Copyright
Percy Gardner.

The religious experience of Saint Paul online

. (page 1 of 24)
Online LibraryPercy GardnerThe religious experience of Saint Paul → online text (page 1 of 24)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


ALVMNVS BOOK FVND




CROWN THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY



VOL. XXXIV.

GARDNER'S THE RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE

OF ST PAUL



Crown Ubeologfcal Xfbrars



WORKS ALREADY PUBLISHED



Vol. I.— BABEL AND BIBLE. By Dr Friedrich Delitzsch. 4s. 6d. net.
Vol. II-THE VIRGIN BIRTH OF CHRIST. By Paul Lobstein.

2S. 6d. net.
Vol. III.-MY STRUGGLE FOR LIGHT. By R. Wimmer. 3 s. net.
Vol. IV.-LIBERAL CHRISTIANITY. By Jean Reville. 3 s. 6d. net.
Vol. V.-WHAT IS CHRISTIANITY? By Adolf Harnack. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. VI.-FAITH AND MORALS. By W. Herrmann. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. VII.-EARLY HEBREW STORY. By John P. Peters, D.D. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. VIII.-BIBLE PROBLEMS. By Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. IX.— THE DOCTRINE OF THE ATONEMENT AND ITS HIS-
TORICAL EVOLUTION, and RELIGION AND MODERN CULTURE.

By the late Auguste Sabatier. 4 s. net.
Vol. X.— THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CONCEPTION OF CHRIST: Its Sig-
nificance and Value in the History of Religion. By Otto Pfleiderer. 3s. net.
Vol. XL— THE CHILD AND RELIGION. Essays by Various Writers. 5s. net.
Vol. XII.-THE EVOLUTION OF RELIGION. By Dr L. R. Farnell.

4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XIIL— THE BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By Baron

Hermann von Soden, D.D. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XIV.— JESUS. By W. Bousset. 3 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XV.-THE COMMUNION OF THE CHRISTIAN WITH GOD. By

W. Herrmann. Revised and much enlarged Edition. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XVI.-HEBREW RELIGION. By W. E. Addis, M.A. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XVII.— NATURALISM AND RELIGION. By Rudolf Otto. 5s. net.
Vol. XVIII.— ESSAYS ON THE SOCIAL GOSPEL. By Dr Adolf Harnack

and Dr Herrmann. 4 s. net.
Vol. XIX.— RELIGION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. By Karl Marti.

4 s. net.
Vol. XX.— LUKE THE PHYSICIAN. By Dr Adolf Harnack. 5s. net.
Vol. XXL— THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION

OF JESUS CHRIST. By Prof. Kirsopp Lake. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXII.— THE APOLOGETIC OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By

E. F. Scott. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXIII.— THE SAYINGS OF JESUS. By Dr Adolf Harnack. 5 s. net.
Vol. XXIV.— ANGLICAN LIBERALISM. By Twelve Churchmen. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXV— THE FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS OF THE CHRISTIAN

RELIGION. By Dr R. Seeberg. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXVL— THE LIFE OF THE SPIRIT. By Dr Rudolf Eucken. 4 s.6d.net.
Vol. XXVII.— THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. By Dr Adolf Harnack.

5s. net.
Vol. XXVIIL— MONASTICISM AND THE CONFESSIONS OF ST

AUGUSTINE. By Dr Adolf Harnack. 3s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXIX.— MODERNITY AND THE CHURCHES. By Professor Percy

Gardner. 4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXX.— THE OLD EGYPTIAN FAITH. By Prof. Edouard Naville.

4 s. 6d. net.
Vol. XXXI.— THE CONSTITUTION AND LAW OF THE CHURCH IN

THE FIRST TWO CENTURIES. By Dr Adolf Harnack. 5 s. net.
Vol. XXXIL— THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

By Dr Rudolf Kittel. 5s. net.
Vol. XXXIII.— THE DATE OF THE ACTS AND OF THE SYNOPTIC

GOSPELS. By Dr Adolf Harnack. 5s. net.
Vol. XXXIV.— THE RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL. By Prof.

Percy Gardner. 5s. net.
Vol. XXXV.-PHARISAISM: ITS AIMS AND ITS METHODS. By Rev.

R. Travers Herford. 5s. net.
Vol. XXXVL— BIBLE READING IN THE EARLY CHURCH. By Dr

Adolf Harnack. 5s. net.
Vol. XXXVII.-PROTESTANTISM AND PROGRESS. By Prof. Ernst

Troeltsch. 3s. 6d. net.

Descriptive Prospectus on Application.



THE RELIGIOUS

EXPERIENCE OF

SAINT PAUL



BY

PERCY GARDNER, Litt.D., F.B.A.



"Though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now
know we him so no longer."



SECOND IMPRESSION
I; "1* vi

( UNiVt-R&rrv 1

v 0F /

WILLIAMS^ NORGATE

14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON

NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

1913






^2^<^L^vvx^vvvv<J



PREFACE

In 1907 I was asked to contribute to a volume of
Cambridge Biblical Essays (published in 1909) a paper
on some phase of the life and teaching of St Paul. I
accepted the task, and chose for my subject the speeches
of St Paul in Acts. As I worked in this limited field, the
conviction began to impress itself upon me that though
I had read many books on St Paul, and even written
about him, I had by no means succeeded in fully
understanding his purposes and the character of his
teaching. In truth, Englishmen become so saturated
with phrases from the Pauline Epistles, used in conven-
tional senses, that it is very difficult for them to realise
what those phrases meant to him who uttered them and
to those to whom they were addressed. In addition to
this, we have become accustomed to take our view of
St Paul largely from Acts, the author of which book
though a delightful personality, is by no means fully
in sympathy with his hero.

The problem fascinated me, and I devoted most of
a long vacation to an experiment. I set aside the
books about St Paul, and tried to read his Epistles as
if they had come before me for the first time — of course,
using the help to be gained from my lifelong studies



vi RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

of the period, and of the monuments of Greek and
Roman antiquity. More particularly some knowledge
of the religious surroundings and religious institutions
of the Hellenistic age, especially of the Mysteries, is
necessary to a complete grasp of the conditions under
which St Paul worked.

My experiment, however imperfect its success, certainly
produced in me a growing sense of the greatness of
Paul and the reality of his inspiration. His powerful
intellect is not so remarkable for its constructive force
as for its marvellous good sense and practical efficiency.
He has an intense feeling, both above and on the
threshold of consciousness, for what is necessary for
the future of the Christian society. His whole soul
is filled and possessed by a profound sense that he is
but the agent and interpreter of a power within and
above him. This power works primarily in his own
person, and in all those who receive inspiration from
him, in a love of love, of sweetness, gentleness, and
righteousness, a love which makes rules unnecessary,
and aspiration to a higher life the very breath of the
spirit. But from time to time in the letters there
come human touches, touches pathetically human,
which remove the writer by a whole abyss from the
preacher who stands above his audience, or the prophet
who has no feeling for anything except his message.

After my essay was sketched, and partly written, I
next turned to the recent literature in regard to St
Paul, both English and German. That literature is
of enormous extent, and I have been unable to read
a quarter of the books which might have been useful to



PREFACE vii

me. This I regret, but it was inevitable. Strange to
say, the best short account of the Pauline theology
known to me is still Matthew Arnold's essay of forty
years ago : so greatly does insight surpass learning.

In place of an index, which in a book of this kind
would be almost useless, I have inserted a full abstract
of contents. I am indebted to my sister, Miss Alice
Gardner, for reading the proofs and making many
useful suggestions, also to Dr Moffatt for sending me
references.

P. GARDNER.

Oxford, September 1911.



PREFATORY NOTE TO THE
SECOND IMPRESSION

Since this book was published, several important works
on St Paul have appeared, by Kirsopp Lake, Garvie,
Deissmann, Schweitzer, and others. Had I been able
to use these books, I should no doubt have put some
points better, or even modified some of my assertions.
But I do not think I should have altered any view
of importance. In particular I find myself in strong
opposition to the main theory of Dr Schweitzer, that
the key to St Paul's life and writings is to be found
in his eschatological views. The reader must choose



viii RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

between us. On the other hand, Professor Lake's book
in many ways supports mine, of course independently.

Not having at present time to take up the work
afresh, I have contented myself with altering a few
words and phrases to which my attention has been
called by reviewers.

P. G.



CONTENTS

Chapter I

INTRODUCTORY: ACTS AND EPISTLES

Setting in of a conservative tendency as regards the Pauline
Epistles ; makes up for increase of doubt as regards the Gospels, 1.
For Paul's views we must go to the Epistles rather than to Acts,
3. Acts useful as giving us an external view of Paul, especially
the We narrative, 5. But strong differences of view between Paul
and Luke, especially in regard to the miraculous, 7. The
speeches of Paul in Acts, 9. Genuineness of most Epistles, 13.
Three groups, 14. Differences between them in development,
16. The Epistles dictated : what this implies, 17. Note on the
Epistle to the Ephesians, 18.

Chapter II

ST PAUL'S CONVERSION '

Lives may be regarded in a more naturalist or a more religious
way : in the case of Paul the latter essential, 20. Paul's early
life ; probably blameless ; he accuses himself not of sins, but of
sin, 22. Absence of sense of sin among the Greeks, 23. Arose
among mystic sects, and especially among the Jews, 24. Intensity
of the feeling in Paul, 25. His prejudice against Christianity
based on his view of the coming Messiah, especially contrasted
with the death on the cross, 26. But persecution did not bring
Paul peace, 27. Luther and Paul : Wrede's view, 28. Various
accounts of conversion in Acts : picturesque detail, 28. At

ix



x RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

conversion a great change in Paul's nature : this psychologically
probable, 31. The real beginning, a conviction of the love of
God, 32. The entry into liberty, the escape from laws which
gall, and submission to a rule which one loves, 33.



Chapter III
ST PAUL'S CALL

Various accounts in Luke of the call to mission work, 40. He
carries back the idea of the mission to the Gentiles to the
beginning, 41. Luke's whole account of the admission of the
Gentiles confused and inconsistent with Galatians and Romans,
43. In 1 Thess. little as to transitoriness of Jewish law, 44. In
fact, Paul's view as to Gentiles a corollary of salvation by faith,
and of his missionary experience, 45. What it cost Paul to give
up the law : his inconsistency on the subject, 46. Growth of
inward inspiration in Paul, cf. Galatians, 48. Sometimes by
reaction he is diffident, 49. Nature of Paul's inspiration : he
claimed an exceptional position, 50. Modern psychology and
inspiration : it belongs to the few, 51. Paul's direct communica-
tion with his Master, 52. He expected a speedy advent, 53.
His view of Christ as a sublime spiritual being, who was the life
of the Church, and the assurance of immortality, 54. Here we
somewhat anticipate, 55.



Chapter IV

THE PAULINE MYSTERY

Thia the crux of the subject, 57. Modern use of the word
"mystery": ancient use, 57. Origin of the ancient Mysteries
and their character, 58. Mysticism : its relation to the Mysteries
and its modern use, 61. Essential features of Greek Mysteries,
62. Best studied in Metamorphoses of Apuleius, 63. Dieterich's
Mithraic Liturgy : Papyri, 65. Mistake of considering only
barbarous elements, 66. Gnosticism and magic, 67. Mysteries
of Eleusis, of Orpheus, etc., 68. Three points : (1) rites of entry,



CONTENTS



XI



(2) rites of communion, (3) bearing on future life, 69. Use of
fiva-T^pioy in Old Testament and Apocrypha, 70 ; in Synoptists,
in Apocalypse, 71 ; in Pauline writings— Paul speaks of various
mysteries, 73. But of one par excellence : in 1 Corinthians, 75 ; in
Romans, 76 ; in Colossians, 77 ; in Ephesians, 78. It is in fact
salvation by faith in Christ, 79. Parallelism to pagan Mysteries,
79. The flesh and the spirit : likeness and contrast between Paul
and pagans, 81. Idea of salvation, 82. Pagan parallels to Qcbs
vvarosy 82. Zwrripla in Old Testament, 84 ; in pagan Mysteries,
e.g. Apuleius, 85 ; in Gospels, 85 ; in Pauline Epistles, 86 ; the
meaning given to salvation, 87 ; the idea moralised, 87. Transi-
tion from eschatology to doctrine of heaven, 88. Other resem-
blances to Mysteries, 89. Words which may not be spoken, 90.
Sympathy with life and sufferings of Deity, 90. The Society as
a wife, 91. Abolition of all differences of race and sex, 92. But
pagan Mysteries syncretistic, Paul's exclusive, 93. Was the
influence of the Mysteries direct, or through the Diaspora ? 94.
Paul might hold them in abhorrence, yet they might influence
him, 96. Paul only begins mysticising of Christianity, 97. Not
only rites but real mysticism imported, 97. What does the
likeness prove? 99. No comparison in excellence; yet a step
in progress, 100.\



Chapter V

FAITH AND THE SACRAMENTS

Rites in the early Church : the laying on of hands : to this
Paul indifferent, 102. — Baptism. The Mystse bathing at Eleusis,
and Phrygian baths of blood, 103. Such rites among the Jews,
105. The practice of baptism in water taken up by Paul, and
made the gate of the Church, 107. Baptism by blood with him
only symbolic, 107. Paul impresses on baptism a mystic tinge ;
it represents dying with Christ, 108. The Fourth Evangelist on
baptism, 109. Baptism, and baptism for the dead, 110. — The
Lord's Supper. In regard to this Paul claims a special revelation,
111. We may trace in history three elements : (a) The Christian
Common Meal. This arose naturally, and was continued after



xii RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

the crucifixion. Compare the Greek trvrtrirta, 111. (b) The
Historic Last Supper. Difficulties ; version of Mark ; words of
institution wanting ; Matthew, 113. Version of John ; he takes
the words " body " and " blood " in quite another connection, and
uses them symbolically, 116. (c) The Pauline translation, 118.
Drifting of the rite ; The Didache ; Justin, 119. Custom of eating
the god, 120. May have influenced lower ranges in Christianity,
but not Paul, 121. Paul compares Lord's Supper with heathen
festivals of communion, 122. Two elements, apocalyptic and
communion, 122. Paul cites Exodus in the connection, 123.
Communicants brought contributions, 124. Summary, 124.



Chapter VI

ESCHATOLOGY AND THE FUTURE LIFE

Paul's eschatology transitional from Jewish national to Hellen-
istic, 127. Eschatology in the mind of Jesus : in some schools
exaggerated, 128. So in the Pauline Epistles no clear distinction
between future and present Kingdom, 129. Instances of present
tense, 132. In 1 Thess., 1 Cor., deliberate forecast of the end,
133. The theory of a spiritual body, 134. In what ways it
differs from mere ghost theories, 134. This body belongs only
to Christians, 136. The future world confined to believers, but
it belongs to them even if sinners, 136. In later Epistles Paul
speaks not of the Parousia, but of departing to be with Christ,
137. This more in the line of the future for the Church, 138.



Chapter VII

THE PAULINE ETHICS

Doctrine in Paul secondary to practice, 139. Character of virtue
in Paul, an enthusiasm, 140. It differs from that of Pharisees
and Stoics : though Paul shows much likeness to the Stoic ethics,
141. Strong likeness between Paul's morality and that of Jesus,
143. Paul sometimes quotes "the Lord"; more often only a



CONTENTS xiii

parallelism ; Paul did not know Jesus, yet a close likeness in
spirit, 144. The life of the spirit the only true life, 147. The
feeling of sonship, 147. The doctrine of the divine will, 148.
Love to God and man, 148. Attitude towards the law, 149.
Exaltation of specially Christian virtues, 149. Paul cites the
example of Christ in his heavenly life, 150. Paul's mystic
enthusiasm does not make him blind to earthly prudence, 151.
His lofty view of marriage, 152. On the side of the Sermon on
the Mount against paganism, 153. His ethics confined to the
Church, 153. How is the similarity to be accounted for 1 154.
Relation to current Jewish ethics, 154. Possibly Paul may have
seen Christian virtues at work before conversion, 154. But he
himself believed the source of his ethics to be the exalted Christ,
155. He finds "putting on Christ" the only satisfactory motive
for virtue, 156. Here we have his spiritual experience, 157.
He did not choose Christ, but Christ him, 157. Comparison of
the body and the members, 158. Paul's attack on antinomianism,
which was a danger to his followers, but not to himself, 159.
Paul a great confirmer of Christian morality, which conquered
the world, 160.

Chapter VIII

THE PAULINE PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology properly a matter of science, not religion, 161. Here
Paul inconsistent : he founds his psychology on ethics, 162. The
realities from which he starts, sin and grace, the Divine Spirit
and evil spirits, 163. Views of sin : (1) historic, Adam's trans-
gression ; (2) the flesh versus the spirit, 163. Pauline terms :
body, flesh, soul, spirit, 164. Does Paul regard the flesh as
intrinsically evil ? 166. Conflict of flesh and spirit ; in some
places of mind and flesh (this Greek), 167. Good and evil spirits,
168. The spirit of Christ in the world, all powerful against evil,
the inspiration of the Church, 173. Luke dwells on the cata-
clysmic elements in the working of the Spirit ; Paul does not,
175. The charismata, gifts of the spirit of Christ, or the Holy
Spirit? 175. Paul does not distinguish. Luke uses the latter
term, 176. Paul's theology built on his missionary experience, 178.



xiv RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL



Chapter IX

THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST ]/

Paul's intellectual limitations, 180. The idea, and its expressions
in myth (history), prophecy, and doctrine, 181. Paul does not
deal in history like John, 181 ; nor in prophecy, but notably in
doctrine, 182. The three doctrines of the Incarnation, the
Atonement, and the Exalted Christ, 183. Paul's doctrine of
Christ starts from his early belief in an exalted spiritual Messiah,
183. Hence the cross was at first a scandal to him, but after-
wards the key of his faith, 187. The doctrine of the Kenosis,
188. Here Paul equally opposed to Docetism, and to minute
dwelling on the sufferings of Jesus, 188. Paul's notion of history
quite different from that of modern days, 190. Paul merely places
the three phases of Christ's existence side by side, 191. Idea of
atonement in Paul, 191. He holds to incorporation of the race
in Christ as the archetypal man, 192. Hence teaching as to sin
in Adam and redemption in Christ, 192. Passages as to propitia-
tion imperfectly translated in R.V., 193. Paul believes that
righteousness can be attained only by faith in Christ, but scarcely
in imputation of righteousness, 194. He believes that sin involves
punishment of some one, but does not work out transfer, 195.
How far Paul Platonises, 197. Pauline view of the exalted
Christ, 199. Picturesque elements due to Luke, 199. Yet Paul
believed in Christ's spiritual body, 201. Paul regards intercourse
with Christ as an exceptional privilege of Apostles, 201. In the
main, he acknowledges Christ, not as a subordinate Deity, but
as an aspect of the Divine Being, 203.



Chapter X

FAITH AND THE CHURCH

Paul begins, like other great reformers, with the attempt to save
his own soul, 206. Gradual development of a Church : how far
it went in Paul's time, 207 ; see especially 1 Cor., Acts, and



CONTENTS xv

Timothy, 209. The Church at Ephesus, 211. Complete fluidity,

212. Conception of the Church as continuing the life of Christ,

213. The Church to Paul is the Kingdom of God of the Synoptists,
213. In course of controversy Paul develops Church doctrine,
based on Old Testament used symbolically, 214. Salvation by
faith in Old Testament, 215. Citation of Adam, 216; then of
Abraham, the father of the faithful, 217. The promise to
Abraham not extended to all his descendants, but to the children
of the spirit, 217. In the same way the promise in Christ to
the spiritual Israel, 217. Horror of the Jews at the abolition
of their privilege : hence their hostility to Paul, 219. Election
and reprobation, also based on Old Testament, 220. Paul's
compunction in thinking of Israel, 221. The outward result
of the teaching the formation of a society, 221. Two Pauline
images, husband and wife, head and members, 222. Close
religious tie of the members ; hence hostility of the Roman
Government, 223.



Chapter XI
ST PAUL AND MODERNITY

Limitations of St Paul, 225. Temporary elements in his teaching,

227. His pragmatism, 227. His adaptation to various ages,

228. On the whole his immense success, 230. Good judgment
as to the real forces in religion, 230. Views on marriage and
slavery temporary, 232. The great contrasts in his psychology
of permanent value, 233. Eschatology, 233. Election, 234.
Sacraments, 235. The spiritual Church, 236. Pauline ethics,
237. Christianity as oxygen, 238. Paul begins the adaptation
of Christian ethics to the existing society, 239. His worldly
wisdom, 242. Need of further development, 244. Attitude of
Jesus towards the spiritual life, 246. New element brought in
by Paul, of faith, 247. Relations of Paul to history in Old
Testament and in his Master's life, 247. Relation to experience :
visions, 248. Experience in missionary work, 249. Modern
criticism of history brings us back near the Pauline view, 250.
Modern view of experiential foundation of faith, 253. Personal



xvi RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

revelations, work in the world, 255. Influence not confined to
any Church, 255. Eelation between Jesus and exalted Christ in
Paul's view, 255. He cares vastly most for facts, 257. Pauline
ideas survive his views, 258. The Mystic Christ and the Divine
Spirit A 259. We have advantages over Paul in our view of history
and in extent of Christian experience, 261. The great debt of
humanity to Paul for his doctrine of salvation by faith, 262.




Chapter I

INTRODUCTORY: ACTS
AND EPISTLES

The setting in of a strongly conservative tendency as
regards the authorship of the Pauline Epistles, the
general agreement of critics that these Epistles, except
those to Timothy and Titus, and perhaps that to the
Ephesians and % Thessalonians, are in the main really
the work of the great Apostle, brings great gain to the
student of early Christianity whose time for the study
is limited. Some years ago we scarcely dared to cite
passages from such Epistles as those to the Philippians
and Colossians as proof of the character and views of
St Paul. We may now venture to cast aside extreme
timidity, and to read the letters of Paul as we read
those of Cicero, more in the light of the historic
imagination and of spiritual sympathy than in a keenly
critical spirit.

This increase of trust in the Pauline documents is the
more valuable as it makes up for a decrease in our
trust in the historic character of the Gospels and Acts.
It has long been recognised that the Fourth Gospel —
though it may contain here and there valuable historic

1 1



2 RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE OF ST PAUL

traditions — is primarily not a work of sober history, but
a document of religion, embodying in a narrative the
beliefs and views of the second generation of Christians.
That it may be the work of pupils of St John, and
occasionally include traditions which came through him,
is probable enough ; but in essence it is a setting forth
of the life, not of the Founder, but of the Church.
And this mode of viewing the Gospels has now spread,
in a measure, to the Synoptists. It is seen, more and
more clearly, how largely Matthew and Luke are
dominated by religious tendency and purpose, and
reflect the views of particular groups in the early
society. And even the Gospel of Mark, which has
passed as the most primitive and trustworthy of the
four, must have been preceded by a long period of
incubation, during which the traditions of the life of
Jesus were adapted and moulded by the various currents
of belief and enthusiasm which were current in the
infant Church.

It is true that quite recently a somewhat conservative
tendency has been manifested in the recognition of
the much discussed source called Q, to which some
eminent theologians are disposed to assign a very early
date and a high authority. This is the document,
reconstructed on principles of criticism, whence are
derived many passages which Matthew and Luke have
in common, and which contained the teaching of Jesus
rather than an account of his public life. I have long
felt 1 that the statements of the Synoptic writers in
regard to the discourses of Jesus are more to be trusted,
1 So Exploratio Evangelica, pp. 142, 192, etc.



INTRODUCTORY : ACTS AND EPISTLES 3

and are less affected by the demands of the early Church,
than are their accounts of his actions. This has scarcely
hitherto been the prevailing view of theologians, who
have been disposed to exaggerate the priority of Mark.
Of course any addition to the confidence with which we
can read the recorded sayings of Jesus is a great gain.



Online LibraryPercy GardnerThe religious experience of Saint Paul → online text (page 1 of 24)