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.PUl P43
L856
2. 1



Statistics of the colored people of Pt
Benjamin C. Bacon, and pu"blished by orde
cation of "The Pennsylvania Society for
of Slavery," etc. Philadelphia, T.E. Ci



THE EISENHOWER LIBRARY




1151 02743 6595



STATISTICS ^



or THE



COLORED PEOPLE



PHILADELPHIA.



TAKEN BY



BENJAMIN C. BACON,



AND PUBLISHED BY ORDER OP THE



BOARD OF EDUCATION OF "THE PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY FOR
PROMOTING THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY," ETC.



PHILADELPHIA :
T. ELLWOOD CHAPMAN,

NO. 1 SOUTH FIFTH STKEET,
1856.



At a Stated Meeting of the Board of Education of the " Penusylvania Society
for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, &c.," held 12th mo. 8th, 1853, the Com- '
mittee appointed to report a plan of collecting Statistics, &c., produced the fol-
lowing, which was accepted.

To the Board of Education.

The Committee appointed to consider of, and report to the Board the best '■
method of ascertaining the present state of education among the colored popu-
lation of our city and disiricts, in order that those who succeed us in this con-
cern may at future periods, have some data from which they can form an estimate
of the progress made by this class of our citizens in school learning, &c.

Recommend, That with the concurrence of the Society, our Visiting Agent be
instructed to collect and arrange in tabular form the following and such other
items of information as may be thought necessary to represent the present state
of education among them, in addition to the duties heretofore assigned him,
viz : —

The number over twenty years of age who can read and write and who under-
stand the simple rules of arithmetic.

The number over twenty years of age who can read and write legibly,
do. do. who can read only,

do. do. Slave born,

do. do. born free in Slave States,

do. do. who cannot read or write,

do. of Libraries, date of organization, number of volumes, &c.,

do. of Literary Societies, date of organization, &c.,

do. of children attending schools, and whether Public or Private

Schools.
do. of children over eight years old, not attending School.

Your Committee further recommend that the Agent be directed to ascertain
the number employed as teachers, the number of artizans, the number who have
learned trades, the number who work at their trades, and the number employed
in the higher departments of labor, such as clerkships, &c. &c., so that our suc-
cessors may also be enabled to note their progress in these respects.
POWELL STACKHOUSE,-)
BENJAMIN COATES, I ^

BENJAMIN C. BACON, f" Committee.
SIMEON COLLINS, J

Philadelphia, Uth mo. Sth, 1853.

In accordance with the recommendation of the Report, Benjamin C. Baco.n
was appointed, in Fourth Month, 1854, to perform the service therein named ;
and at the stated meeting of the Board in First Month, 1856, DiLLWix Parrisii,
Joshua T. Jeanes, and Benjamin Coates were appointed to assist the agent in
its revision and publication.

DILLWYN PARRISH,
Chairman of the Board of Education.
T. Elxwood Chapman, Secretary.



PREFATORY NOTE.



Those friends of the Colored people of this city, who have visited
their Week-day and First-day Schools for a number of past years, notice
with pleasure their greatly improved condition. Those who have, for a
like period, mingled with adults in their Evening Schools, Libraries,
Literary Associations and Churches, are much gratified to see how
steadily they advance in knowledge and refinement.

The want of well authenticated facts relative to the number, charac-
ter and condition of their various schools, and the state of education
among adults, as they were thirty or forty years ago, has long been
seriously felt. By comparing the present with past periods of their
history, such information would enable all concerned in vindicating the
character and rights of this oppressed people more effectually to repel
the slanders of their enemies, and to correct the erroneous impressions
of some of their friends, respecting their readiness and capacity to ac-
quire learning.

The facts having been collected by a personal canvass of a member
of the Society, in whose ability and integrity they have full confidence,
are believed to be correct.

Philadelphia, First month, (.lamiary,') 1856.



STATISTICAL INQUIRY.

I. DAY AND EVENIXa SCHOOLS.
In the spring of 1853, the Board published a report of their School
A"-ent, containing a comparative statement of the condition of these
schools for the months of January and February, in the years 1852 and
1853. The following revised edition of that report, contains a sketch
of their history for the year 1854 : —

1. Public Schools.*

Grammar Schools, (a) Sixth street above Lombard. Established
in 1822. Boys' school, James M. Bird, Principal, and three female
assistants ; total 228 ; average attendance 208. Girls' school, Maria
C. Hutton, Principal, and three assistants. Total 252 ; average at-
tendance 193.

Primary School, in the same building. Established in 1841. Jane
Barry, Principal, and two assistants. Boys 105; Girls 98; total 183 ;
average attendance 150.

Roberts Vaux Unclassified School, Coates street near Fifth. Estab-
lished in 1833. David R. Murrell, Principal, and one female assistant.
Boys 112 ; Girls 24 ; total 136; average attendance 93.

West Philadelphia Unclassified School, Oak street. Established in
1830. Mary A. Delamater, Principal, and one assistant. Boys 46 ; Girls
51 ; average attendance 78.

Corn Street Unclassified School. Established in 1849. Sarah L.
Peltz, Teacher. Boys 18 ; Girls 29 ; total 47 ; average attendance 32.

Frankford Unclassified School. Established in 1839. William
Coffee, Teacher. Boys 18 ; Girls 13 ; total 31 ; average attendance 25.

Holmesburg Unclassified School. Established in 1854. Maria Shade,
Teacher. Boys 13 ; Girls 12; total 25 ; average attendance 19.

Banneher School, Paschalville. Established in 1841. E. M. Biddle,
Teacher. Boys 16 ; Girls 16 ; total 32 ; average attendance 15.

• The total number and average attendance of these schools, was taken from
the Controller's last Report. In consequence of the Consolidation Act, the
year was changed from July to January, so that the Report is for one year and
a half.

{a) Schools thus marked have Libraries.



The condition of Colored Public Schools generally, was formerly not
as good as that of the Charity schools, but they have improved very
much within a few years past. Owing to remissness on the part of
parents, about twelve years ago the Grammar schools were on the point
of being given up. The alarm was given— public meetings were held by
the colored people, and an agent of their own appointed to visit from house
to house and urge the people to duty. Our Board was also actively en-
gaged in the matter. The schools were saved, and for the last three
years have so increased in numbers that one teacher has been added to
each school, making the full complement. The school house has re-
cently been remodelled.

Within the past year very marked changes have taken place in the
West Philadelphia school, and the St. Mary's street Primary school.
The former has been Removed from the hovel in which it was so
long kept, to the basement of the Colored Baptist Church, and has so
increased in numbers that the Directors have added another teacher, and
are desirous of getting a still larger room. The latter school has been
removed from its former bad location to the basement story of the
Grammar schools in Sixth street, which has been fitted up on purpose
for its accommodation. Since its removal, the better class of parents
do not object to sending their children to it, and the number of scholars
has increased so much that extra seats have been introduced.

2. Charity Schools.*

Institute for Colored Youth, (a) Lombard street above Seventh. Es-
tablished in 1852. Charles L. Keason, Principal, Grace Mapes, assist-
ant Teacher in the Female deparatment. Males 15 ; Females 16 ; total
31 ; average attendance 26. «

Easpherry Street Schools, (a) corner of Locust and Raspberry streets.
Established in 1770. Boys' School, -John W. Stokes, Principal, and one
female assistant; total 90; average attendance 64. Girls' School,
Martha Cox, Principal, and one assistant; total 79; average attend .
ance 53.

AdelpM School,{a) Wager street. The Girls' department established
in 1838, the Infant department in 1835. Girls' department, Anna M.
Kite, Principal, and one assistant; total 70; average attendance 42. In-
fant department, Catharine Shipley, Principal, and one assistant; total
95; average attendance 61.

Sheppard School, (ci) Randolph street above Parrish. Established

* The year of these schools begins about the first of September, and ends
with the following summer vacation.



in 1850, Anna Buzby, Principal, and one assistant, total 60 ; average
attendance 40.

School for the Destitute at the House of Industry, corner of Seventh
and Catharine streets. Established in 1848. Sarah Lewis, Principal,
and two assistants; total both sexes 100 ; average attendance 75.

School for the Destitute, Lombard street above Seventh. Established
in 1851. Sarah Luciana, Teacher, total both sexes 73 ; average at-
tendance 45.

Infant School, corner of South and Clifton streets. Established in
1827. S. C. Swan, Principal, and two assistants; total 150; average
attendance 85.

The unpretending title of the " Institute for Colored Youth," does
not convey an adequate idea of the relation it sustains to the other
schools. It is, in fact, the pioneer High School, and on that account
alone cannot be too highly appreciated. But for the liberal spirit of
the Trustees of the several funds given for its endowment, there might
be nothing to answer the purpose of a High school for many years to
come. Having commenced with seven pupils only, the present state of
the school is all the more gratifying.

A considerable number of the scholars belonging to both the Raspberry
street ;and Adclphi Girls' schools are so large and backward, that they
would be ashamed to enter the Public Primary schools, and would do
so reluctantly, if at all. Hence their greater usefulness. Adults are
sometimes seen in the two former.

The Sheppard school is a great blessing to the part of the city in
which it is located. As it is quite select, and as none but girls attend
it, a large portion of those who fill its 'seats would sooner stay at home
than go to Coates' street School.

The two schools for the destitute are objects of increasing interest. The
Managers of the one at the House of Industry, introduced the indus-
trial feature in a small way during the late fall and winter. A shoe-
maker was employed to superintend, and materials furnished for the
larger boys to work up into shoes, for the use of the school. The ex-
periment was satisfiietory. The one in Lombard street is much better
accommodated than formerly. Since the removal to their new location,
a successful experiment has been made in a limited way, to introduce
the home feature. Twelve of the children have been indentured to the
Teacher, with power to bind them out as fast as she finds suitable
places for them. .The usefulness of both schools would be greatly in-



creased, if the majority of the children who attend them could be con-
trolled in the same manner.

As no public provision is made for the instruction of children too
young to attend the Primary schools, the two infant schools are watched
with deep interest. They are both in a very satisfactory state.

3. Schools connected with Benevolent and Reformatory In-
stitutions.*

House of Refuge, (a) corner of Poplar and William streets. Estab-
lished in 1850 ; supported in part by the State. The Boys' school has
a principal and one assistant male teacher. Largest number of in-
mates at any one time 88 ; average for the year 75 ; sessions from 5 to
7J A. M., and from 5j to 8 P. M., the evening session on Saturday
being omitted.

The Girls' school has one female teacher. Largest number of inmates
at any one time 44 ; average for the year 36 ; one session from 2 to 5
P, M. Being schools of discipline as well as of instruction, the order
is excellent, and the scholars make fair progress in their studies. Their
last session in the week is principally devoted to reading the Bible or
sacred history. A considerable number of the boys, when not in school,
work at some useful trade. The girls are occupied with making gar-
ments, mending, washing and other domestic duties out of school.

Orjyhans' Shelter, Thirteenth street above Callowhill. Established
in 1822, under the care of an association of women Friends. It has a
principal and one assistant feaiale teacher, and is conducted principally
upon the infant school plan. Number of inmates at the close of the
year 73. There are always a few too small to be in school. Being ap-
prenticed at an early age, there are seldom any over ten years old to
attend.

Home for Colored Children, Girard avenue above Ridge Road, Es-
tablished in 18. o5. It is under the control of a board of lady managers,
assisted by a board of male trustees. It contains at present 19 inmates.
Its design is to take the entire control of destitute colored children of
both sexes, instruct them mentally and morally, and place them as ap-
prentices in some useful occupation with persons interested in their
welfare. It is proposed to incorporate the Institution, procure funds,
and erect a building adapted to the purpose, which will accommodate the
numerous applicants who seek the protection which such a home affords.

* The reports of these Institutions are made for each calender year.



4. Private Schools.



Sarah M. Douglass, Institute Building, Lombard street
above Seventh, . . . -

Margaretta Forten, 92 Lombard street,
Amelia Bogle, 12th street below Spruce,
Adam S. Driver, Barclay street above Sixth, -
Elizabeth Clark, corner Fifth and Gaskill streets,
Emeline Higgins, 4 Raspberry street, - - -

Ada Hinton, 6 Locust street, - - - -

Sarah Gordon, 9 Rodman street, . . -

Diana Smith, Prusperous Alley, . _ -

Emeline Curtis, G2 Gaskill street,
Sarah Ann Gordon, Bonsall street above Tenth,
Ann McCormick, Brown street above Fourth, -
George W. Johnson, Lombard street above Seventh, -



Summary of the Day Schooh.



Public Schools,

Charity Schools,

Benevolent and Reformatory Schools,

Private Schools,



Estab-


Number of


lished in


Schol.irsonroll.


1835


30


1850


10


1841


17


1850


37


1850


40


1840


30


1849


20


1849


30


1836


15


1850


12


1852


20


1854


30


1854


40




Average


Total.


Attendance.


1031


821


748


491


211




331





S. M. Douglass teaches higher branches than are taught in Public
G-rammar Schools. The Managers of the Institute in whose building
her school is kept, have made an arrangement 'with her by which she
will at all times have 25 girls preparing for admission into their school.

M. Forten and A. Hinton teach branches similar to those taught in
Grammar Schools, the former being the only one that takes boarding
scholars. All the others teach nothing more than the elementary
branches. The proprietors of female schools all teach plain sewing, and
most of them add ornamental kneedle work, and knitting.

5. Evening Schools.

E-aspberry Street Schools commence on the first Monday in October
and continue five months. Five sessions are held each week.

Mens' School, John W. Stokes, Principal, and three male' assistants.
Total 138 ; average attendance 50.

Womens' School, Mary Roberts, Principal, and four assistants. Total
255 ; average attendance 63.

Apprentices and Young Men's School At the New Institute commences
on the first Monday in November and continues four months. Charles
L. Reason, Teacher.

The Raspberry Street Schools were established many years ago, and
were formerly conducted by voluntary teachers. They always enjoyed
a large share of the public confidence, but since the paid system of



teaching was introduced, they have become more efficient than ever be-
fore. None are admitted to the Men's School under 18 years of age.

The school taught by C L. Reason happily supplies the wants of ap-
prentices and others who cannot attend Day Schools, but are too young
to enter the Raspberry Street School.

Gkneral Remarks.

The teachers of the Institute for Colored Youth, and of all the private
schools, are of their own complexion. All the others are white.

Xo register is kept in any school denoting standard of scholarship,
nor is there any system of rewards for exciting emulation.

When the Sheppard School was established it was feared by some that
the Coates Street School would be injured thereby, but the contrary
proves to be fact. So, also, some feared that the Grammar Schools
would be injured by the establishment of the Institute for Colored
Youth, but the former were never so well attended, or in so prosperous
a state as at present.

The irregular attendance of scholars, (unavoidable in a majority of
cases) particularly in the larger and more advanced schools, imposes
considerable extra labor upon teachers, prevents a thorough classification,
and makes the recitations less spirited than they otherwise would be.
Of all men and women who labor for the good of others, none are more
deserving than the faithful teachers of these schools.

It would be interesting to know the amount of school tax paid by
this people, but the expense already incurred by the Board is so great
that it is not practicable to procure the information at present. The
census taken by our Society in 1837-8 showed very clearly that they
paid something more than their proportion of poor tax, and it is pre-
sumed that they have not been of late years, if ever, deficient in their
proportion of school tax.

The number of children over 8 years of age, and under 18, not in
school was found to be 1620. As the canvass was mostly made in the
spring and summer, it is quite probable that the number is nearer 2000
during the fall and winter months.



10



II. SUNDAY SCHOOLS.

1. Schools attached to their own congregations and conducted hxj their

own teachers.



First Biptist, corner Eleventh and Pearl streets,
Union Baptist, Little Pine street above Sixth, -
Shiloh Baptist, corner Clifton and South streets,
Oak street Baptist, Oak street, West Philadelphia,
Bethel, Sixth street above Lombard, - - - -
Brick Weslej, Lombard street below Sixth, - -
Union, Goates street below York Avenue, - -
Little Wesley, Hurst street below Lombard. -
Zoar, Brown street about Fourth, ...'.-
Mount Pisgah, Locust st. above Till, West Phila.
Israel, corner Fifth and Gaskill streets, - - -

Frankford,

Holmesburg, -.-.

Little Wesley Mission, Seventh street below Dick-

erson, - - -._.._-
Allen Chapel, rear T2 Christian street, - - -
First Presbyterian, Seventh street below Shippen,
Second do. St. Mary street above Sixth,
Central do. Lombard street below Ninth,
St. Thomas, corner Fifth and Adelphi streets, -



t « ? 5



I.S,



111


It


5^ =

Is
=1'


vo


24


2


47


14





48


32


1


44


10





524


76


97


116


76


65


67


147


5


100


81


87


80


5


55


39


13


45


78


15


15


57








23


5


18


50


10





20


10





40


10





25


2





66


32





183


15





1677


577


390



fM



92

61

79

54

503

127

209;

102

30

7

78

57

10



198



55



2. Schools under the supervision of White Missions and Individuals.



St. Andrew's Church, Phil. Ins., Lombard street
above Seventh. Female Department. -
Male do.

Infant School, - - -



Ladies Union City Mission, corner Seventh street
and Bradford's Alley. Infant School, -

Young Men's City Mission,' Bedford street below
Eighth, -

Family of Morris L. Hallowell, 211 Filbert street,



55


12


35


4


40


1



230j
651



24! 27



The schools connected with the Brick AVesIey and Union Methodist
Churches were conducted wholly by white teachers from the time they
were established till about ten years ago, when they came under their
own supervision. Two important objects were gained by this assump-
tion of new duties, viz : —An increased spirit of self reliance in their con-
gregations, and the mental improvement of those employed as teachers.



11



III. ADULT EDUCATION.

1. Table sJwiomg the number loho can read, write and cypher, &c.



1


ft
511


2

i-


g
1


1
a

6


II


223


25


23


47


128


136


349


36


54


76


183


156


275


60


48


68


99


118


1427


262


199


273


693


561


1818


350


285


310


873


747


151


21


25


34


71


41


1867


431


337


311


788


708


969


204


192


199


374


356


76


20


16


19


21


24


208


40


39




1

Online LibraryPennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition oStatistics of the colored people of Philadelphia → online text (page 1 of 2)