Percy Goetschius.

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Three-Part Song-form. The modern Waltz is usually a group of

The SONG-FORM WITH TRIO is encountered in older dances, especially the
Menuetto, Passapied, Bourrée, and Gavotte (though even these are often
simple Three-Part form, without Trio); and in many modern
ones, - excepting the Waltz. It is characteristic of the March,
Polonaise, modern Minuet, Gavotte and other dances, and of the
Minuet - or Scherzo-movement, in sonatas and symphonies.

The FIRST RONDO-FORM is sometimes substituted for the Song with Trio
(to which it exactly corresponds in fundamental design, as we have
learned) in compositions whose purpose carries them beyond the limits
of the Three- or Five-Part forms, and in which greater unity, fluency
and cohesion are required than can be obtained in the song with trio;
for instance, in larger Nocturnes, Romanzas, Ballades, Études, and so
forth. The peculiar place for the First Rondo-form in literature,
however, is in the "slow movement" (_adagio, andante, largo_) of the
sonata, symphony and concerto, for which it is very commonly chosen.
It may also be encountered in the _small_ Rondos of a somewhat early
date; and is of course possible in broader vocal compositions (large
opera, arias, anthems, etc.).

From what has just been said, the student will infer that the
rondo-form is not employed exclusively in pieces that are called
"Rondo." In the sense in which we have adopted the term, it applies to
a _design_, and not to a style, of composition; precisely as the
sonata-allegro form may appear in a composition that is not a sonata.
This must not be overlooked. Furthermore, there are a few cases in
literature in which a movement marked "Rondo" is not written according
to the rondo-form.

The Second and Third Rondo-forms are so similar in purpose and
character that they are generally applied in the same manner, with no
other distinction than that of length. Besides occasional occurrence
as independent compositions (for instance, the two Rondos of Beethoven,
op. 51, the A minor Rondo of Mozart, the Rondos of Field, Dussek,
Hummel, Czerny, etc.), these designs are most commonly utilized for the
_Finale_ (last movement) of the complete sonata, concerto,
string-quartet, trio, and other chamber-music styles; more rarely for
the finale of the symphony.

The SONATINE and SONATA-ALLEGRO FORMS, likewise, serve corresponding
purposes, and are chosen according to the length or breadth of design
desired. The sonatine-form may therefore be expected in the first
movement of smaller sonatas, or sonatinas (as they are often called),
but it is not infrequently employed in the "slow movement" of larger
sonatas or symphonies.

The most distinguished of all music-designs, the sonata-allegro form,
is almost invariably chosen for the opening movement of sonatas,
symphonies, concertos, trios, string-quartets and similar compositions,
sometimes in greatly augmented dimensions. It is also not unlikely to
appear in the slow movement, and _finale_, of the symphony.

LESSON 19. - The student may now indulge in independent research, in the
careful analysis of the following works:

The pianoforte sonatas of Haydn (every movement of each). The sonatas
for pianoforte and violin of Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Rubinstein,
Grieg, and others.

The Trios of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schubert.

The String-quartets (in pianoforte arrangement) of Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Brahms, Schubert.

The Overtures (in pianoforte arrangement) of Mozart, Beethoven, Weber,

The Concertos (pianoforte or violin) of Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn,
Rubinstein, Saint-Saëns, Schumann, Grieg, Chopin. Also a number of
smaller (single) pianoforte compositions: - the études of Chopin; a few
études of Czerny, Cramer, Clementi, Heller; the mazurkas, nocturnes,
and préludes of Chopin; and miscellaneous pieces by modern
writers, - Grieg, Rubinstein, Tschaikowsky (and other Russians),
Sgambati, Saint-Saëns, Moszkowski, Raff, Reinecke, Scharwenka, Schütte,
MacDowell, - or any other compositions, vocal or instrumental, in which
the student may be interested, or which he may be studying.

* * * * * *


The expression "Musical Forms" is often used, somewhat carelessly and
erroneously, with reference to _Styles_ or _Species_ of composition,
instead of to the structural design upon which the music is based. The
"Barcarolle," "Mazurka," "Étude," "Anthem," and so forth, are _styles_
of composition, and not necessarily identified with any of the
structural _designs_ we have been examining. Read, again, our
FOREWORD. The general conditions which enter into the distinctions of
_style_ are enumerated in my "Homophonic Forms," paragraph 97, which
the student is earnestly advised to read. As to the manifold styles
themselves, with which the present book is not directly concerned, the
student is referred to Ernst Pauer's "Musical Forms," and to the music
dictionaries of Grove, Baker, Riemann, and other standard writers,
where a description of each style or species of composition may be


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Online LibraryPercy GoetschiusLessons in Music Form → online text (page 10 of 10)