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by other cities which do not seem to have belonged to the
alliance, but only desired to express the same anti-Spartan
tendency, such cities as Lampsacus, and even the distant

Any one can see how such facts as these add colour and
warmth to the dry narratives of Xenophon and Diodorus. It
is true that at present it would not be easy to put together
many instances so clear and so striking. But much will be
done by closer study. Mr. Evans, in his Horsemen of Tarentum,
has succeeded in some cases with greater, in some with lesser,
probability in emphasizing by the evidence of coins all the
chief events of the history of Tarentum. Equally minute and
exact work on other series of coins would yield a like harvest.
Every gold and silver coin issued by Greek cities was struck
on a particular standard. The question why the standard was
chosen may sometimes be easily answered, but very often the
reasons are by no means obvious, and a search into them will


bring to light fresh and unexpected relations of a political or
commercial kind between various Greek states. So the reason
for which the patronage of a coinage was assigned to one deity
rather than another is often far to seek ; it is by no means
always the most prominent among the cults of a city which
receives most recognition on its coins.

Nevertheless, as in other branches of Greek art, so in this, it
is easy to misread the testimony of the monuments. A few
observations on this subject may be useful.

We must never lose sight of the psychological side of ancient
numismatics, nor overlook the purpose for which coins were
struck and issued. This purpose was, at least in the autono-
mous age of Greece, primarily commercial ; coins were struck
as a measure of value and a medium of exchange. This main
intention was crossed by many others, acting in some cases con-
sciously and in some unconsciously. The desire to procure and
to recognize the help of the gods in all city affairs, the refusal
to tolerate what was ugl}^ or unmeaning, the love of artistic
variety, a desire to indicate who was responsible for the weight
and quality of the money, these and other motives conditioned
the production of coins ; but the main questions were as to
their reception in the markets of home and of other cities,
whether they would be accepted by correspondents or merce-
naries or tax gatherers. Only thus can we account for such
facts as that Athens through all her history issued coins
bearing an archaic or unsatisfactory head of her guardian
goddess, and that Sicyon adhered always to the ugly and
trivial type of the chimaera. But the failure of the most
artistic cities to produce a beautiful coinage is made up for by
the success in this matter of Tarentum and Syracuse, Cyzi-
cus and Lampsacus, and many other places, some of which,
like Terina and Caulonia, are scarcely mentioned by historians.

Archaeologists have in the past often been misled in dealing


with numismatic testimony through underestimating the spon-
taneous vitality of Greek art. They have often been unable
to imagine that when great sculptors in a city were setting up
some world-famed statue, the die-cutter could fail, in treating
the same theme, to be influenced by their work. It is very
natural to expect to find, on the coins of Elis of the middle of
the fifth century, a reflex of the statue of the Olympian Zeus
by Pheidias, and on the coins of Rhegium of the same date to
look for traces of the style of the sculptor Pythagoras. But
the expectation is not usually justified. Greek art was a thing
so sensitive to circumstance, so calculated in regard to condi-
tions of space and purpose, that an artist who made the die of
a coin would think primarily of the coin, and of the subject
as adapted to the shape and purpose of the coin. Besides this,
the men who worked upon coins and gems probably belonged
to families with whom such work was hereditary, and not to
the same social class as the great sculptors. Thus as a rule
the sculptor, the vase-painter, and the die-engraver pursue
each his own course independently. In the learned Hellen-
istic age, which was beginning to dwell on the past, and which
cherished temples and their contents as moderns cherish cathe-
drals of the Middle Ages, there is more copying of great statues.
For example, the coins of Messene reproduce the statue of Zeus
by Ageladas, and the coins of Epidaurus, the gold and ivory
statue of Asklepios by Thrasymedes of Paros. But even in
such cases as these, what we have is rather a translation than
a copy ; attitude is preserved rather than style or character.

In Roman times, and especially in the learned and art-loving
age of the Antonines, we find upon the coins of Greek cities
a large number of intentional and tolerably faithful copies of
the monuments of the great age, temples, statues, and the like,^

1 See Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner, Numismatic Commentary on Pau-
sanias, Quaritch, 1887, and Mr. Frazer's Pausanias, passim.

264 A GRAMMAR OF GREEK ART chap, xvi

which copies, small as they are, and governed by certain con-
ventions which require to be carefully considered, often serve
to identify existing works of art, or give us useful informa-
tion as to details of such as are lost. Some archaeologists,
especially in recent years, have been disposed to undervalue
this source of knowledge, the reason being that they are not
well enough acquainted with the grammar of Greek coin-types,
and fall into the error, of which I have more than once spoken,
of comparing the copy directly with the original without ab-
stracting the modifications which the copyist would as a matter
of style be certain to make.

It is a noteworthy fact that here, at the very end of the his-
tory of Greek art, we come again to the same phenomena which
impressed us in dealing with its origin. Here again it is not
a transcript which the artist makes of the building or the
statue which he would copy, but a translation based on an
impression in the memory. As to fact, he is careless; he will
reduce the number of pillars in a temple, or if he has a reason,
alter its form ; he will open it out in front to show the statue
within; he will give us what he thinks important, and not what
he thinks unimportant. In the same way he will modify the
pose of a statue freely, or raise the hand to display the attri-
bute ; he will not be exact, but he will freely represent what
seem to him the leading features of the work. With this
curious point of contact between archaic and Roman Greece
we may fittingly conclude.


Accumulation of beauty, 99.

Achilles, lilO, 215.

Aegiuetan pediments, 81, 92.

Aeschylus, 237 ; Persae of, 123.

Alexander the Great, 113, 147.

Alexandria, 242.

Alliance coins, 260.

Allusion, 13.3.

Amphiaraus' departure, 64.

Anthropomorphism, 103, 106.

Antigone, 235.

Apelles, 24.

Apollodorus, 144.

Archerraus, 78.

Argonauts, 136.

Aristotle on art, 19.

Asia on vase, 123.

Athena, birth of, 116; contest of,

Poseidon, 117.
Athenian dedications, 44.
Athletic art, 18, 97.
Attributes of deities, 106.

Bacchylides, 231.
Balance in vases, 169.
Beard, treatment of, 73.
Beauty, of race, 97, 99.
Black-figured ware, 154.
Boutmy, E., 28, 38.
Briseis, 215.
Bronze sculpture, 76.
Brucke, E., 99.
Brygus, 247.
Butcher, S. H., 20.

Catagrapha, 129.
Cella, 31.

Chios, school of, 78.
Chiton, 45, 50.
Chlamys, 45, 52.
Choisy, A., 28, 36.

Chorus scheme, 192.
Cimon of Cleonae, 127-129.
Clearchus, 76.
Cliton, 17.
Coins, 254.

Colouring of temples, 37; of sculp-
ture, 92; of tablets, 146.
Contamination, 198.
Cyclops, 224.
Cypria, 245, 250.

Daraareteion, 259.
Dancing, 21.

Decoration of vases, 164.
Decorative art, 79.
Delphic dedication, 122.
Denneker, 20.
with Diadumenus, 65.
Dion, 259.
Dipoenus, 75.
Discobolus, 23, 61.
Doric dress, 45.
Doryphorus, 22, 69.
Drama, Greek, 20.
Drapery, 53.

Eclecticism, 99.

Epic, the, and vase-paintings, 211.

Ethos, 24.

Eumarus, 127-128.

Eumenides, 237.

Euripides, 239, 245.

Eye, treatment of, 71.

Forms of vases, 160.
Frieze, the, 87.
Frontality, law of, 56.

Generic, the, 14-
Geometric ware, 153.
Geryon on vase, 155.



Goodyear, W. H., 40.
Gravity, Hue of, 171.
Guillaume, E., 23.

Hair, treatment of, 72.

Hammered work, 76.

Harpy Tomb, 43.

Head, form of, 68.

Hellas, on vase, 123.

Herakles, schemes of, 183.

Hiero, 167, 1<»3, 215, 247.

Himation, 45, 49.

Homer and vase-paintings, 211.

Horror vacvi, 53, 166.

Hymns, Homeric, 228.

Idealism, 9.
Iliad, the, 245.
Individualism, 14.
Inlays, 75.
Ionic dress, 42.
Iphigeneia, sacrifice of, 147.
Iphigeneia in Tauris, 239.
Isocephalism, 91.
Issus, battle of, 147.

Kamareis ware, 153.
Krater, 160.
Kypselus, chest of, 75.

Lange, A., 59, 143, 148.

Locality, representation of, 202.

Ltiwy, E., 56, 62.

Lucian, 27.

Lyric poetry and vases, 230.

Lysicrates, monument of, 91, 228.

Lysippus, 67-

Marble sculpture, 77.
Mausoleum frieze, 89.
Medeia, 236.
Megaron, 30.
Messenger scheme, 192.
Metope, the, 86, 93.
Micon, 24, 133, 137, 139, 143.
Mimetic art, 20.
Mycenaean age, 4.
Mycenaean vases, 153,
Myron, 23, 61.
Myth and painting, 189.

Narration, continuous, 204.
Naturalism, 11.
Naxian statue, 59.
Nereids, 141.
Nike of Delos, (51.
Niobidae, 136.

Odyssey and vases, 224.

Oedipus, 201.

Oenochoe, 160.

Olympian pediments, 82, 83.

Orestes at Delphi, 237.

Paris, judgment of, 244.

Parrhasius, 17.

Parthenon, the, 31 ; frieze of, 89, 121 ;

metopes, 118; pediments, 116.
Pathos, 26.
Pediment, the, 81, 84.
Penrose, F. C, 38.
Persae vase, 123.
Personifications of locality, 202.
Perspective, 132.
Perspective on vases, 178, 194.
Pheidias, 24.
Plato on art, 18.
Pliny on painting, 127.
Poetics of Aristotle, 19.
Polycleitus, 22, 24, 65, 69.
Polygnotus, 24, 127, 131^3.
Pompeian paintings, 241.
Portrait-sculpture, 101.
Praxiteles, 24, 26, 67, 69.
Preraphaelites, 13.
Proportion, 33.

Realism, 11.

Red-figured ware, 156.

Religious art, 103.

Religion, civic, 109, 122; strata in, 109.

Rhesus, horses of, 221.

Rhoecus, 76.

Rhythm, 23, 33.

Robert, C, 189, 207.

Sarcophagi, 24'2.

Sarcophagus of Sidon, 94, 113.

Schemes, use of, 182.

Scopas, 24, 26.

Scyllis, 75.

Selinus, metopes of, 59.



Sirens, 224.
Socrates on art, 17.
Sophocles, 245, 250.
Spacial relations, 80, 165.
Statues on coins, 264.
Stesichorus, 230.
Subjects of the epic, 212.
Symbolism, Oriental, 105.
Symmetry, 22 ; in vases, 169.

Tarentine vases, 159, 197, 235.

Tectonic principles, 169.

Telecles, 57.

Tenean Apollo, 67.

Themis, 252.

Theodorus, 57, 76.

Theseus and Amphitrite, 139, 231.

Timanthes, 147.

Time, representation of, 204.

Tradition, artistic, 213.

Tragedy and vases, 232.

Triptolemus, 195.

Triton carrying Theseus, 142.

Trysa, tomb of, 138.

Types of deities, 108.

Veil, the, 51.

Vinci, Leonardo da, 22.

Wax process, 76.
White-ground ware, 158.
Women in sculpture, 101.
Wooden sculpture, 75.

Zeuxis, 24.



Yates Professor of ArchcBology in University College^ London ;
Formerly Director of the British School at Athens ; Author of
" A Handbook of Greek Sculpture^'' etc., etc.

Illustrated with Photogravure Plates, Full and Double-page
Plans, and over 150 Reproductions in the Text

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This handsomely illustrated book is a companion volume in
its make-up to Mau's " Pompeii." Its object is to give an ade-
quate and at the same time popular account of Ancient Athens,
from the earliest times down to the official introduction of
Christianity. The book deals mainly with the topography of
the city and Acropolis, the extant remains of ancient buildings,
and the sculpture that decorated them. It includes the results
of recent excavation and research ; but controversial matters
have, as far as possible, been relegated to notes and appendices.
A full description is given of the Parthenon, the Erechtheum,
Theatre, and other buildings, and such questions as the water
supply, the walls of town and harbors, the position of the Agora,
and the route of Pausanias, are duly considered. The general
aim of the author is to stimulate and assist the historical imagi-
nation by bringing ancient Athens, in various periods of its
growth, vividly before the eyes of the ordinary well-informed
reader, and to enable both those who have visited Greece and
those who have not to realize the present appearance of the
town and its monuments. Above all, the author has avoided,
as far as possible, compilation or quotation, and has endeavored
to give a direct record of the impressions derived from a
familiarity with the sites and buildings described.





Gardner, formerly Director of the British School of Archoeology at
Athens. Cloth, lamo, $2.50 net



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Online LibraryPercy GardnerA grammar of Greek art → online text (page 18 of 18)