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usually resembles the first one very closely, at least in its first
members. That is, the second phrase contrasts with the first; _the
third corroborates the first_; and the fourth either resembles the
second, or contrasts with all three preceding phrases. This is not
always - though nearly always - the case.

The double-period in music finds its poetic analogy in almost any
stanza of four fairly long lines, that being a design in which we
expect unity of meaning throughout, the progressive evolution of one
continuous thought, uniformity of metric structure (mostly in
_alternate_ lines), the corroboration of rhyme, and, at the same time,
some degree and kind of contrast, - as in the following stanza of

Phrase 1. "The splendor falls on castle walls,
Phrase 2. And snowy summits old in story;
Phrase 3. The long light shakes across the lakes,
Phrase 4. And the wild cataract leaps in glory."

The analogy is not complete; one is not likely to find, anywhere,
absolute parallelism between music and poetry; but it is near enough to
elucidate the musical purpose and character of the double-period. And
it accounts for the very general choice of this form for the hymn-tune.

The following illustrates the double-period, in its most regular and
convincing form (Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 49, No. 1): -

[Illustration: Example 51. Fragment of Beethoven.]

Each phrase is four measures long, as usual; the first one ends (as in
Ex. 50) with one of those early, transient perfect cadences that do not
break the continuity of the sentence; the second phrase ends with a
semicadence, - therefore the sentence remains unbroken; phrase three is
_exactly_ like the first, and is therefore an Antecedent, as before;
phrase four bears close resemblance to the second one, but differs at
the end, on account of the perfect cadence. The evidences of Unity and
Variety are easily detected. The main points are, that the second pair
of phrases balances the first pair, and that the two periods are
connected (not _separate_ periods). See also Ex. 53, first 16 measures.

LESSON 8. - Analyze the following examples. They are not classified;
therefore the student must himself determine to which of the above
three species of enlargement each belongs:

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 29, measures 1-21, (first 4
measures an introductory phrase).

No. 37, first 17 measures.

No. 30, first 15 measures (last phrase irregular).

No. 16, measures 4-9 (small phrases).

No. 33, first 12 measures.

No. 27, first 20 measures (introductory phrase).

No. 3, first 29 measures, to double-bar (introductory phrase).

No. 36, first 27 measures (the similarity between phrase one and phrase
three proves the double-period form; the extra phrases are extension by
"addition," as in the group form).

No. 6, measures 8-17.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata. No. 13 (Peters edition), first 16 measures.

Sonata No. 2, first 16 measures (last four measures are extension).

Sonata No. 3, last movement, first 16 measures.

Sonata No. 10, second movement, first 16 measures.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 49, No. 2, first 12 measures.

Op. 10, No. 3, first 16 measures.

Op. 10, No. 2, first 12 measures.

Op. 26, first 16 measures.

Op. 31, No. 2, last movement, first 31 measures (extension by

Schumann, op. 68, Nos. 16, 20, 33, first 16 measures of each; No. 13,
first 10 measures; No. 15, first 16 measures.


THE SONG-FORM OR THE PART-FORM. - Almost every musical composition of
average (brief) dimensions, if designed with the serious purpose of
imparting a clear formal impression, will admit of division into either
two or three fairly distinct sections, or Parts, of approximately equal
length. The distinctness with which the points of separation are
marked, and the degree of independence of each of these two or three
larger sections, are determined almost entirely by the length of the
whole. And whether there be two or three such divisions depends to
some extent also upon the length of the piece, though chiefly upon the
specific structural idea to be embodied.

A composition that contains two such sections is called a Two-Part (or
bipartite, or binary) form; and one that contains three, a Three-part
(tripartite, or ternary) form.

Such rare exceptions to these structural arrangements as may be
encountered in musical literature, are limited to sentences that, on
one hand, are so brief as to require no radical division; and, on the
other, to compositions of very elaborate dimensions, extending beyond
this structural distinction; and, furthermore, to fantastic pieces in
which the intentional absence of classified formal disposition is
characteristic and essential.

The terms employed to denote this species ("Song-form" or "Part-form")
do not signify that the music is necessarily to be a vocal composition
of that variety known as the "Song"; or that it is to consist of
several voices (for which the appellation "parts" is commonly used).
They indicate simply a certain _grade_, - not a specific variety, - of
form; an intermediate grade between the smallest class (like brief
hymn-tunes, for example), and the largest class (like complete
sonata-movements). An excellent {84} type of this grade of Form is
found in the Songs Without Words of Mendelssohn, the Mazurkas of
Chopin, and works of similar extent.

The word Part (written always with a capital in these lessons) denotes,
then, one of these larger sections. The design of the Part-forms was
so characteristic of the early German _lied_, and is so common in the
_song_ of all eras, that the term "Song-form" seems a peculiarly
appropriate designation, irrespective of the vocal or instrumental
character of the composition.

The student will perceive that it is the smallest class of forms - the
Phrase-forms, - embracing the phrase, period and double-period, to which
the preceding chapters have been devoted. These are the designs which,
as a general rule, _contain only one decisive perfect cadence_, and
that at the end; and which, therefore, though interrupted by
semicadences, _are continuous and coherent_, because the semicadence
merely interrupts, and does not sever, the continuity of the sentence.
(This grade of forms might be called One-Part forms).

THE PARTS. - If we inquire into the means employed, in the larger
Part-forms, to effect the division of the whole into its broader Parts,
we find that the prime factors, here again, are Cadence and Melody.
The strongest sign of the consummation of a Part is a _decisive perfect
cadence_, resting, as usual, upon the tonic harmony of the chosen key;
a cadence sufficiently emphatic to interrupt the closer cohesion of the
phrases which, precede, and bring them, as completed Part, to a
conclusion. Such a cadence, marking the end of the First Part, may be
verified in Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words, No. 23, measure 15; No.
3, measure 29 (at the double-bar, - a sign which frequently appears at
the termination of Part One); No. 20, measure 21; No. 27, measure 12;
No. 34, measure 10.

Another indication of the Part-form is a palpable change in melodic
character in passing from one Part into the next; sufficient to denote
a more striking "new beginning" than marks the announcement of a new
_phrase_ only. The change, however, is as a rule _not very marked_; it
is sometimes, in fact, so slight as to be no more than simply palpable,
though scarcely definable on the page. For these divisions are, after
all, the several "Parts" of one and the same song-form, and, therefore,
any such radical change in melodic or rhythmic character, or in general
style, as would make each Part appear to be a _wholly independent_
musical idea (subject or theme), would be manifestly inconsistent.

Generally, both these factors (cadence and melody) unite to define the
end of one Part and the beginning of the next. Should either one be
feeble, or absent, the other factor will be all the more pronounced.
Thus, the cadence of Part One may be less decisive, if the change in
melodic character at the beginning of Part Two is well marked; this is
seen in No. 33, measure 12. The reverse - a strong cadence and but
little melodic change, - in No. 13, measure 20.

THE FIRST PART. - Part One may be designed as period, double-period, or
phrase-group; sometimes, though very rarely, as single phrase,
repeated. It ends, usually, with a strong perfect cadence on the tonic
chord of the original key, or of some related key (that is, one whose
_signature_ closely resembles that of the original key). An
introductory phrase, or independent prelude, may precede it.

THE SECOND PART. - Part Two, as intimated, is likely to begin with a
more or less palpable change of melodic character, - by no means is this
always the case. It may be designed, also, as period, double-period,
or phrase-group, and is somewhat likely to be a little longer (more
extended) than Part One. A concluding section (called codetta if
small, coda if more elaborate) often follows, after a decided perfect
cadence in the original key has definitely concluded the Part.

The following is one of the simplest examples of the Two-Part Song-form
(a German _lied_ by Silcher): -

[Illustration: Example 52. Fragment of German _lied_.]

The whole embraces four phrases, and might, for that reason, be
mistaken for a double-period. But the _strong perfect cadence_ at the
end of the first period (reinforced by the repetition), and the
contrasting melodic formation of the second period, so separate and
distinguish the two periods as to make them independent "Parts" of the
whole. It is not one "double-period," but _two fairly distinct
periods_. The first cadence (in measure 4) has again, strictly
speaking, the elements of a perfect cadence, but, like others we have
seen (Exs. 50, 51), too near the beginning to possess any plausible
concluding power.

A somewhat similar specimen may be found in the theme of Mendelssohn's
Variations in D minor, op. 54, which see. Each Part is a regular
period-form, with correct semicadence and perfect cadence. The problem
of "agreement and independence" in the relation of Part II to Part I is
admirably solved; it is a masterly model of well-matched Unity and
Variety, throughout.

For a longer and more elaborate example, see No. 6 of the Songs Without
Words, in which, by the way, the principle of enlargement by the
addition of an independent prefix (introduction) and affix (coda) is
also illustrated: -

First number the forty-six measures with pencil.

The first cadence occurs in measure 7, and marks the end of the
prélude. Part I begins in measure 8. In measure 11 there is a
semicadence, at end of Antecedent phrase; in measure 17, a strong
perfect cadence, which, in connection with the subsequent change of
melodic form, distinctly defines the end of Part I (period-form,
extended). Part II therefore begins in measure 18. In measures 21,
25, 29, cadences occur, but none conclusive enough to close the Part.
This conclusion takes place, however, in measure 34. Part II proves to
be a double-period. A coda begins in measure 35; its first members
resemble the first phrase of Part I. In measure 40 another section of
the coda begins, borrowed from the prélude. For exhaustive technical
details of the Two-Part Song-form, see the HOMOPHONIC FORMS, Chapters 9
and 10.

LESSON 9. - Analyze the following examples of the Two-Part Song-form.
Define the form of each Part, marking and classifying all cadences; and
indicate introductions and codas (or codettas), if present. _The first
step in the analysis of these forms is to divide the whole composition
into its Parts, by defining the end of Part One_. The next step is to
define the beginning of Part One, and end of Part Two, by separating
the introduction and coda (if present) from the body of the form.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 57, Andante, Theme.

Op. 109, _Andante_, Theme.

Op. 111, last movement, Theme of Variations.

Op. 79, _Andante_, first 8 measures (unusually small); same sonata,
last movement, first 16 measures.

Op. 54, first 24 measures (each Part repeated).

Op. 31, No. 3, _Menuetto_ (without Trio).

Op. 26, "Trio" of _Scherzo_; also last movement, first 28 measures
(second Part repeated).

Op. 27, No. 2, "Trio" of _Allegretto_.

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 2 (Peters edition), _Andante_, measures
1-20; and measures 21-40.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 7; No. 4; No. 35; No. 42; No. 23 repeated; last
16 1/2 measures, (coda).


preceding chapter, that the Two-Part Song-form is a composition of
rather brief extent, with so decisive a perfect cadence in its course
as to divide it, in a marked manner, into two separate and fairly
individual sections or "Parts."

Between this and the next higher form, - that with _three_ such
Parts, - there is a distinction far more essential and characteristic
than that of mere extent; a distinction that does not rest simply upon
the number of Parts which they respectively contain. Each of the two
classes of formal design, the Two-Part and the Three-Part, embodies a
peculiar structural idea; and it is the evidence of these respective
ideas, - the true content of the musical form, - which determines the
species. The "number" of sections is, in this connection, nothing more
than the external index of the inherent idea.

The Two-Part forms embody the idea of _progressive growth_. To the
first Part, a second Part (of similar or related melodic contents) is
added, in coherent and logical succession. It should not be, and in
good clear form it is not, a purely numerical enlargement, for the
association of the second Part with a foregoing one answers the
purposes of confirmation and of balance, and is supposed to be so
effectuated as to institute and maintain unity of style, and some
degree of progressive development. But the second Part, in this
bipartite design, does little or nothing more, after all, than thus to
project the musical thought on outward in a straight line (or along
parallel lines) to a conclusion more or less distant from the
starting-point, - from the melodic members which constitute the actual
germ, or the "text" of the entire musical discourse. A very desirable,
not to say vital, condition is therefore {90} lacking, in the Two-Part
forms; namely, the corroboration of this melodic germ by an emphatic
return to the beginning and an unmistakable re-announcement of the
first (leading) phrase or phrases of the composition.

Nothing could be more natural than such corroboration. Any line of
conduct, if pursued without deviation, simply carries its object
farther and farther away from its origin. If, as in the circle, this
line is led back to the starting-point, it describes the most
satisfying and perfect figure; it perfects, by enclosing space.
Whereas, if it goes straight onward, it ultimately loses itself, or
loses, at least, its connection with its beginning and source.

Nowhere is this principle of _Return_ more significant and imperative
than in music, which, because of its intangibility, has need of every
means that may serve to define and illuminate its design; and hence the
superior frequency and perfection of the Three-Part form, _which, in
its Third Part, provides for and executes this Return to the
beginning_. Its superiority and greater adaptability is fully
confirmed in the practice of composition; the number of Three-Part
forms exceeds the Two-Part, in musical literature, to an almost
surprising degree; and it may therefore be regarded as the design
peculiarly adapted to the purposes of ordinary music writing within
average limits.

The three successive divisions of the Three-Part Song-form may then be
characterized as follows: -

PART I. - The statement of the principal idea; the presentation of the
melodic and rhythmic contents of the leading thought, out of which the
whole composition is to be developed. It is generally a period-form,
at least, closing with a firm perfect cadence in the principal key, or
one of its related keys.

PART II. - The departure (more or less emphatic) from this leading
melodic statement. It is, for a time, probably an evident continuation
and development of the melodic theme embodied in the First Part; but it
does not end there; it exhibits a retrospective bent, and - when
thoroughly legitimate - its last few measures prepare for, and lead
into, the melodic member with which the piece began. Its form is
optional; but, as a rule, decisive cadence-impressions are avoided,
unless it be the composer's intention to _close_ it with a perfect
cadence (upon any _other_ than the principal tonic), and accomplish the
"return to the beginning" by means of a separate returning passage,
called the Re-transition.

PART III. - The recurrence and corroboration of the original statement;
_the reproduction of Part I_, and therewith the fulfilment of the
important principle of return and confirmation. The reproduction is
sometimes exact and complete; sometimes slight changes, or even
striking variations, possibly certain radical alterations, occur;
sometimes it is only a partial recurrence, the first few measures being
sufficient to prove the "Return"; sometimes, on the other hand,
considerable material (more or less related) is added, so that Part III
is longer than the First Part.

From this it appears that much latitude is given to the composer, in
his formulation of the Third Part. All that the Part has to prove, is
its identity as confirmation of the leading motive, and this it may do
in many ways, and with great freedom of detail, without obscuring the
main purpose. It is precisely this richness of opportunity, this
freedom of detail, which enhances the beauty and value of the
tripartite forms.

The following is a very regular example of the Three-Part Song-form
(Schumann, op. 68, No. 20): -

[Illustration: Example 53. Fragment of Schumann.]

[Illustration: Example 53 continued.]

This version is as complete as it can conveniently be made upon one
single staff (chosen in order to economize space); but the student will
find the formal design somewhat more plastically defined in the
original, complete form, and he is therefore expected to refer to the
latter. Part I is an unusually regular double-period, with three
semicadences and a strong perfect cadence, on the original tonic, to
mark its conclusion; the double-bar is an additional confirmation of
the end of the Part. The second Part runs in the key of E major (the
dominant of the original key) throughout; its form is only a phrase,
but repeated, - as is proven by the almost literal agreement of the
second phrase with the preceding one, _cadence and all_. Part III
agrees literally with Part I in its melodic formation, but differs a
little in the treatment of the lower (accompanying) voices.

In the theme of Mendelssohn's pianoforte Variations in E-flat major
(op. 82), which see, the design is as follows: - Part I is a period of
eight measures. Part II is also an 8-measure period, ending upon the
tonic chord of B-flat major (the dominant key), as first eighth-note of
the 16th measure; the following eighth-note, b-natural, represents what
we have called the Retransition (in its smallest conceivable form), as
it fulfils no other purpose than that of leading back into the first
tone of the First Part. Part III is _only a phrase_, and therefore
shorter than Part I; but it corroborates the _beginning_, and, in fact,
the entire contents of the First Part.

The plan of Mendelssohn's 28th Song Without Words is as follows: - First
number the 38 measures, _carefully_. The first four measures are an
introductory phrase, or prélude; Part I begins in the second half of
measure 4 (after the double-bar) and extends, as regular 8-measure
period, to measure 12. Part II follows, during the same measure; its
form is a period, extending to measure 20, and closing with a very
distinctly marked semicadence on the dominant chord (chord of D). Part
III is 14 measures long, containing therefore six more measures than
the First Part; its first phrase is almost exactly like the first
phrase of Part I; its second phrase (measures 25-28) differs from any
portion of Part I, but closely resembles the melodic formation of Part
II; its third phrase is based upon the preceding one (_not_ as
repetition, however), and is expanded to the 34th measure. The form of
Part III is phrase-group. The last four measures are codetta, or
postlude, and corroborate the prélude.

For exhaustive technical details of the Three-Part Song-form, see the
HOMOPHOBIC FORMS, Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15.

LESSON 10. - Analyze the following examples of the Three-Part Song-form.
The first step, here again, is to fix _the end of the First Part_; the
next, to mark the beginning of the Third Part, by determining where the
_return to the beginning_ is made. These points established, it
remains to fix the beginning of Part I, by deciding whether there is an
introductory sentence or not; then the end of Part II, by deciding
whether it leads directly into Part III, or comes to a conclusion
somewhat earlier, to make room for a Retransition; then the end of Part
III, by deciding whether a codetta or coda has been added. The
extremities of the three Parts being thus determined, there will be no
difficulty in defining the _form_ of each. Very particular attention
must be devoted to _the comparison of Part III with Part I_, in order
to discover, and accurately define, the difference between them, - in
form, in extent, in melodic formation, or in technical treatment.

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words: No. 22, No. 35, No. 32, No. 45, No.
42, No. 31, No. 27, No. 46, No. 25, No. 20, No. 26 (Re-transition,
middle of measure 25 to measure 29); No. 36 (beginning of Part III,
measure 60, somewhat disguised); No. 47, No. 12, No. 15, No. 3, No. 43,
No. 40, No. 37, No. 2, No. 33, No. 30, No. 1.

Schumann, op. 68; No. 3; No. 12, first 24 measures; No. 14, No. 16, No.
17, No. 21 (Part I closes with a semicadence, but made in such a manner
that it answers its purpose without the least uncertainty); No. 24, No.
25, No. 26, No. 28; No. 29, last 48 measures (including coda); No. 33
(long coda); No. 34; No. 37, first 32 measures; No. 38; No. 40, first
movement (2-4 measure); No. 41.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, third movement, - both the
_Menuetto_ and the _Trio_. Op. 2, No. 2, third movement, - both
_Scherzo_ and _Trio_. Same sonata, last movement, first 16 measures
(Parts II and III consist of a single phrase each; therefore the whole
is diminutive in extent; but it is unquestionably Three-Part Song-form,
because of the completeness of Part I, and the unmistakable _return to
the beginning_).

Op. 7, _Largo_, first 24 measures. Same sonata, third movement; also
the _Minore_. Same sonata, last movement, first 16 measures.

Op. 10, No. 2, second movement, first 38 measures.

Op. 10, No. 3, _Menuetto_.

Op. 14, No. 1, third movement; also the _Maggiore_.

Op. 14, No. 2, second movement, first 20 measures.

Op. 22, _Menuetto_; also the _Minore_.

Op. 26, first 34 measures; same sonata. _Scherzo_; same sonata,
_Funeral march_ (also the _Trio_; what is its form?).

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 15 (Peters Edition), _Andante_, first
32 measures.

No. 1, last movement, first 50 measures.

No. 12, first 18 measures. Same sonata, _Trio_ of the second movement
(Part III returns to the beginning very briefly, and is otherwise
different from the First Part almost throughout).

No. 13, _Adagio_, first 16 measures.

Chopin, _Mazurkas_ (Peters edition), No. 11, No. 22, No. 24, No. 40,
No. 49.

In the following examples, the student is to determine whether the form
is Two-Part or Three-Part: -

Mendelssohn, op. 72 (six pianoforte pieces), No. 1; No. 2; No. 3, No.
4, No. 6. - Etudes, op. 104, No. 1, No. 3.

A curious example may be found in Schumann, op. 68, No. 32; the form is
actually Two-Part, but with a very brief reminiscence of the beginning
(scarcely to be called a Return) in the _last two measures_, - which
are, strictly speaking, no more than a codetta. The Second Part is

In Schumann's op. 68, Nos. 8, 9, and 11 (first 24 measures), the
_second_ Part is unusually independent in character; completely
detached from Part III, and exhibiting no symptoms of leading into the

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