not at work, and a constant thinker while
at work.

There are many things to commend as well as to discourage those
thinking of becoming butter makers; but I think the one thing most
to be condemned is the practice of running Sundays or seven days a
week. I am well aware that this cannot be avoided by the creamery
until the patrons are educated against it. I hope and trust that
in the near future some method may be adopted that will do away
with Sunday work in the creamery. The butter maker should have
at least one day in sevea free from the cares of the creamery.

In closing, let me say that in return for all the requirements I have
named, this up-to-date butter maker will receive from f400.00 to
f 800.00 per year; and nearly all patrons and employers, especially
employers in co-operative creameries will say that he is over-paid, he
receives more than his just dues from the business.

Ladies and gentlemen, I leave it for you to decide if such is the case.



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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

DIVISION OF FARMERS' INSTITOTES.



PAPERS READ AT FARMERS' INSTITUTES DURING THE
SEASON OF 1898-9.



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Official Document, No. 6.



PAPERS READ AT FARMERS' INSTITUTES
DURING THE SEASON OF 1898-9.



THE LAWS OF TRESPASS, AS THEY RELATE TO AGRICUL-
TURE.



BY HON. GEO. W. HOOD, IncUuna, Pa. Read at Farmers' Institute, JacksimviUe, January, 19, Itm.



Trespass, in its largest and mast extensive sense, signifies any
transgression or offense against the law of nature, of society, or of the
country in which we live, whether it relates to a man's person or his
property. But in the limited and confined sense in which we are*,
at present, to consider it, it signifies no more than an entry on
another man's ground, without a lawful authority, and in doing some
damage, however inconsiderable, to his real properly.

For the right of property once established in lands, it follows, as
a iiecessary consequence, that his right must be exclusive, that is,
the owner must have to himself, the sole use and occupation of his
soil. Every entry, therefore, thereon, without the owner's leave,



Online LibraryPennsylvania. Dept. of AgricultureAnnual report of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture → online text (page 24 of 35)