Pennsylvania. Dept. of Factory Inspection.

Annual report of the Factory Inspector of the Commonwealth of ..., Volume 8 online

. (page 92 of 93)
Online LibraryPennsylvania. Dept. of Factory InspectionAnnual report of the Factory Inspector of the Commonwealth of ..., Volume 8 → online text (page 92 of 93)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Digitized by



Steam boilers are inspected by a separate State De- i"^^*iS?,e«.
partment, constituted by five inspectors.

Accidents to employes requiring the aid of a surgeon Accidents.
or resulting in death must be reported by employer
within ten days after occurring.


No minor shall be required to clean machinery or to Limitation of

^ , , child labor.

work between its traversing parts while it is m mo-

Inspectors have power to prevent overcrowding in ^^^ inn>ee.
all establishments where labor is employed, and can
regulate heating, lighting, ventilating and other sani-
tary arrangements, and may order suitable mechanical
means for carrying away dust and other impurities
generated by manufacturing. And where females are
employed at unclean work, wash and dress rooms must
be provided, and stairs used by females must be pro-
perly screened, seats must be provided and convenient-
located, so that females can use them when not re-
quired to be on their feet, and where both sexes are
employed separate and distinct water closets must be
provided for each sex.

Belting, shafting, gearing, and drums in all estab- safeffuards.
lishments must be safely and securely guarded, and all
vats, pans, ladles or structures filled with molten metal
or hot liquid, or any furnace, must be surrounded with
safeguards, and all platforms, passageways, and other
arrangements about railroad yards must be made com-
paratively safe. The openings of hatchways, eleva-
tors, and well holes must be protected by trap doors,
self-closing hatches or safety catches, or railing three
feet high. When guards are not practicable, notice of
danger must be posted.

Establishments two or more stories high, in which Protection against
twenty or more persons are employed above first floor,
must be provided with fire escapes, and in addition
for every twenty persons employed above the second
floor, one rope or other portable fire escape; and each
floor must be supplied with means for extinguishing
fire. All doors must open outwardly, and must not be
locked or bolted during labor hours. In any building
or any part thereof supposed to be unsafe, or means of
egress insufficient, the inspector may order necessary

Digitized by




Otf. Doc.



LiraiUtlon of
child labor.

Hours of labor.

Sanitary inspec-


Any accident resulting in death, or which prevents
an employe's return to work within two weeks, must
be reported.

Boys under 12 years of age and girls under 14 years
of age are prohibited from working in any manufactur-
ing establishments. Children betw^een the age of 12
and 15 years must produce school certificate of school
attendance for twelve weeks during the year immedi-
ately preceding date of employment. No minor under
the age of 16 years shall be employed at work danger-
ous to health without certificate from physician, and
no minor shall clean machinery in motion or be em-
ployed between its traversing parts.

The hours of labor for minors of both sexes is limit-
ed to fifty-five per week.

Inspectors have power to regulate heating, lighting,
and other sanitary conditions. They can prohibit the
overcrowding of factories and workshops, and to pro-
duce proper ventilation in factories where dust is
created, they can have suitable mechanical means ap-
plied, and in all establishments where women are em-
ployed suitable and separate closets for the sexes must
be provided, with wash and dress rooms for females.
Factories where dusty work is performed and wherein
women and children are employed shall be white-
washed or painted once in twelve months. Bakeries
must be thoroughly ventilated and be provided with
proper plumbing connections, and must have no con-
nection within or without the room with any water
closet, earth closet, ash pit or other nuisance. Em-
ployes must have sleeping quarters separate from
bake rooms.

Belting, shafting, gearing, drums, and other machin-
ery of a dangerous character, and all vats, pans, and
other structures containing molten metal or hot liquid
must be suitably protected. All floor openings for
hatchways, hoistways, well holes, and elevators must
be provided with outomatic or trap-doors and other-
wise be guarded with a railing three feet high. Stairs
is use by females must be screened, and no female must
be allowed to clean machinery in operation or to work
between its traversing parts.

Digitized by



Explosives or inflammable matter must not be plac- 1^1%"^^ '~"
e^ or used in such manner as to obstruct egress or to
endanger life in case of fire. Upon all buildings for
manufacturing purposes two or three stories in height,
where thirty or more persons are employed above the
first floor, one or more fire-escapes may be ordered by
the inspectors, and suitable means for extinguishing
fire be provided for each floor.

Accidents resulting in death must be reported with- Accidents,
in twenty-four hours after, and those which prevent
the return to work of the injured person within two
weeks must be reported to an inspector within twenty-
four hours after the expiration of said two weeks.


No child under 14 years of age can be employed in Limitation of

^ ° . child labor.

any factory or workshop, and all minors between 14
and 16 years of age are required to produce a health
ward certificate as to age, etc., before obtaining em-
ployment, and a record of the names, etc., of same is
kept in the office. Children between the ages of 14
and 16 years are required to be able to read and write
simple sentences in the English language, otherwise
they can be employed only during vacation times of the
public schools. No minor under 15 years of age shall
have charge over or operate an elevator, and no minor
under 18 years shall have charge over or operate an
elevator running at a speed of more than 200 feet per
minute, nor shall he be allowed to clean machinery
while in motion, and any person is forbidden to remove
guards from machinery undess for immediate repairs.

No minor under 18 years nor woman under 21 years Hours of labor.
of age is allowed to work more than ten hours in any
one day, unless for the purpose of making a shorter
work day on Saturday, and minors shall not work more
than sixty hours in one week, and no minor under 18
years of age and no woman under 21 years of age can
commence working any day before 6 A. M., nor be em-
ployed after 9 P. M.

In all factories and workshops between the hours sanitary mspec-
of 6 A. M. and 6 P. M., 250 cubic feet of air space is re- **°"'
quired for each employe, and 400 cubic feet from 6
P. M. to 6 A. M., but inspectors may grant less air
space where rooms are lighted at night time by elec-
tricity. All work rooms are required to be kept in

Digitized by




Off. Doc


Protection from
Are and other


Weekly pay law.


clean condition, and exhaust fans and other means of
ventilation may be required in work rooms in order to
carry away dust or other impurities. In all establish-
ments separate closets must be provided for the sexes
— with suitable wash and dress rooms for females.
Booms, ceilings, and walls must be whitewashed or
painted by the direction of the inspectors. Sweat-
shops are controlled by license laws requiring cleanli-
ness and thorough disinfection of premises, and re-
stricting the work done in each tenement workshop to
the members of the family dwelling therein. A tag is
to be placed upon all sweater-made clothing, etc., man-
ufactured in violation of the provision of the act, op
made under unclean or unhealthy conditions. The
sanitary regulation of bakeries is provided for by
special enactment. Six (6) inspectors are appointed
to carry out requirements of the law.

Elevator openings, hoisting shafts, and well holes
must be enclosed with railing or casing, and be pro-
vided with properly adjusted trap or automatic doors
and gates. Cables, gearing, shafting and other ma-
chinery or apparatus must be guarded and kept in safe
condition. Hand-rails must be provided on all stair-
ways, and stairs screened where females are employed,
and when deemed necessary, stairs must be covered
with rubber covers.

Buildings of three or more stories with employes on
or above the third story, must be provided with suita-
ble fire escapes, easy of access, and free from draft,
from any hoistway, stairs or other floor openings.
Doors must open outwardly and be kept unfastened
during work hours.

Every case of accident or injury to any employe
must be reported with full details within forty-eight
hours after its occurrence.

Every corporation, excepting steam surface railway
corporations, is required to make weekly payment of
wages to employes.

Inspection of mines is placed under the factory in-
spection department in New York.


Limitation of
child labor.

The age at which children may be employed in man-
ufacturing establishments is 14 years, with the provi-

Digitized by



sions that children more than 12 years of age may be
employed at non-dangerous employment during the
time they are not required by law to attend school.
The school law requires that all children under 14
years of age and over 8 years must attend school dur-
ing the school term. This law is not enforced by fac-
tory inspectors, but to truant officers, one or more, in
all school districts. Office record must be kept by em-
ployers oi all minors under 18 years of age, giving
name, date and place of birth, with residence of
parents or guardians. No minor under 16 years of age
shall work at any employment whereby his life or limb
is endangered, or his health is likely to be impaired,
or his morals may be depraved.

No minor under the age of 18 years shall be emiploy- houw of ubor for
ed in any manufacturing establishment more than ten ™ "**"'
hours in one day, nor more than sixty hours in one
week. Notices containing the law must be posted by
manufacturers in a conspicuous place in every room,
where minors are employed, the chief inspector of fac-
tories to furnish such notices.

Heating, lighting, ventilation, and other sanitary re- sanitary in«pec-
quirements in factories, workshops, and mercantile
establishments, are under the inspector's supervision,
and to secure such he may cut through walls, floors,
roofs and ceilings, or make changes in sewerages and
plumbing, and require proper closet arrangements, and
may demand separate closets for sexes, with toilet and
dressing rooms for females on the floors on which they
work, and seats for females to be used by them when
not actively engaged. Special bakeshop and sweat-
shop laws.

Inspectors must order guards for belting, shafting, safeguanis.
gearing, elevators, and other machinery; also for vats,
pans, and other structures, filled with molten metal or
hot liquid; also efficient safety gates for elevator open-
ings, guarding of hatchways, and hoisting apparatus
in floors or outside of buildings; the repair of all eleva-
tors and all gearing, and of defective walls, roofs, ceil-
ings, stairways, and doors, and all other improvements
neceosary to secure the safety of employes. Blowers
may be required where dust-creating machinery is

Inspectors have power to examine all buildings as to Protection from
their safety, and to order all necessary alterations to

Digitized by




Off. Doc.


Limitation of
child labor.

Hours of labor.

Sanitary Inspec-


obtain the same; also to provide for stairways and fire
escapes and other efficient means of egress, and hand-
rails on all stairways, and may require in all halls and
other buildings for public assemblage means of extin-
guishing fire on all fioors above the first, and that all
doors in such buildings shall open outward.

Employers must report all accidents upon blanks
furnished by inspectors; those resulting in death with-
in seven days after, and those in bodily injury, necessi-
tating six days' consecutive loss of time within thirty
days after.

Stated wages, beforehand agreed upon between em-
ployer and employe, must be paid to all minors, and
the retention of such by fines or upon any other pretext
is absolutely prohibited. No change of wages most
occur without a written notice being given to each
minor affected twenty-four hours before such change
shall take place.


No child under 14 years of age can be employed in
any factory, except in canning and dessicating fruit
and vegetables.

No child under 14 years, and no girl or woman can
be employed for more than ten hours in one day, or
sixty hours in one week, except when employed in fac-
tories for canning and dessicating fruit and vegeta-
bles. In these, females under 18 years may be em-
ployed for as many as thirty-six nights in twelve
months until 9 P. M.; and women over 18 years may be
required to labor "until the work is finished" twenty
nights in twelve months.

Every factory must be kept clean and not over-
crowded, and must be ventilated so as to render harm-
less, as far as practicable, all unwholesome effluvia,
and to take away dust and other injurious impurities
generated by manufacturing machinery. Separate
closets, must be provided for the sexes, each set to
have separate approaches, and to be kept clean and
well ventilated at all times. Special act governing
sanitation, etc., in bakeshops.

Belting, shafting, gearing, fly-wheels, drums, and
moving parts of machinery, vats, pans, caldrons, reser-
voirs, wheel races, flumes, water channels, doors, open

Digitized by



ings in floors or walls, bridges, and all dangerous struc-
tures must be, as far as practicable, securely guarded.
Hoistways, hatchways, elevators, and well holes, must
be protected by such automatic appliances as the in-
spector may desire, and all elevator cabs, and cars,
must be provided, to the satisfaction of the inspector,
with suitable safety attachments. Ko machinery,
other than steam engines, must be cleaned while in
motion, if inspector so orders, and no woman must be
allowed to clean mill gearing while in motion nor to
work between the traversing parts of machinery.

Factories, three or more stories high, must be pro- protection from

Are etc.

vided with fire escapes, unless supplied with sufficient
tower stairways protected with iron doors. All inside
and outside doors must open outwardly, and all doors
entering stairway towers, or leading to fire escapes,
must be kept unlocked and unbolted during w^orking
hours. In every factory there must be provided such
means for extinguishing fire as the inspector may di-

Accidents resulting in bodily injury to an employe Accidents.
must be reported by the employer within six days
after, and if accident shall prove fatal, within twenty-
four hours from time of its occurrence.


Children under 13 years of age can not be employed J^J[*j*f^bo? ^'
in any manufacturing or mercantile establishment.
Sworn statement is required of child's age from par-
ents or guardians, and wall record in each room where
children are employed, and office register must be kept
of all minors under 16 years of age. No boy under 14
years is allowed to run an elevator, and no minor under
16 years to clean machinery while in motion.

Minors must not be employed in any one day longer Hours of labor.
than twelve hours nor in any week more than sixty

Heating, lighting, ventilation, and other sanitary samury mspec-
conditions come under the regulation of inspectors.
Suitable and 8c»^>arate water-closets and wash and
dress rooms must be provided for females; they must
not adjoin closets for males, and shall be kept clean,
properly screened and ventilated. Special enactment
rej^ulates the sweat shop system. A copy of the law
will be found on another page of the proceedings.

Digitized by




Off. I>oc.


Protection from
flret. etc.


Semi-monthly pay

Limitation of
child labor.

Hours of labor for
women and chil-

Sanitary Inspec-

All floor openings for elevators must be properly
guarded and provided with automatic traps or doors.
Belting; shafting, gearing, drums, and other dangerous
machinery must be sufficiently guarded, and all vats,
pans, and structures containing molten metal or hot
liquid must be surrounded with proper safeguards.
Shifting belts and pulleys must be provided with shift-

Inspectors can order all buildings more than two
stories high provided with one or more fire-escapes,
after a certain model designated by statute, and with
life ropes and chains as any such building may require

All accidents causing death or serious injury to any
person must be reported within twenty-four hours
after their occurrence.

The statute provides that wages to all employes
shall be paid twice each month — upon demand of em-
ployes — and failure to comply herwith may, upon com-
plaint of any citizen, be prosecuted by the factory in-


No boy under 12 years, and no girl under 14 years of
age can be employed in any factory, workshop, work-
yard, or mill of any kind. In establishments classified
as "dangerous, unwholesome, or inconvenient," the
age of employe shall not be under 16 years for boys,
and 18 years for girls. Age certificate may be required
of parent or guardian. Children are discharged if
pronounced physically unfit for work by sanitary or
other physician. Employer must keep register con-
taining names and ages of boys, girls and women em-
ployed, the period of each day and week they are em-
ployed, and the hour at which they begin and finish

No boy under 18 years of age, and no girl or woman
shall be employed more than ten hours in any one day
and sixty hours in any one week. The day shall not
commence before six o'clock in the morning, nor end
after nine o'clock at night. In certain exigencies the
inspector may extend the working day to twelve hours
for a period not exceeding six weeks.

Establishments *nust be kept clean, well lighted,
well ventilated; must be provided with apparatus for
expelling dust and gases, and employers must furnish
inspector with certificate from health officers that es-

Digitized by



tablishmeDt fulfills saoitary conditions imposed by fac-
tory act and regulations of Board of Health of Prov-

Platforms and elevated passageways must be pro- safeguarda.
vided with guards, belting, cables, and shafts must be
closed in to a height of six feet; pits, cells, wells, traps
and vats must be covered or fenced in; warning pla-
cards must be posted near tanks of corrosive or burn-
ing liquids. Hoist, elevator, and lift shafts must be
closed in with self-closing doors, and shall be examin-
ed every six months. Machinery of all kinds must be
guarded, and may not be oiled, cleaned, or repaired
while in motion.

Owner, tenant, and occupant of proi)erty on which ^«c"on ftrom
establishment is built are jointly and severally respon-
sible for construction and repair of fire escapes. Doors
of egress must open outward, must be left free during
working hours, must close by means of weights or
spring only. In buildings three stories or more high
inspectors may require additional exits and outside
iron fire escape stairs, these exits to consist of doors
or windows opening out upon balcony or gallery. Re-
ceptacles for oil and petroleum must be kept in special
closed rooms. Gas works must be separated from
workshop and in charge of men over 18 years of age.
Places in which explosive or inflammable gases are
produced or kept, must be lighted only from the out-
side and visited only with safety lamps.

In new establishments steam boilers and motors Bouen and
must, if possible, be placed outside of main building. "*'*°"*
In older establishments they may be closed in on side
where work is done, and accessible only to the work-
men in charge. Every boiler must be provided with
not less than two safely valves, a steam guage and two
independent water gauges.

Employer must send to inspector a written notice of Accidenta.
any accident whereby a workman has been killed or
so seriously injured as to prevent his continuing at
work. The notice must be sent within forty-eight
hours of time of accident, and must state where the
person injured or killed has place of residence, or the
place to which he has been removed. The inspectors
may be present at coroner's inquests and at inquiries
by fire marshals. The inspectors may hold such in-
quiries as they deem proper, may examine any person
employed, summon witnesses and administer the oath
to them.

Digitized by



Public buudin««. Public buildings, as well as industrial establish-
ments, are inspected under these laws.

Ldmitatlon of
child labor.

Hours of labor.

SanlUrjr Inspec-


No child under 12 years of age can be employed in
any manufacturing or mercantile establishment. Em-
ployers must keep office register of all minors under
16 years of age. Minors under 16 are not allowed to
clean machinery while in motion.

Hours of labor for women and minors are limited by
law to sixty hours per week, but this is not included
in factory act.

Separate closets for sexes are required, and wash
and dressing rooms for females; to be located to meet
the demands of health and propriety.

Belting, shafting, gearing, drums, and other danger-
ous machinery, and all vats, pans, and other structures
filed with molten metal or hot liquid, must be properly
and securely guarded, and all hoisting shafts, and well
holes be properly secured, and elevators be provided
with traps, automatic doors or railings.

Inspectors are empowered to provide and direct im-
provements in means of egress in case of fire.

Fatal accidents must be reported within forty-eight
hours, and all serious accidents within three weeks
from time of occurrence.*

•Note.— The factory act applies to all establishments where Ave or more women or minors
arc employed.


Protection from


Digitized by


Official Document, No. 15.




Narrative Report, 916

Statlatioal report, '. 918-975

StatisUcal report, bake shops 920, 926, 932, 944, 954, 962, 968, 974

Statistical Report, work shops, 920, 928, 934, 946. 956, 962, 968, 974

Biddle, Judge, decision of, 12


Narrative Report, 554

Statistical reports, 656-643

Statistical Report, bake shops, 560, 576. 610, 634, 640


Narrative Report 860

Statistical Report, 862-913

StatisUcal Report, bake shops, 864, 874, 882, 888, 896, 900, 906, 912

Bake Shop Laws of Pennsylvania, 31



Letter of transmittal, 1

Annual Report of, 8

Summary of work done, 9


Narrative Report, 1126

Statistical Report, 1128-1135

Commonwealth vs. R. & J. R. Beaty 15-22

Connecticut Laws, synopsis of 1145


Adams county 756

Allegheny county 980-1135

Armstrong county 862

Beaver county, 810

Bedford county, 818

( 1161 )


Digitized by




Berks, county, 474

Blair county 866

Bradford county 648

Bucks county, 434

Butler county 876

Cambria county, 882

Cameron county, 656

Carbon county, 508

Centre county, 710

Chester county 386

Clarion county 918

Clearfield county, 890

Clinton county 660

Columbia county, 714

Crawford county 922

Cumberland county, 718

Dauphin county 760

Delaware county, 892

Elk county. 930

Erie county, 934

Fayette county, 822

Forest county,

Franklin coun-ty , 778

Fulton county 828

Greene county, 830

Huntingdon county, 724

Indiana county, 898

Jefferson county, 900

Juniata county 728

Lackawanna county, 566

Lancaster county 400

Lawrence county, 908

Lebanon county, 420

Lehigh county, 514

Luzerne county 578

Lycoming county, 666

McKean county 948

Mercer county 958

Online LibraryPennsylvania. Dept. of Factory InspectionAnnual report of the Factory Inspector of the Commonwealth of ..., Volume 8 → online text (page 92 of 93)