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latter, as second Parts have commonly been observed to do.


REPETITION OF THE PARTS. - The enlargement of the Three-Part Song-form
is effected, in the majority of cases, by simply repeating the Parts.
The composer, in extending the dimensions of his original design,
resorts as usual to the most legitimate and natural means at his
disposal - that of _repetition_. By so doing, he reinforces the
principle of Unity, and, instead of obscuring, places the contents of
his design in a stronger and more convincing light. It is true that
the act of mere repetition involves the risk of monotony; but against
this the composer has an efficient safeguard, - that of _variation_. He
may modify and elaborate the repetition in any manner and to any extent
that seems desirable or necessary, the only limitations being that the
identity of the original Part must be preserved beyond all danger of
misapprehension, and (as a rule) that the cadences shall not be altered.

The act of repetition is applied to the First Part alone, and to the
_Second and Third Parts together_; very rarely to the Second Part
alone, or to the Third Part alone.

EXACT REPETITIONS. - When Part I, - or Parts II and III together, - are to
be repeated without any changes, it is customary to employ the familiar
repetition-marks (double-bar and dots); with "first and second ending,"
if, for any reason, some modification of the cadence-measure is
required. This is illustrated in the 7th Song Without Words; Part I is
repeated alone, and Parts II and III together; both repetitions are
indicated by the customary signs, and each has a double ending. See
also, Schumann, op. 68, No. 1; Part I is repeated exactly, with
repetition-marks; Parts II and III are also repeated literally (all but
the very last tone in the lower part), but written out, - apparently
without necessity. Also No. 2; the literal repetition of Part I is
written out; Parts II and III have the repetition-marks.

MODIFIED REPETITIONS. - The quality and extent of the changes that may
be made, in order to enrich the composition without altering its
structural design, depend, as has been intimated, upon the judgment and
fancy of the composer. The student will find no part of his analytical
efforts more profitable and instructive than the careful comparison of
these modified repetitions with the original Parts; nothing can be more
fascinating and inspiring to the earnest musical inquirer, than thus to
trace the operation of the composer's mind and imagination; to witness
his employment of the technical resources in re-stating the same idea
and developing new beauties out of it, - especially when the variations
are somewhat elaborate.

It must be remembered that mere repetition (even when modified, - as
long as it can be proven to be nothing more than repetition) does not
alter the form. A phrase, repeated, remains a phrase; _nothing less
than a decided alteration of the cadence itself_ will transform it into
a double-phrase (or period). Similarly, a period, repeated, remains a
period, and does not become a double-period; and a Part, repeated,
remains the same Part. Therefore, the student will find it necessary
to concentrate his attention upon these larger forms, and exercise both
vigilance and discrimination in determining which sections of his
design come under the head of "modified repetition."

For an illustration of the _repeated First Part_, see the 9th Song
Without Words; Part I is a four-measure period (of two small phrases)
closing in the seventh measure; the following four measures are its
modified repetition. For an example of the _repeated Second and Third
Parts_, see No. 48. In No. 29, both repetitions occur, with
interesting changes; the repetition of Part I begins in measure 13;
that of Parts II and III in measure 35; the last 10 1/2 measures are a


THE FIVE-PART FORM. The repetition of the Second and Third Parts
together is sometimes subjected to changes that are almost radical in
their nature, and therefore appear to modify the form itself. These
important changes chiefly _affect the Second Part, when it reappears as
"Fourth" Part_. When the alteration of the Second Part (that is, the
difference between Part IV and Part II) is sufficiently radical to
suggest the presence of a virtually new Part, the design is called the
Five-part Song-form. The possible repetition of the First Part, it
will be inferred, does not affect this distinction in the least; it
hinges solely upon the treatment of the reproduction of _Part Two_.
For illustration:

[Illustration: Diagram of Parts.]

The Five-Part form is illustrated in the 14th Song Without
Words; - (first, number the measures; observe that the two endings of
Part I are to be counted as the _same measure_, and not separately;
they are both measure 8): - Part I extends to the double-bar, and is
repeated literally, only excepting the _rhythmic_ modification of the
final measure; Part II extends from measure 9 to 23; Part III, measures
24-35; Part IV, measures 36-47; Part V, measures 48-60; coda to the
end. The comparison of Part IV with Part II discloses both agreement
and diversity; they are, obviously, _practically the same Part_, but
differ in key, in form, and in extent. The comparison of Parts I, III,
and V reveals a similar condition, though the agreement here is much
closer, and each confirms the leading statement.

A more characteristic example will be found in the familiar F major
_Nachtstück_ of Schumann, op. 23, No. 4, which see: - Part I extends
from measure 2 to 9 (after 1 1/2 measures of recitative introduction);
Part II, measures 10-13; Part III, measures 14-21; Part IV, measures
22-32; Part V, measures 33-40; codetta to end. The Fourth Part bears
very little resemblance to the Second, and assumes rather the character
of a wholly independent Part.

GROUP OF PARTS. - In some, comparatively rare, instances, the
arrangement of perfect cadences is such that, - coupled with
independence of melodic formation and character, - the composition seems
to separate into _four or more individual sections_ or Parts, with or
without a recurrence of the First one; or into three _different_ Parts,
lacking the evidence of the return to the beginning. When such
irregularities are encountered, or when any conditions appear which
elude or baffle natural classification among the Three-Part Song-forms
(simple or enlarged), the piece may be called a group of Parts. The
use of this term is entirely legitimate, and is commended to the
student on account of its convenience, for all examples of the
Song-form which, _upon thoroughly conscientious analysis_, present
confusing features, at variance with our adopted classification. Of
one thing only he must assure himself, - that the design is a
_Song-form_ (_i.e._ an association of _Parts_), and not one of the
larger forms to be explained in later chapters. The definition is
given in Chapter IX (on page 84).

A fair illustration of the utility of the term "Group of Parts" is seen
in Schumann, op. 68, No. 18. Others will be cited in the following

LESSON 11. - Analyze the following examples of the enlarged Three-Part
Song-form. As before, the form of each Part should be defined, and
introductions and codas (if present) properly marked. All of the given
examples belong to this chapter, but are not classified; it is
purposely left to the student to determine where repetitions occur, and
whether they are exact, or variated, - in a word, to decide which of the
above diagrams the composition represents.

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 3, No. 4, No. 8, No. 10, No. 11,
No. 12, No. 16, No. 17, No. 19, No. 21, No. 23, No. 24, No. 27, No. 31,
No. 34, No. 39, No. 43, No. 44, No. 46.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 5; No. 6; No. 10; No. 13; No. 15; No. 19; No. 22;
No. 30; No. 36; No. 43.

Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. 5.

Chopin, _Prélude_, op. 28, No. 17.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata No. 8, _Andante_ (entire).

Mozart, No. 18, _Andantino_ (of the "Fantasia").

Chopin, _Mazurkas_, No. 1, No. 2, No. 4, No. 5, No. 8, No. 15, No. 16,
No. 18, No. 37, No. 44, No. 48.


Chopin, _Mazurkas_, No. 3 (apparently five Parts, not counting
repetitions; Part V corroborates Part I, but the intervening sections
are too independent to be regarded as one long Second Part, - as would
be the case if this corroboration were Part III). Also No. 7 (same
design); No. 14 (four Parts, the last like the first); No. 19 (four
Parts, the fourth like the second); No. 20: No. 21; No. 27 (Part V like
I, Part IV like II); No. 34; No. 39; No. 41.

Schubert, _Momens musicals_, op. 94, No. 3.


Another method of enlargement consists in associating two
different - though somewhat related - Song-Forms. The practice was so
common in certain of the older dances, particularly in the minuet, that
this design is also known as the _Minuet Form_.

THE PRINCIPAL SONG. - The first division, called the principal song, is
either a Two-Part or a Three-Part Song-form, - most commonly the latter.
It is generally entirely complete in itself; the fact that another
division is to be added, does not affect its character, form, or

THE "TRIO," OR SUBORDINATE SONG. - The division which follows, as second
song-form, was formerly called the "Trio," and it has retained the name
in the majority of examples of this form, although the old custom that
gave rise to the term has long since been discontinued. A more
accurate designation, and one that we shall here adopt, is "Subordinate
Song." (Other names, which the student will encounter, are "maggiore,"
"minore," "intermezzo," "alternative," etc.).

Like the principal song, its fellow (the subordinate song) may be
either a Two-Part or a Three-Part design. It is very likely to
resemble its principal song in species of measure, tempo, and general
style; and its key may be the same as that of the principal division,
or, at least, related to it. But similarity of style is by no means
obligatory, the element of contrast having become more important than
Unity, in a design of such extent. It is also usually complete in
itself, though its connection with its principal song may involve a few
measures of transitional material.

THE "DA CAPO." - This association of song-forms is subject to the
principle which governs all tripartite forms, namely, the return to the
beginning, and confirmation of the first (or principal) statement; not
only because of the general desirability of such a return, but because
_the necessity for it increases with the growth of the form_. In a
design that comprises a number of entire song-forms, it may be regarded
as indispensable.

Therefore, the subordinate song is followed by a recurrence of the
principal song, - called the _da capo_ (or "from the beginning"),
because of those Italian words of direction given to the player upon
reaching the end of the "Trio," or subordinate song. The reproduction
of the principal division is likely to be literal, so that the simple
directions "_da capo_" suffice, instead of re-writing the entire
division. But, here again, changes may be made, - generally unimportant
variations which do not obscure the form; or an abbreviation, or even
slight extension. And a codetta or coda is sometimes added to the

The Song with Trio is thus seen to correspond to the Three-Part
Song-form, upon a larger scale. The several _Parts_ of the latter
become complete _Song-forms_. An important distinction, to which
especial attention must be directed, is the _completeness_ of the
contents of each song-form, and their fairly distinct _separation_ from
each other, in the Song with Trio. The significance of these traits
will become apparent to the analytic student, as he progresses along
the line of form-evolution into the still larger designs.

LESSON 12. - The following examples all belong to the Song with Trio.
They should be analyzed as usual, each Song separately, defining the
Parts, their form, and other details, as minutely as possible. Careful
analysis is the first condition of intelligent interpretation; and the
more complete the analysis, the fuller and more authoritative the
interpretation: -

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, third movement; the
divisions are called _Menuetto_ and _Trio_, therefore this is an
authentic type of the present design; each is a complete Three-Part
Song-form; the key is the same, though a change from minor into major
takes place; after the _Trio_, the _Menuetto_ does not re-appear (on
the printed page), but its reproduction is demanded by the words
_Menuetto da capo_, at the end of the Trio.

Op. 2, No. 2, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 2, No. 3, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 7, third movement, _Allegro_ and _Minore_.

Op. 10, No. 2, second movement, _Allegretto_ (the subordinate song is
not marked, but is easily distinguished; there are no _da capo_
directions, because the principal song is re-written, with alterations).

Op. 10, No. 3, _Menuetto_ and _Trio_.

Op. 14, No. 1, second movement. _Allegretto_ and _Maggiore_; a coda is

Op. 22, _Menuetto_ and _Minore_.

Op. 26, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 27, No. 1, second movement, _Allegro molto_; the Trio is not
marked; the "_da capo_" is variated, and a coda follows.

Op. 27, No. 2, _Allegretto_ and _Trio_.

Op. 28, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 31, No. 3, _Menuetto_ and _Trio_.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 11; here there are no outward indications of the
Song with Trio, but that is the design employed; for the subordinate
song the measure is changed from 6-8 to 2-4, but the key remains the
same; the reproduction of the principal song is indicated in German,
instead of Italian.

No. 12, No. 29, No. 39 (here the _da capo_ is considerably changed).

In No. 37 the "subordinate song" is represented by no more than a brief
Interlude (measures 33-40) between the principal song and its
recurrence, - just sufficient to provide an occasion for the latter
(which, by the way, is also abbreviated).

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 2, _Andante cantabile_; each song-form
has two Parts; the subordinate song changes into the minor.

No. 9, second movement, _Menuettos_; the subordinate song is marked
"Menuetto II," a custom probably antedating the use of the word "Trio"
(see Bach, 2d English Suite, _Bourrée_ I and II).

No. 12, _Menuetto_.

Schubert, _Momens musicals_, op. 94, Nos. 1, 4, and 6.

Schumann, op. 82 (_Waldscenen_), Nos. 7 and 8.

Chopin, _Mazurkas_, Nos. 6, 12, 23, 47, 50. In Nos. 10, 45, 46 and 51,
the subordinate song consists of one Part only, but is sufficiently
distinct, complete, and separate to leave no doubt of the form.

Also Chopin, _Nocturne_ No. 13 (op. 48, No. 1).

Examples of this compound Song-form will also be found, almost without
exception, in Marches, Polonaises, and similar Dance-forms; and in many
pianoforte compositions of corresponding broader dimensions, which, _if
extended beyond the very common limits of the Three-Part form_, will
probably prove to be Song with Trio. This the student may verify by
independent analysis of pianoforte literature, - never forgetting that
uncertain examples may need (if small) to be classed among the
group-forms, or (if large) may be suspected of belonging to the higher
forms, not yet explained, and are therefore to be set aside for future
analysis. Mention must be made of the fact that in some rare cases - as
in Mendelssohn's well-known "Wedding March" - _two Trios_, and
consequently two _da capos_, will be found.


EVOLUTION. - It cannot have escaped the observant student of the
foregoing pages, that the successive enlargement of the structural
designs of musical composition is achieved by a process of natural
growth and progressive evolution. No single form intrudes itself in an
arbitrary or haphazard manner; each design emerges naturally and
inevitably out of the preceding, in response to the necessity of
expansion, and conformably with the same constant laws of unity and
variety, - the active agents, along the entire unbroken line of
continuous evolution, being _reproduction_ (Unity) and legitimate
_modification_ (Variety); or, in other words, _modified repetition_.
It is upon the indisputable evidence of such normal evolution in the
system of musical structure, that our conviction of the legitimacy and
permanence of this system rests.

The diagrams which appear on pages 78 and 98 partly illustrate the line
of evolution, which, in its fullest significance, may be traced as
follows: the _tone_, by the simplest process of reproduction, became a
_figure_; the figure, by multiplication or repetition, gave rise to the
_motive_; the latter, in the same manner, to the _phrase_. The
repetition of the phrase, upon the infusion of a certain quality and
degree of modification (chiefly affecting the cadences) became the
_period_; the latter, by the same process, became the double-period.
The limit of coherent phrase-succession (without a determined
interruption) being therewith reached, the larger Part-forms became
necessary. The _Two-Part_ form emerged out of the double-period, the
two "connected" periods of which separated into two "independent"
Parts, by the determined interruption in the center. And, be it well
understood, each new design having once been thus established, its
enlargement within its own peculiar boundaries followed as a matter of
course; I mean, simply, that the two Parts did not need to remain the
_periods_ that were their original type; the process of growth cannot
be stopped. The _Three-Part_ form resulted from adding to the Two-Part
the perfecting reversion to the starting-point, and confirmation of the
principal statement. The _Five-part_ form, and the _Song with Trio_
are enlargements of the Three-Part forms by repetition or
multiplication; and with the latter the limit of this particular
process appears to be achieved. Any further growth must take place
from within, rather than by addition from without.

But the process of evolution continues steadily, as the student will
witness. To one vital fact his attention is here called, - a fact which
he is enjoined to hold in readiness for constant application, - namely,
_that perfection of structural design is attained in the Three-Part
form, and that every larger (or higher) form will have its type in this
design, and its basis upon it_. The coming designs will prove to be
expansions of the Three-Part form.

THE RONDO-FORMS. - The structural basis of the Rondo, and other larger
or (as they are sometimes called) higher forms, is the Subject or
Theme. The form and contents of this factor, the Theme, are so
variable that a precise definition can scarcely be given. It is a
musical sentence of very distinct character, as concerns its melodic,
harmonic and, particularly, its rhythmic consistency; and of sufficient
length to establish this individuality, - seldom, if ever, less than an
entire period or double-period; often a Two-Part, not infrequently a
complete Three-Part Song-form, though never more than the latter.

In the Rondo-forms, two or three such Themes are associated in such
_alternating succession that, after each new Theme, the first or
Principal Theme recurs_. The term "Rondo" may be referred to this
trait, the periodic return of the Principal theme, which, in thus
"coming round" again, after each digression into another theme, imparts
a characteristic circular movement (so to speak), to the design. In
the rondos, then, all the movements of musical development revolve
about one significant sentence or theme, the style of which therefore
determines the prevailing character of the whole composition. This,
which is naturally called the Principal theme, is placed at the
beginning of the rondo. Its end being reached, it is temporarily
abandoned for a second sentence, called the Subordinate theme, of more
or less emphatically contrasting style and of nearly or quite equal
length (generally shorter, however), and always in a different key.
After this there occurs the momentous _return to the beginning_, - the
most insistent and vital fundamental condition of good, clear, musical
form, of whatsoever dimension or purport, - and the _Principal_ theme
reasserts itself, recurring with a certain degree of variation and
elaboration (occasionally abbreviation), thus vindicating its title as
Principal theme, and stamping its fellow-theme as a mere digression.
After this, - if a still broader design is desired, - another digression
may be made into a new Subordinate theme, in still another key,
followed by the persistent return to the Principal theme. And so on.
Upon the Subordinate theme, or themes, devolves the burden of variety
and contrast, while the Principal theme fulfils the requirements of
corroboration and concentration. A coda, sometimes of considerable
length, is usually added; it appears to be necessary, as a means of
supplying an instinctive demand for balance, increased interest, and
certain other scarcely definable conditions of very real importance in
satisfactory music form.

Of the Rondo-forms there are three grades, distinguished respectively
_by the number of digressions_ from the Principal theme: -

The First Rondo-form, with one digression (or Subordinate theme), and
one return to the Principal theme;

The Second Rondo-form, with two digressions, and two returns;

The Third Rondo-form, with three digressions and three returns. The
persistent recurrence of the Principal theme, something like a refrain,
and the consequent regular alternation of the chief sentence with its
contrasting subordinate sentences, are the distinctive structural
features of the Rondo.


THE FIRST RONDO-FORM. - This consists, then, of a Principal theme
(generally Two-Part or Three-Part Song-form); a Subordinate theme in a
different key (probably a smaller form); a recurrence of the Principal
theme (usually more or less modified or elaborated); and a coda.
Thus: -

_Principal Theme. Subordinate Theme. Prin. Theme. Coda._
2- or 3-Part Period, Double-period, As before, Optional
Song-form. 2- or 3-Part usually
Probably a form. Different variated.
perfect cadence. style and key. Sometimes
Possibly a few Possibly a brief abbreviated.
beats or measures codetta; and
of transitional usually a few
material, leading measures of
into next theme. Re-transition.

The design is that of the tripartite forms. But it is not to be
confounded with the Three-Part _Song-form_, because at least one of its
Themes, and probably both, will be a Part-form by itself. It is an
association of Song-forms, and therefore corresponds in design to the
_Song with Trio_. The first Rondo differs from the latter, however, in
being more compact, more coherent and continuous, and more highly
developed. This manifests itself in the relation of the Themes to each
other, which, despite external contrast, is more intimate than that
between the Principal and Subordinate Song (or Trio); further, in the
transitional passages from one Theme into the other (especially the
Re-transition, or "returning passage"); in the customary elaboration of
the recurring Principal Theme; and in the almost indispensable coda,
which often assumes considerable importance, and an elaborate form and

The evolution of the First Rondo-form of the Song with Trio may be
clearly traced in classic literature. Many intermediate stages appear,
naturally; and it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the
design is Rondo or compound Song-form, simply because it is scarcely
possible to decide just when the "Trio" assumes the more intimate
relation of a Subordinate theme, or when the freedom and comparative
looseness of association (peculiar to the Song with Trio) is
transformed into the closer cohesion and greater smoothness of finish
_which fuses all the component Parts of the design into one compact
whole_, - the distinctive stamp of all so-called "higher" forms.

The thoughtful examination and comparison of the following four
examples will elucidate the matter: -

1. Beethoven, first pianoforte sonata (op. 2, No. 1), _Menuetto_ and
_Trio_. Already analyzed as a perfectly genuine Song with Trio.

2. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, second movement, _Andante_.
The principal Song is in the Three-Part form, with exact repetitions.

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