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which moved the pack horses and cattle, the whole flanked on right
and left by the flanking divisions, commanded by Colonel Dubois
and Colonel Ogden, and rear brought up by General Clinton's brig-
ade; in this position the whole moved to the upper end of Tioga
flats, about three miles above Fort Sullivan, where we encamped
for this niglit.

This day disposed of one of my horses to Mr. Bond, captain, on
account of his indisposition ; obtained leave to continue either at
Fort Sullivan or go to Wyoming, until the return of the regiment
from the expedition.
Friday, August 27"*.

On account of some delays this morning, army did not move un-
til half past eight o'clock, a. m. Previous to the marcii, the pi-
oneers, under cover of the rifle corps, were advanced to the first and
second defile or narrows, some miles in front of our encampment,
where they were employed in mending and cutting a road for the
pack to pass. The army marched in same order of yesterday, tiie
counti-y through which they had to pass being exceedingly mount-
ainous and rough, and the slow movements of the pack considerably
impeded the march. About 7 o'clock, p. M., we arrived near the
last narrows, at the lower end of Cliemung, wliere we encamped in
the following order: Light corps near the entrance of the defile or
narrows, and in front of some very extensive corn-fields, some ref-
ugee Tories, now acting with the favour of tlie main army, about


one mile in our rear, and immediately fronting the corn-fields.
After encamping had an agreeable repast of corn, jiotatoes, beans,
cucumbers, water melons, squashes, and utlier vegetables, which
were in great plenty, (produced) from the corn-fields already men-
tioned, and in the greatest perfection ; distance of march this day,
six miles.
Saturday, Augrist 28'".

Fore part of tiiis day being employed by the general and princi-
pal otlicers of the army in reconnoitering the river, and finding out
some fording i)lace for the artillery, pack horses, and cattle to cross
to gain Chemung; the defile or narrows mentioned in my yesterday
journal being so excessively narrow, and, indeed, almost impracti-
cable for them to pass.

The following disposition for the marching of the army took place
accordingly, namely: The rifie corps, with General Maxwell's brig-
ade, and left flanking division of the army, covering the park; pack
horses and cattle crossed to the west side of the river, and about one
and a half mile above re-crossed the same, and formed a junction
on the lower end of Chemung flats witli the light cori)S, Generals
Poor and Clinton's brigades, and right flanking division of the
array, who took their route across an almost inaccessible mountain,
on the east side of the river, the bottom of which forms the nar-
rows already mentioned. The summit was gained with the great-
est difficulty ; on the top of the mountain tlie lands, which are level
and extensive, are exceedingly rich with large timber, chiefly oak,
interspersed witii underwood, and excellent grass. The prospect
from this mountain is most beautiful ; we had a view of the country
of at least twenty miles around ; the fine extensive plains, inter-
spersed with streams of water, made the prospect pleasing and ele-
gant from this mountain. We observed, at some considerable dis.
tance, a number of clouds of smoke arising, where we concluded
the enemy to be encamped.

Previous to the movement of the army this day, a small party of
men were sent across the river in order to destroy some few Indian
huts which were immediately opposite our encampment. Uefore
the business was quite etfected. they were fired upon by a party of
Indians, Avho, after giving the fire, immediately retreated : the
party executed their orders and all returned unhurt to the army.

The scout sent out last evening to reconnoitre the enemy near
Newtown, (an Indian village so-called,) returned this day and re-
ported they discovered a great number of fires, and that they suj)-
posed, from the extensive piece of ground covered b\ the fires, the
enemy must be very formidable, and mean to give us battle. They
likewise discovered four or five small scouting parties on their way
towards this place, it is sui)posed, to reconnoitre our army. Since
our arrival here, a great quantity of furniture was found by our


soldiers which was concealed in the adjacent woods. After form-
ing the junction above mentioned, we took u}) the line of march
and moved to the upper Chemung town, and encamped about 6 o'-
clock, p. M., for this night. Distance of march on a straight course,
about two miles.

From the great quantities of corn and other vegetables here and
in the neiglibourhood, it is supposed they intended to establish their
principal magazine at this place, which seems to be their chief ren-
dezvous, whenever they intend to go to war ; it is the key to the
Pennsylvania and New York frontier. The corn already destroyed
by our army is not less than 5,000 bushels upon a moderate calcula-'
tion, and the quantity yet in the ground in this neighbourhood, is
at least the same, besides which there are vast quantities of beans,
potatoes, squashes, pumpkins, &c., which shared the fate of the
Sunday, Auguii,, tlie artillery began their
attack on the enemy's works. Tlie rifle and light corps in the mean-
time, prepared to advance and charge, but tlie enemy finding their
situation rather precarious, and our troops determined, left, and
retreated from their works with the greatest precipitation, leaving
behind them a number of blankets, gun covers, and kettles, with
corn boiling over tlie fire. Generals Poor, &c., on account of sev-
eral difliculties which they had to surmount, could not effect tlieir
designs, and the enemy probably having intelligence of their ap-
proach, posted a number of troops on the top of a mountain, over
which they had to advance. On their arrival near the summit of
tlie same, the enemy gave them a fire, and wounded several ofllcers
and soldiers. General Poor pushed on and gave them a fire as they
retreated, and killed five of the savages.

In the course of the day we took nine scalps, (all savages,) and
two prisoners, who were separately examined, and gave the follow-
ing corresponding account: That the enemy were seven hundred
men strong, viz: five hundred savages, and two hundred tories,
with about twenty British troops, commanded by a Seneca chief,
the two Butlers, Brant, and McDonald.

The infantry pushed on towards Xewtown ; the main army halted
and encamped near the place of action, near which were several
extensive fields of corn and other vegetables. About G o'clock, p.
M., the infantry returned and encamped near the main army.

Tlie prisoners further informed us that the whole of their party
iiad subsisted on corn only for this fortnight past, and that they
had no otiier provisions with tliem, and that their next place of
rendezvous would be at Catharine's town, an Indian village about
twenty-five miles from this place. Distance of march (exclusive
of counter-marches,) this day, about eight miles.
Monday. Au^ntst soth.

On account of tiie great quantities of corn, beans, potatoes, tur-
nijis, and other vegetables, in destroying of wliicli the troops were
employed, and the tain which set in tiie after part of the day. obliged


us to continue on the ground for this day and night. The troops
were likewise employed in drawing eightdays' provisions, commenc-
ing 1st day of September. The reason of drawing this great quan-
tity at one time, was (however, inconsistent with that economy
whicli is absolutely necessary in our present situation, considering
the extensive campaign before us, and the time, of consequence, it
will require to complete it,) the want of pack horses for transport-
ing tlie same, and in order to expedite this great i)oint in view, are
obliged to substitute our soldiery for carrying the same.

From the great and unparalleled neglect of those persons em-
ployed for the purpose of supplying the western army with every-
tliing necessary to enable them to carry through the important ex-
pedition required of them, Gen. Sullivan was, at this early period,
under the disagreeable necessity of issuing the following address
to the army, which was communicated by the commanding officers
to their corps separately, viz :

"The commander-in-chief informs the troops that he used every
effort to i)rocure proper supplies for the army, and to obtain a suffi.
cient number of horses to transport them, but owing to the inatten-
tion of those whose business it was to make the necessary provision,
he failed of obtaining such an ample supply as he wished, and
greatly fears that the supplies on hand will not, without the greatest
prudence, enable him to complete the business of the expedition.

" He, tlierefore, requests the several brigadiers and officers com-
manding corps to take the mind of tlie troops under their respective
commands, whether tliey will, whilst in this country wliich abounds
with corn and vegetables of every kind, be content to draw one
half of flour, one half of meat and salt a day. And he desires tlie
troops to give their opinions with freedom, and as soon as possible.
Should they generally fall in with the proposal, he promises they
shall be paid that part of the rations whicii is held back at the full
value in money. He flatters himself, that the troops who have dis-
played so much bravery and firmness, will readily consent to fall
in with a measure so essentially necessary to accomplish the import-
ant purpose of the expedition, to enable them to add to the laurels
they have already gained.

" The enemy have subsisted for a number of days on corn only,
without either salt, meat, or flour, and tlie general cannot persuade
himself that troops who so far surpass them in bravery and true
valour, will suffer themselves to be outdone in that fortitude and
perseverance, which not only distinguishes but dignifies the soldier.
He does not mean to continue tliis tlirough the campaign, but only
wishes it to be adopted in those places where vegetables may supply
the place of a part of the common ration of meat and flour, which
will be much better than without any.


"The troops will please to consider the matter, and give their op-
inion as soon as possible." ^

Agreeable to the above address, the army was drawn up (this
evening) in cori)s, separately, and the same, tlirough their com-
manding officers, made known to them, and their opinions requested
thereupon, when tlie whole, witliout a dissenting voice, cheerfully
agreed to the request of the general, which they signified by unan-
imously holding up their hands and giving three cheers. This re-
markable instance of fortitude and virtue cannot but endear those
brave troops to all ranks of people, more particularly as it was so
generally and cheerfully entered into without a single dissenting

Tuesday, A^iyust 31".

Took up our line of march in usual order at 9 o'clock, A. m. ;
marched about four miles and a half through a broken and mount-
ainous country, and an almost continuous defile on the east side of
Cayuga branch, the west of the same for that distance was an ex-
cellent plain, on which large quantities of corn, beans, iiotatoes, and
other vegetables stood, and were destroyed by us the preceding day.
We then crossed Cayuga branch, where it forks witii a stream of
water running east and west, and landed on a most beautiful piece
of country remarkably level. On the banks of the same stood a
small Indian village, which was immediately destroyed. The sol-
diers found great quantities of furniture, &c., which was buried,
some of which they carried off, and some was destroyed. About 2
o'clock, p. M., we proceeding along the i>ath which leads to Catli-
arine's town, (an Indian village,) and leaves the Cayuga branch on
its left. About 5 o'clock, p. m., we encamped on a most beautiful
plain, interspersed with marshes, well calculated for meadows;
wood chiefly pine, interspersed with hazel brushes, and great quan-
tities of grass; distance of march this day, 10 miles.
Wednesday, September i".

About 9 o'clock, p. m., whole army moved in good order, on a
level liiece of ground. About 11 o'clock, A. M., we entered an ex-
tensive hemlock swamji, not less than six miles through ; the path
through almost impassible, owing to tlie number of defiles, long
ranges of mountains, ravine after ravine, interspersed with thick
underwood, &c. The infantry, with the greatest difficulty, got
through about half past nine o'clock, p. m. The remainder of the
army, with the pack horses, cattle, «&c., were chiefly the whole night
employed in getting through.

As the infantry were approaching Catharine's town, we were
alarmed by the howling of dogs, and other great noise. A few of
the riflemen were disi)atched in order to reconnoiter the place. In
the meantime we formed in two solid columns, with fixed bayonets,


with positive orders not a man to fire his gun, but to rush on in case
the enemy should make a stand ; but the riflemen who had been
sent to reconnoiter the town, returned with the intelligence the en-
emy had left it. We then immediately altered our position on ac-
count of the narrowness of tlie road, and marched in files through
tlie first part of the town, after which we crossed the creek; in a
field immediately opposite, where there stood a number of houses,
also where we encamped, and substituted the timber of the houses
in room of fire-wood. On our arrival, we found a number of fires
burning, which appeared as if they had gone off precipitately.
This days' march completed 12 miles.
Thuksday, Sept. 2^.

The dismal situation of our pack horses and cattle, of which sev-
eral were killed by falling into ditches, and several otherwise dis-
abled in getting through this horrid swamp last evening, prevented
our march this morning. The fore part of this day was entirely
employed in collecting them, which, from their scattered and dis-
persed situation, was attended witli the greatest difficulty.

"We, this morning found an old squaw, who, we suppose, by rea-
son of her advanced age, could not be carried off, and therefore was
left to our mercy. On examining her, she informed us that the
Indians, on our approach last evening, went off very precipitately.
That the women and children had gone off in the morning, to take
shelter in some mountains, until the army had passed them. That
Colonel Butler promised he would send back some warriors, who
should conduct them by bye- ways to some place of safety. She fur-
ther adds, that previous to the squaws going off, there was great
contention with them and the warriors about their going off. The
former had determined on staying, and submitting to our gener-
osity; the latter opposed it, and informed them that, by such a
step, the Americans would be able to bring them to any terms they
pleased ; whereas, did they go off, they would have it in their power
to come to more favorable terms, should a treaty of any kind be

Catharine's town is pleasantly situated on a creek, about three
miles from Seneca lake : it contained nearly fifty houses, in gen-
eral very good, the country near it very excellent. We found sev-
eral very fine corn-fields, which afforded the greatest plenty of corn,
beans, &c., of which, after our fatiguing march, we had an agree-
able repast. After getting everything in perfect readiness, we
took up our line of march at 7 o'clock, this morning. The roads
from this place for about one mile, was rather difficult and swampy.
We then ascended a rising country, which was in general level,
excepting a few defiles which we had to pass, but were by no rea-
son dangerous or difiicult. The lands are rich, abounding with fine,


large and clear timber, chiefly white oak, hickory, walnut, and ash ;
abounded on the left for about tliree miles with excellent marsh or
meadow ground, after which proceeds the beautiful Seneca lake,
which abounds with all kinds of fish, i)articrdarly salmon, trout,
rock, tliat wliich resembles i)erch, as also sheep-liead. Previous to
our leaving tliis jjlace, tlie S(iuaw which was taken here, was left,
and a hut erected, of which she took possession. A quantity of
wood was also gathered, and carried to the hut for her use. She
was also provided with a quantity of provisions. All these favours
had such an effect on her, that it drew tears from her savage eyes.
It is about three miles in breadth, and about forty miles in length.
Upon the right, though consideraljly up the country, is anotlier de-
lightful lake, called Cayuga lake, abounds with all kinds of fish
also, and is about forty-six miles in length.

We proceeded along this beautiful country about twelve miles,
and encamped near a corn-field, on which stood several Indian
cabins; having between the light corps and main army an advant-
ageous ravine, and bounded on our left by Seneca lake.

Previous to our arrival here, the Indians who occupied the cabins
already mentioned, probably discovered our api)roach, pushed off
precipitately, leaving their kettles with corn boiling over the fire.
During our march this day, we discovered several trees with the
following characters newly cut on them by those savages com-
manded by Brant and the Butlers, and with whom we had the ac-
tion on the 29th ultimo.

Saturday, Fcptemher 4th.

On account of the rain this morning, the army did not move until
10 o'clock, A. M. We passed througli a delightful level country,
the soil of wliich very rich, the timber fine and hirge, interspersed
Avith hazel bushes, fine grass, and pea vines. On our march we dis-
covered several fires burning, which fully intimated some of the
savages were not far off in front of us. We destroyed several fields
of corn, and, after a march of thirteen miles, we encamped in the
woods, in the front of a very large ravine, and about half a mile
from Seneca lake. On account of some difliculties with the pack-
horses, &c., the main army did not reach so far as the infantry,
and encamped about two miles in their rear.

Sunday, Sept. 5ih.

About 9 o'clock, this morning, the army moved through a coun-
try much the same as yesterday. About 12 o'clock, we arrived at
Canadia, about three miles from the last encampment, where we
encamped for this night. Previous to our arrival, we entered sev-
eral corn-fields, and furnished the men with two days" allowance
of the same. The riflemen wiio were advanced, re-took a prisoner,
who was taken last year by the savages, on the east branch of the


Susquehanna. An Indian, who lay concealed, fired, but without
effect on our rillemen, and immediately lied. On examining this
prisoner, he informed us that Brandt, with near a thousand sav-
ages, including Butler's Rangers, left this town last Friday, seem-
ingly much frightened and fatigued, that they were pushing for
Kanadauaga, an Indian village, where tliey mean to make a stand,
and give us battle. He further informs us, that exclusive of a
considerable number of savages killed and wounded in the action
of tlie 29th, seven Tories were killed. That all their wounded, with
some dead, were carried in canoes, up the Cayuga branch. That
they allow they sustained a very heavy loss in that action.

Canadia is much the finest village we have yet come to. It is
situated on a rising ground, in the midst of an extensive apple and
peach orchard, within half a mile of Seneca lake. It contains about
forty well finished houses, and every thing about it seems neat and
well improved.
Monday, Sept. 6th.

The forepart of the day was entirely employed in hunting up our
horses and cattle, a number of which were lost. About two o'clock,
we took up our line of march, and moved about three miles, when
we encamped on a beautiful I'iece of woodland, (interspersed with
vast quantities of pea vines, which served for food for our horses,)
our rear covered by the lake, our flank ly considerable ravines.

On the fourth, whilst on our march, several officers' waiters, who
had delayed in the rear, lost tlie path along which the army moved,
and towards night, found themselves near an Indian village, which
had been previously evacuated. They found a quantity of plunder,
which they brought off, first putting the town in flames. A cap-
tain and a party, on missing, being sent in pursuit, and fell in with
them as they were returning to the encamping place occupied by
the army the preceding day, and conducted them safe to the army
at Canadia.

An express from Tioga, with packets, &c., for the army, arrived
this day at head-quarters— received several letters from my friends.
Tuesday, ScjA. 7th.

At half past seven o'clock, the army moved, and arrived at the
head of tjie lake about 2 o'clock, r. Ji. The country we passed
through was exceedingly fine, and chiefly along the water for eight
miles and a half.

About 3 o'clock, p. m., the rifle and infantry corps crossed at the
mouth of the lake, about knee deep, and not above thirty yards
wide. On our arrival on the opposite siiore, we imiuediatdy en-
tered a dangerous and narrow defile, bounded on the left by the
head of Seneca lake, and on our right by a large morass, and flooded
at intervals, well calculated to form an ambuscade. From every


circumstance, both as to intelligence and the great advantage the
enemy might have had from its situation, we fairly expected an at-
tacli. However, we moved tluough in files, supported by the two
flanking divisions, and gained the other side. The main army

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