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active one in the phrase. And yet the presence of a genuine cadence at
each of these places, marked *, is as certain and indisputable as in
Ex. 19. The ear will accept a cadence upon the slightest evidence _in
the right place_, - where a cadence is expected. See, also, Mozart
pianoforte sonata No. 10 (in D major), first 12 measures; measure 8 is
a _cadence-measure_.

Here follow a few more examples which illustrate the most extreme
application of this principle of borrowed tones, - a mode of treatment
very common in the music of Mozart, Haydn, and, in fact, all classic
writers: -

[Illustration: Example 24. Fragments of Mozart.]

[Illustration: Example 24 continued. Fragment of Beethoven.]


It is difficult to believe that in each of these cases the long array
of 16th-notes should not constitute the actual beginning of the phrase,
but are only preliminary; and yet this is the only correct view to take
of it, and it is the view which will simplify all analysis, when
thoroughly comprehended. It must be seen that the cluster of
16th-notes in the cadence-measure (of the preceding phrase) is
_one-sixteenth short of a full measure_, and, therefore, it does not
represent the first measure of the next phrase, because our inviolable
rule is that the first measure of a phrase is its first _full_ measure.
The above examples emphasize the correct manner of counting the
measures; and they simply illustrate possible methods of _disguising
the cadence_.

In some cases it is difficult to determine whether the tones which thus
disturb the "repose" of the cadence-measure belong to the cadence-chord
(that is, to the _present_ phrase), or, as preliminary tones, to the
following phrase. Upon careful scrutiny, however, it will be found
possible to decide, by examining their melodic bearing, to which phrase
they pertain. In Example 22, they are manifestly (even in No. 5) a
part of the present phrase; in Example 23 and 24 they are as certainly
preliminary to the phrase which follows. In the following example they
seem to constitute an entirely independent little "interlude," without
direct reference to either phrase:

[Illustration: Example 25. Fragment of Mozart.]

* * * * * *

THE ELISION. - Finally, there are some (very rare) instances where the
composer appears to yield to the seductive influence of such extensive
preliminary groups as those seen in Example 24, and by setting aside
the trifling discrepancy, permits the apparent preliminary tones to
represent the _actual first measure of the next phrase_. This is
easily accomplished, when, as in Example 24, No. 2, it is only one
16th-note short of a full measure. And although this 16th, being the
cadence-chord, is actually equivalent to the whole measure, it is
sometimes less confusing to the hearer to silence it. This is called
stifling the cadence (or Elision); and its presence depends simply upon
sufficient proof that what was supposed to be the cadence-measure (and
to a certain extent is such) is at the same time _really the first
measure of the next sentence_. The following contains an illustration
of the elision of a cadence:

[Illustration: Example 26. Fragment of Mozart.]

[Illustration: Example 26 continued.]


The proofs of this very singular and apparently untrustworthy analysis
are: (1) That there is absolutely no doubt about the first cadence,
marked *; (2) that a cadence is consequently due, and expected, four
measures later, - this proving the measure in question to be the
"cadence-measure of the old phrase," as it is marked and as it appeals
to our sense of cadence; (3) that the last four measures unmistakably
represent a regular, compact phrase, - this proving that the
"cadence-measure of the old phrase" is unquestionably _at the same time
the first measure, or actual beginning, of the new phrase_. In a word,
one measure is lost - not in effect, for the elements of the expected
cadence are all present, - but in the counting. This lost measure is
the stifled cadence-measure, omitted by Elision.

Such cases are, as stated, very rare; so rare that the student will do
wisely to leave them quite out of his calculations.

In order to elucidate the embarrassing matter still more fully, we
shall take two more examples of a very misleading character, which the
superficial observer would probably define as elisions, but which are
almost certainly regular cases of disguised cadence merely:

[Illustration: Example 27. Fragment of Mozart.]


Here again there is no doubt of the presence of a cadence at the first
*; but this "cadence-measure" appears almost as certainly to be at the
same time the initial measure of a new phrase. This, however, proves
not to be the case, because _there are four measures left, without this
one_. That is, counting backward from the final cadence, we locate the
"first measure" after, not _with_, the cadence-measure. And this is
the way the passage was meant to sound by its author, and the way it
will and must sound to the student who has properly cultivated his
sense of cadence.

[Illustration: Example 28. Fragment of Beethoven.]

This case is extremely misleading; it is hard to believe (and feel)
that the characteristic onset of the 16th-triplet figure does not
herald the new phrase; but all the indications of strict, unswerving
analysis (not to be duped by appearances) point to the fact that this
is one of the common cases of disguised cadence, and not an elision of
the cadence. The _sforzando_ marks of Beethoven confirm this view,
and, as in Example 27, we have our four measures to the next cadence,
without this "cadence-measure."

The characteristic traits of all these various phases of cadence
formation are: -

(1) That the actual cadence-tone in the melody may be of any
time-value, from the full extent of the cadence-measure down to the
smallest fraction of that measure. In Ex. 19 it was the former,
unbroken; in Ex. 17, No. 1, also, but broken into the six pulses of the
measure; in Ex. 20 it was shortened, by a rest, to one-half its real
value; in Ex. 26 it was reduced to one-quarter of its true value; in
Ex. 25, to one 8th-note; and in Ex. 24, No. 3, to one 16th-note.

(2) That the cadence-tone in the melody may be shifted forward to
almost any point beyond its expected position upon the primary accent.
In Ex. 20 (and many other of the given illustrations) it stands in its
legitimate place, at the beginning of the measure; in Ex. 21 it stands
upon the _second_ accent of the measure; in Ex. 22, No. 1, on the
second beat in 3-4 measure; in Ex. 22, No. 5, on the third beat of the
triple-measure; in Ex. 22, No. 4, on the last eighth note in the
measure.

(3) That in almost every case the effect of absolute cessation is
softened by marking the rhythm of the cadence-measure; in no case is
the rhythm permitted to pause (not even in Ex. 19, where the
accompaniment, not shown, is carried along in unbroken 8th-notes). In
some part or other, by some means or other, the cadence-measure is kept
alive; either by continuing the accompaniment, as in Exs. 18 and 20, or
by quickly picking up a new rhythm, as in Exs. 27 and 28. Conspicuous
exceptions to this rule will be found, it is true, in hymn-tunes and
the like; though occasionally even there, as the student may recall,
the rhythm, in some cadence-measures, is carried along by one or more
of the inner voices; for example, in the hymn-tune "Lead, Kindly
Light," of J. B. Dykes. (See also Ex. 29.)


SPECIES OF CADENCE. - In text-books and musical dictionaries several
varieties of the cadence are distinguished, but they are chiefly
distinctions without any more than one essential point of difference,
namely, difference in force or weight. It is therefore feasible to
reduce all these varieties to two, - the heavy cadence and the light
cadence. The former is represented by the so-called Perfect cadence,
the latter by the many grades of Semicadence.


PERFECT CADENCE. - There is one method of checking the current of the
melodic phrase with such emphasis and determination as to convey the
impression of finality; either absolute finality, as we observe it at
the very end of a composition, or such relative finality as is
necessary for the completion of some independent section of the
piece, - conclusive as far as that section is concerned, though not
precluding the addition of other sections to this, after the desired
degree of repose has been felt. This is known as the perfect cadence,
or full stop. It is always made upon the _tonic harmony_ of some key
as cadence-chord, with the _keynote itself in both outer parts_,
and - when desired in its strongest form (without such disguising as we
have seen) - upon an _accented_ beat, and of somewhat longer duration
than its fellow tones. For illustration: -

[Illustration: Example 29. Fragment of Schubert.]

At the end of this four-measure phrase there is a perfect cadence,
exhibited in its strongest, most conclusive form. It is practically
undisguised, though the cadence-chord is reduced to three beats (from
the four to which it is entitled) to make room for the preliminary beat
of the next phrase (calculated to correspond to the one at the
beginning of this phrase).

The cadence-chord is the tonic harmony of C minor; upon the primary
accent of the 4th measure; it is considerably longer than any other
tone in the phrase; and the keynote _c_ is placed both at the top and
at the bottom of the harmonic body. See also Ex. 15; the cadence is
perfect, because the cadence-chord, on the accent of the 4th measure,
is the tonic harmony of G major, with the keynote as highest and as
lowest tone. It is abbreviated by rests, which very slightly diminish
its weight. Ex. 17, No. 2, closes with a perfect cadence; it is the
tonic harmony of C major, on an accent, and with the keynote in the two
extreme parts. See also Ex. 20.

In the following:

[Illustration: Example 30. Fragment of Schumann.]

the cadence-chord stands upon the secondary accent (3d beat) of the
final measure. This method of shifting the cadence forward is
generally adopted in large species of measure (6-8, 9-8, and the like),
and has been defined among the devices employed in disguising or
_lightening_ the cadence. In Ex. 22, No. 5, the cadence-chord is
shifted to the last beat (unaccented) of the final measure; this
lightens the cadence very materially, but it does not affect any of its
essential properties as perfect cadence. The following is similar: -

[Illustration: Example 31. Fragment of Schumann.]


The cadence-chord occupies the unaccented (2d) beat, and is no longer
than any other chord in the phrase. Despite its striking brevity, it
is nevertheless a perfect cadence, disguised; it is the tonic chord of
C major, with the keynote at top and bottom. See also Ex. 23, No. 1.

The following illustrations come under the head of the disguised
cadences seen in Ex. 24: -

[Illustration: Example 32. Fragments of Mendelssohn and Schubert.]

In No. 1 the cadence is perfect, for it is the tonic chord of G major,
keynote _g_ at top and bottom, and on the primary accent of the fourth
measure; but the uninterrupted continuation of the movement of 16ths,
in the right hand, shortens the uppermost keynote to a single
16th-note, and would entirely conceal the cadence, were it not for the
distinct evidence of repose in the lower part.

In No. 2 the movement in the upper part appears to shatter the cadence;
the keynote does not appear on the accent, and its announcement at the
end of the first triplet is very brief. For all that, it is an
unmistakable perfect cadence; the chord thus shattered (or "broken,"
technically speaking) is the tonic harmony of the key, and the keynote
_does_ appear as uppermost (and therefore most prominent) tone, in the
same order of percussion as that given to each of the preceding melody
tones.

* * * * * *

At the end of an entire piece of music, or of some larger section of
the piece, the cadence-chord, on the other hand, is often lengthened
considerably, for the sake of the greater weight and decision of
cadential interruption required at that place. Thus: -

[Illustration: Example 33. Fragment of Schubert.]


The last two measures are merely the prolongation of the final
cadence-chord. See also, Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 4, last
five measures; No. 8, last eight measures; and others.

Another peculiarity of the final cadence is, that sometimes the
_uppermost_ tone is the 3d or 5th of the tonic chord, instead of the
keynote, - a significant device to counteract the dead weight of the
cadence-chord, especially when prolonged as just seen. See No. 10 of
the Songs Without Words, last six measures; it is the tonic chord of B
minor, but the tone _d_ (the 3d) is placed at the top, instead of _b_.
Also No. 16, last chord; No. 38, last chord; No. 6, last three measures
(the 5th of the tonic chord as uppermost tone). At any other point in
the piece this default of the keynote would, as we shall presently see,
almost certainly reduce the weight of the cadence from "perfect" to
"semicadence"; at the very end, however, it cannot mislead, because it
does not affect the condition of actual finality.


SEMICADENCE. - Any deviation from the formula of the perfect
cadence - either in the choice of some other than the tonic chord, or in
the omission of the keynote in either (or both) of the outer
parts - weakens the force of the interruption, and transforms the
cadence into a lighter, more transient, point of repose, for which the
term semicadence (or half-stop) is used. The semicadence indicates
plainly enough the end of its phrase, but does not completely sever it
from that which follows.

It is these lighter, transient forms of cadence to which a number of
different names are given; for the student of analysis (and the
composer, also, for that matter) the one general term "semicadence," or
half-cadence, is sufficient, and we shall use no other.

If, then, a cadence is final in its effect, it is a perfect one; if
not, it is a semicadence. The harmony most commonly chosen as the
resting-place of a semicadence is the chord of the _dominant_, - the
fifth step of the momentary key, - that being the harmony next in
importance to that of the tonic (the one invariably used for the
perfect cadence). The following example illustrates the dominant
semicadence: -

[Illustration: Example 34. Fragment of Brahms.]


The cadence-chord is the dominant harmony (root _e_) in the key of A
minor; neither of the two upper tones on the first and second beats is
the root of the chord; it is quite sufficient that the root appears as
lowermost tone, and even this is not necessary. The "point of repose"
is shifted to the second beat, in the manner so amply illustrated in
the examples of the disguised cadence; the methods we have seen may be
applied to _any_ kind of cadence.

See also Ex. 18; the key, and therefore the chord, at the semicadence
is the same as that of the above example (simply major instead of
minor).

Also Ex. 23, No. 4; the semicadence chord is the dominant harmony of
E-flat major; it is skillfully disguised. Ex. 25, dominant harmony of
A major. Ex. 26, last four measures; the semicadence is made upon the
dominant of C minor.

In the following:

[Illustration: Example 35. Fragment of Schumann.]

the semicadence in the fourth measure is made with the dominant harmony
of C major (the tones _g-b-d-f_); it is so disguised as to remove all
signs of interruption; but the chord _prevails_ throughout the measure,
and (as may be seen by reference to the original, op. 68, No. 3) the
next measure - the fifth - exactly corresponds to the first; this
indicates another "beginning," and proves our "ending."

But though the dominant is thus generally employed at the semicadence,
it is by no means the only available chord. It must be remembered that
every cadence which does not fulfil the definite conditions of the
perfect cadence, is a semicadence. Examine each of the following, and
determine why the point of repose is each time a semicadence: - Ex. 1;
Ex. 9, No. 3; Ex. 14, No. 2, fourth measure; Ex. 14, No. 3, fourth
measure; Ex. 19; Ex. 22, Nos. 3 and 4; Ex. 23, No. 2, fourth measure.

The distinction between the two species of cadence becomes most subtle
when the _tonic harmony_ is chosen for the semicadence, _but with some
other part of the chord than the keynote as uppermost (or lowermost)
tone_. This might appear to lighten the perfect cadence too
immaterially to exercise so radical an influence upon the value
(weight) of the interruption. The _keynote_, however, is so decisive
and final in its harmonic and melodic effect - everywhere in music - that
its absence more or less completely cancels the terminating quality of
the cadence-chord; in other words, the force of a tonic cadence depends
upon the weight and prominence of the _keynote_.

For example:

[Illustration: Example 36. Fragment of Schubert.]


The first, second, and third of these cadences is made upon the tonic
harmony, on the accent of each successive fourth measure. But they are
only _semicadences_, as the melody (uppermost part) rests upon the
Third of the chord, _c_, instead of the keynote; this substitution of
_c_ for _a-flat_ is sufficient to frustrate the perfect cadence and
diminish it to a transient interruption. The final cadence is perfect,
however, because there the uppermost tone _is_ the keynote. See also
Ex. 21; and Ex. 17, No. 2, fourth measure (semicadence, with _a_
instead of _f_ as principal tone in upper part, and disguised by the
continuation of rhythmic movement to the end of the cadence-measure).
In Ex. 17, No. 1, the cadence is made with the tonic harmony of G
minor, but with the Third (_b-flat_) at the top.


LOCATING THE CADENCES. - Next to the recognition and comparison of the
different melodic sections of a composition (in a word, the _melodic
delineation_ of the whole), the most significant task in music analysis
is the locating and classifying of the cadences. They are the angles
of the design, so to speak; and have the same bearing upon the sense of
the music as punctuation marks have in rhetoric. Intelligent and
effective phrasing, adequate interpretation of the composer's purpose,
is impossible without a distinct exposition of the cadences, - if not of
the inferior points of interruption between motives, also.

The best general rule for locating cadences is, probably, to look for
them in the right place, namely, in the _fourth measure_ from the
beginning of each phrase. The fairly regular operation of this rule
has been verified in Lesson 4. But exceptions have also been seen (in
Ex. 17), and many more are certain to be encountered, simply because
the principle of Unity (exemplified by the prevalence of the
four-measure standard) must interact with the principle of Variety
(exemplified in all phrases of irregular extent).

Therefore, the more reliable method, as already stated, is _to define
the beginning of the following phrase_, - for each successive beginning
involves a foregone cadence, of course. No very definite directions
can be given; experience, observation, careful study and comparison of
the given illustrations, will in time surely enable the student to
recognize the "signs" of a beginning, - such as the recurrence of some
preceding principal member of the melody, or some such change in
melodic or rhythmic character as indicates that a new phrase is being
announced.


LESSON 5. Analyze, again, Schumann, _Jugend Album_ (op. 68), No. 6,
locating every cadence and defining its quality, - as perfect cadence or
semicadence. Also Nos. 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 14, 15, 16, 3, - and
others. As a curious illustration of the difficulty which may
sometimes attend the analysis of phrases and cadences, the student may
glance at No. 31 (_Kriegslied_, D major); a more baffling example will
rarely be found, for the piece abounds in irregular phrase-dimensions,
and cadences that are disguised to the verge of unrecognizability; the
only fairly reliable clue the composer has given lies in the formation
of the melodic members (the clue intimated in the explanatory text
following Ex. 35).

Also Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 34 (first phrase six
measures long); No. 40; No. 18.

Also Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 22, third movement
(_Menuetto_); op. 28, second movement (_Andante_).

Again the student is reminded that it is not only permissible, but wise
and commendable, to pass by all confusing cases; without being careless
or downright superficial, to observe a certain degree of prudent
indifference at confusing points, trusting to that superior
intelligence which he shall surely gain through wider experience.




CHAPTER VI. IRREGULAR PHRASES.

CAUSES. - The possibility of deviating from the fundamental standard of
phrase-dimension (four measures) has been repeatedly intimated, and is
treated with some detail in the text preceding Example 17, which should
be reviewed. It is now necessary to examine some of the conditions that
lead to this result.

The causes of irregular phrase-dimension are two-fold; it may result

(1) from simply inserting an additional cadence, or from omitting one. Or

(2) it may be the consequence of some specific manipulation of the
phrase-melody with a view to its extension or expansion, its development
into a broader and more exhaustive exposition of its contents.


THE SMALL AND LARGE PHRASES. - If a cadence is inserted before it is
properly due, it is almost certain to occur exactly _half-way_ along the
line toward the expected (regular) cadence, - that is, in the _second_
measure. This is likely to be the case only when the tempo is so slow,
or the measures of so large a denomination, that two of them are
practically equal to four _ordinary_ measures. By way of distinction,
such a two-measure phrase is called a Small phrase. For example: -

[Illustration: Example 37. Fragment of Mendelssohn.]

There is no reasonable doubt of the semicadence in the second measure,
because enough pulses have been heard, up to that point, to represent the
sum of an ordinary phrase. If this were written in 6-8 measure (as it
might be), it would contain four measures. See, also, Song No. 22 of
Mendelssohn, - 9-8 measure, adagio tempo; the phrases are "Small"; note
particularly the last two measures. The same is true in No. 17. About
Schumann, op. 68, No. 43 (_Sylvesterlied_), there may be some doubt; but
the measures, though of common denomination, contain so many tones, in
moderate tempo, that the effect of a cadence is fairly complete in the
second measure.

If, on the other hand, one of the regular cadences is omitted, - owing to
the rapidity of the tempo, or a small denomination of measure, - the
phrase will attain just double the ordinary length; that is, _eight_
measures. An eight-measure phrase is called a Large phrase. For
illustration: -

[Illustration: Example 38. Fragment of Beethoven.]

There is not the slightest evidence of repose or interruption in the
fourth measure, nor of a new beginning in the fifth, wherefore the
cadence is not expected until four more measures have passed by. The
inferior points of repose in the upper parts, at the beginning of the
5th, 6th and 7th measures, serve only to establish melodic, or rather
rhythmic, variety, and have no cadential force whatever. See
Mendelssohn, Song No. 8; the first cadence appears to stand in the
_eighth_ measure; the tempo is rapid and the measures are small; it is
obviously a large phrase. The phrase which follows is regular, however;
there _is_ a cadence in the twelfth measure, thus proving that Large
phrases may appear in company with regular phrases, in the same
composition. In other words, the omission of an expected cadence (or the
insertion of an additional one) may be an _occasional_ occurrence, - not
necessarily constant. See, again, No. 22 of the Songs Without Words; the
first and second phrases are small; the third phrase, however (reaching
from measure 6 to 9 without cadential interruption), is of regular
dimensions.


THE PRINCIPLE OF EXTENSION. - The other cause of modified phrase-dimension
is one of extreme importance, as touching upon the most vital process in
musical composition, namely, that of _phrase-development_.

Setting aside all critical discussion with reference to the question,
"What is good music?" and simply accepting those types of classic
composition universally acknowledged to be the best, as a defensible


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