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The subordinate song differs so radically in style, and each song is so
complete and distinct from the other, that the form is almost certainly
Song with Trio; but there is a strong intimation of the Rondo-form in
the elaborate variation of the _da capo_, and in the treatment of the
coda (last 17 measures), in which motives from both Songs are
associated so closely as to vindicate their kinship. In a word, this
movement possesses, - despite the apparent independence of its
Songs, - some degree of that continuity, compactness and artistic finish
which culminate in the genuine Rondo-form.

3. Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 10, second movement (_Rondeau en
polonaise_). The continuity and unity of this composition is so
complete that it is certainly a Rondo-form; the principal theme is a
fairly large Three-Part form; the subordinate theme (measure 47-69) is
a Two-Part form, the second part corresponding in contents to the
second Part of the principal theme; the _recurrence_ of the principal
theme is abbreviated to one of its three Parts, and is merged in the
coda (last seven measures), which assumes the nature of a mere
extension. Despite all this evidence, there still remains a certain
impression of structural independence, which, so to speak, betrays the
"seams," and militates somewhat against the spirit of the perfect
Rondo-form. See also, No. 13, Adagio.

4. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 2, _Largo_; the unessential
details omitted in the following (in order to economize space) appear,
of course, in the original, - to which the student is expected to refer.

[Illustration: Example 54. Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 54 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 54 continued.]

This is a genuine First Rondo-form. All the factors of which it is
composed, Phrases, Parts and Themes, are so closely interlinked that
the continuity, cohesion and _unity_ of the whole is complete. The
variety of contents which these factors exhibit (greatest, naturally,
between the two themes), does not disturb the impression that the whole
movement is a unit. This is due, at least partly, to the manner in
which the perfect cadences are disguised; each one is passed over with
the least possible check of rhythmic movement (measures 8, 19, etc.),
thus snugly dove-tailing the structural factors. The coda is elaborate
and unusually long; it consists of several "sections," as follows (see
the original): from measure 1 (the last measure in Ex. 54) to measure
4, a phrase, derived from the second Part of the Principal theme;
measures 5-7, an abbreviated repetition; measures 8-14, a phrase,
derived from the Principal theme; measures 15-17, a transitional
passage; measures 18-25, a period, closely resembling Part I of the
Principal theme; measures 26-30, final phrase.

LESSON 13. - Analyze the following examples. They are not classified;
the student must determine whether the form is pure First Rondo, or an
intermediate grade between Rondo and "Song with Trio." One of the
examples is a genuine Song with Trio; and one is a _Three-Part
Song-form_; with reasonable vigilance the student will detect these
"catches." To distinguish these three designs from each other,
recollect -

That the Three-Part Song-form consists of three _single Parts_, fairly
similar in character, fairly small in form, and severed either by a
firm cadence, or by unmistakable proof of new "beginning;"

That in the first Rondo-form, at least one of the themes (if not both)
contains _two_ (or three) Parts; and,

That in the Song with Trio, the two "Songs" are more independent of
each other, and more decisively separated, than are the "themes" of the

With reference to all uncertain cases, it must be remembered that _the
more doubtful a distinction is, the less important is its decision_.
These designs naturally merge one in another, and at times it is folly
to impose a definite analysis upon them.

The analysis should be as minute as possible, nevertheless. The first
step is to define the extremities of the two themes. This fixes the
coda (and the introduction, if present); the re-transition (returning
passage into the Principal theme); and the transition into the
Subordinate theme - if present. The form of each theme must be defined
in detail, as in Ex. 54: -

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Op. 7, _Largo_.

Op. 2, No. 3, _Adagio_.

Op. 79, _Andante_.

Op. 27, No. 1, _Allegro molto_.

Schubert, pianoforte _Impromptus_, op. 90, No. 2; and No. 3.

Chopin, _Mazurka_, No. 26.

Chopin, _Nocturnes_: op. 27, No. 1.

Op. 32, No. 2.

Op. 37, No. 2.

Op. 48, No. 1.

Op. 55, No. 1; and No. 2

Op. 62, No. 1.

Op. 72, No. 1 (E minor, posthumous).


As described in the preceding chapter, the Second Rondo-form contains
two digressions from the Principal theme, called respectively the first
and second Subordinate themes. It bears the same relation to the
Five-Part Song-form, that the First Rondo-form bears to the Three-Part

For the sake of effective contrast, _the two Subordinate themes are
generally differentiated_ to a marked degree; more precisely stated,
the _second_ Subordinate theme is likely to differ strikingly both from
the Principal theme and from the first Subordinate theme; the result is
that, as a general rule, the second digression is more emphatic than
the first.

To prevent the enlarged design from assuming too great dimensions, the
several themes are apt to be more concise than in the first Rondo-form;
the Two-Part form is therefore more common than the Three-Part; the
first Subordinate theme is generally brief, and the Principal theme
upon its recurrences, is frequently abbreviated, - especially the last
one, which often merges in the coda.

An example of the second Rondo-form (which may be sufficiently
illustrated without notes) will be found in the last movement of
Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 49, No. 2 (G major). Number the one
hundred and twenty measures, and define the factors of the form with
close reference to the following indications - the figures in
parenthesis denoting the measures:

_Principal theme_. Part I (1-8), period-form; Part II (9-12), phrase;
Part III (13-20), period-form.

_Transition_, period-form (21-27), leading into the new key.

_First Subordinate theme_, period-form (28-36), with

_Codetta_, repeated (37-42).

_Re-transition_ (43-47).

_Principal theme_, as before (48-67).

_Second Subordinate theme_, double-period (68-83); the process of
_Re-transition_ manifests its inception about one measure before (82),
and is carried on to measure 87.

_Principal theme_, as before (88-107).

_Coda_, period, with modified repetition of consequent phrase
(108-119), - followed by an extra perfect cadence, as extension.

LESSON 14. - Analyze the following examples, as usual. Review the
directions given in Lesson 13: -

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 10, No. 3, last movement.

Op. 14, No. 2, last movement (called _Scherzo_).

Op. 79, last movement (very concise).

Op. 13, _Adagio_ (still more concise. Is this not a Five-Part

Beethoven, _Polonaise_ for the pianoforte, op. 89.

Mozart, _Rondo_ in A minor, for pianoforte.


In this form of composition there are three digressions from the
Principal theme. But, in order to avert the excess of variety, so
imminent in a design of such length, the digressions are so planned
that _the third one corresponds to the first_. That is, there are here
again only two Subordinate themes (as in the Second Rondo-form), which
alternate with each other, so that the succession of thematic factors
is as follows: Principal Theme; 1st Subordinate Theme; Principal Theme;
2d Subordinate Theme; Principal Theme; 1st Subordinate Theme; Principal
Theme; and coda.

It will be observed that this arrangement is another confirmation and
embodiment of the Three-Part (tripartite) form, with its "recurrence of
the first section," magnified into larger proportions than any examples
thus far seen. The three portions are called, _Divisions_. The first
is known as the _Exposition_, comprising the Principal Theme, First
Subordinate Theme, and recurrence of the Principal Theme; the second
division consists of the Second Subordinate Theme only; the Third
Division is the _Recapitulation_ of the first Division.

THE EXPOSITION. - This first Division, the "statement," compounded of
two themes and a recurrence, is in itself a complete (though probably
very concise) First Rondo-form; therefore, in order to confirm the
intended design, at least one of its themes must contain two (or more)
Parts, - otherwise it would be no more, all together, than a Three-Part
Song-form, and the _whole_ Rondo would be reduced to the design of the
First Rondo-form. In a word, the Exposition must correspond concisely
to the table given on page 108. The First Subordinate theme takes its
usual emphatic position in a different key, - generally closely related
to the key of the Principal theme.

Sometimes, but by no means regularly, the Exposition closes with a
decisive perfect cadence in the original key.

The Middle Division. - As this should balance (at least approximately),
the Exposition, it is likely to be a fairly broad design, - not greater,
however, than a Three-Part Song-form (possibly with repetitions), and
often no more than a Two-Part form. As intimated in the preceding
chapter, the Second Subordinate theme is usually strongly contrasted
with the other themes, in character, key, and length; but the same
unity of total effect is necessary, as in the smaller Rondo-forms. The
re-transition (or returning passage) is often quite lengthy and
elaborate; it is seldom an independent section of the form, however,
but generally developed out of the last phrase of the theme, by the
process of "dissolution," - to be explained more fully in Chapter XVII.

THE RECAPITULATION. - This corresponds, theoretically, to the _da capo_
in the Song with Trio, or to the variated recurrence of the Principal
theme in the First Rondo-form. But it is more than either of these.
The term "Recapitulation" is more comprehensive than "recurrence" (in
the sense in which we have thus far employed the latter word), as it
always refers to the reproduction of a _collection_ of themes, and,
chiefly on this account, is subject to certain specific conditions of
technical treatment.

Recapitulation, in the larger designs of composition, _invariably
involves transposition_, or change of key, - the transposition of the
First Subordinate theme, from the key chosen for its first announcement
(in the Exposition) back _to the principal key_ of the piece. This,
as may be inferred, greatly affects the original transition and
re-transition; and it may necessitate changes within the theme itself,
in consequence of the change of register.

Further, the last recurrence of the Principal theme being no less than
its fourth announcement, is rarely complete; as a rule, a brief
intimation (the first motive or phrase) is deemed sufficient, and this
is then dissolved into the coda; or the Principal theme, as such, is
omitted, or affiliated with the coda, or one of its sections.


For an illustration of the Third Rondo-form, the student is referred to
the last movement of Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 2, the
diagram of which is as follows: -

_Exposition._ _Division_ _Recapitulation._
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Pr.Th. 1stSub.Th. Pr.Th. 2d Sub.Th. Pr.Th. 1st Sub.Th. Pr.Th. and Coda
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A maj. E maj. A maj. A minor A maj. A maj. A maj.

For its detailed analysis, number the measures as usual (there are 187,
the "second ending" not being counted), and define each factor of the
form by reference to the given indications, - the figures in parenthesis
again denoting the measures: -

_Principal Theme_, Part I (1-8), period-form. Part II (9-12), phrase.
Part III (13-16), phrase.

_Transition_, period-form (17-26), leading into the new key.

_First Sub. Theme_, period, Antecedent (27-32), Consequent (33-39).

_Re-transition_ (40).

_Principal Theme_, as before, (41-56). This ends the EXPOSITION.

_Second Sub. Theme_, Part I (57-66), period, literal repetition. Part
II (67-74) period-form. Part III (75-79) phrase.

Parts II and III repeated (80-92); the process of _re-transition_
begins one measure earlier (91), and is pursued to measure 99.

The RECAPITULATION begins in the next measure with the

_Principal Theme_, as before, slightly modified (100-115).

_Transition_, as before, slightly abbreviated (116-123).

_First Subordinate Theme_, as before, but transposed to the principal
key, A major, and somewhat modified (124-135).

_Principal Theme_ begins in measure 135, where the preceding theme
ends; consequently, there is an Elision. In measure 140 it is
dissolved into the

_Coda_: Section 1 (to measure 148).

Section 2 (149-160).

Section 3 (161-172).

Section 4 (173-180).

Section 5 (to end).

LESSON 15. - Analyze the following examples, as usual. They represent
chiefly the Third Rondo-form, but _one example each_ of the First and
Second Rondo-forms have been introduced, to stimulate the vigilance of
the student. Review the directions given in Lesson 13:

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 26, last movement, (very concise,
but a perfect model of the form).

Op. 28, last movement.

Op. 7, last movement.

Op. 2, No. 3, last movement.

Op. 13, last movement.

Op. 22, last movement.

Op. 14, No. 1, last movement.

Op. 31, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Beethoven, _Rondos_ for pianoforte, op. 51, No. 1; and op. 51, No. 2.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 4, last movement; No. 3, last movement.


CLASSIFICATION OF THE LARGER FORMS. - The Sonatine form is the smaller
variety of two practically kindred designs, known collectively as the
Sonata-allegro forms. In order to obtain a clear conception of its
relation to the latter, and also to the Rondo-forms, it is necessary to
subject the entire group of so-called "higher" forms to a brief

The larger, broader, or "higher" designs of musical composition are
divided into two classes: the three _Rondo-forms_, and the two
_Sonata-allegro forms_. The latter constitute the superior of the two
classes, for the following reasons: -

In the first place, the rondos rest upon a narrower thematic basis,
centering in one single theme - the Principal one - about which the other
themes revolve. Further, their most salient structural feature is
nothing more significant than simple _alternation_ (of the Principal
theme with its one or more Subordinates) the Principal theme recurs
after each digression with a persistence that lends a certain
one-sidedness to the form, - only excepting in the Third (and highest)
Rondo-form, which, by virtue of its broad Recapitulation of the first
Division, approaches most nearly the rank of the Sonata-allegro design,
as will be seen.

In the Sonata-allegro forms, on the other hand, the leading purpose is
_to unite two co-ordinate themes upon an equal footing_; one is to
appear as often as the other; and the two themes _together_ constitute
the thematic basis of the design. These are, as in the rondos, a
Principal theme (called principal because it appears first, and thus
becomes in a sense the index of the whole movement), and a Subordinate
theme (so called in contradistinction to the other), - contrasting in
character, as usual, but actually of equal importance, and of nearly or
quite equal length. To these, there is commonly added a codetta (or
"concluding theme" as it is {122} sometimes called, though it seldom
attains to the dignity of a _theme_), - sometimes two, or even more,
codettas, which answer the general purpose of a coda, rounding off and
balancing this Division of the design. This union of the two or three
thematic components that are to represent the contents of the design,
is the _Exposition_, or first Division, of the Sonata-allegro forms.
It indicates a point of contact between the latter and the rondo, - in
the _Third_ form of which we also find an Exposition. Careful
comparison of the two types of exposition reveals the significant
difference between the two classes, however; in the Third Rondo, the
exposition was an _alternation_ of themes, with decided preference for
the principal one; in the Sonata-allegro it is a _union_ of themes,
without preference, resulting in a broader thematic basis.

THE SONATINE FORM. - In the Sonatine-form, or the smaller variety of the
sonata-allegro designs, this Exposition (or first Division) is followed
_at once_, - or after a few measures of interlude, or re-transitional
material, - by a Recapitulation of the Division, as was seen in the
Third Rondo-form, and under the same conditions of transposition as
there. The diagram of the form is therefore as follows: -

Exposition. Recapitulation.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - brief - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
As usual. In some Optional. Inter- As In the Also in
related lude before. principal principal
key. key. key.

An additional coda is, as usual, likely to appear at the end.

This diagram should be very carefully compared with that of the Third
Rondo-form on page 119, and the points both of agreement and
dissimilarity noted. More minute details of the Sonatine form will be
given in the next chapter, in connection with the larger and more fully
developed Sonata-allegro form.

An illustration of the Sonatine-form will be found in Mozart, 6th
pianoforte sonata, _adagio_. Number the measures, as usual, and
analyze with reference to the indications given; the figures in
parenthesis again denote the measures.

_Principal Theme_, B-flat major, period-form, - possibly double-period,
because of the slow tempo and large measures (1-8). There is no

_Subordinate Theme_, F major, period-form, extended. Antecedent
(9-12); consequent, very similar (13-16); extension by addition of new
phrase, as in the group-form (16 1/2-19).

_Codetta_, also in F major, very brief, only one-half measure, and
repeated as usual (19 1/2-20). This ends the Exposition.

_Interlude_, the remaining beats of measure 20; it is, of course, a
brief re-transition, and is therefore strongly suggestive of the First
Rondo-form, the _details of which exactly coincide, thus far, with the
above factors of the sonatine-form_. Such coincidences merely confirm
the unbroken line of evolution, and are to be expected in the system of
legitimate, rational music designs. The RECAPITULATION (the original
_da capo_) follows, beginning with the

_Principal Theme_, B-flat major, as before (21-28) but somewhat
embellished. Again, there is no Transition. (Here the similarity to
the First Rondo ends.)

_Subordinate Theme_, corresponds very closely to the former version,
but transposed to B-flat major, the principal key, and variated (29-39).

_Codetta_, also in B-flat major (39 1/2-40), slightly extended. There
is no coda.

LESSON 16. - Analyze the following examples of the sonatine-form, in the
usual exhaustive manner: -

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 10, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Op. 31, No. 2, _Adagio_.

Mendelssohn, _Andante cantabile_ in B-flat major (pianoforte).

Mozart, pianoforte sonata. No. 17, _Andante amoroso_ (somewhat longer

Mendelssohn, _Presto agitato_ in B minor for pianoforte (preceded by an
"Andante cantabile" which has no connection with the sonatine-form of
the _presto_, but may also be analyzed). This design is very broad;
each factor is expanded to its fullest legitimate extent, especially
the "codetta" section.



ORIGIN OF THE NAME. - The fully developed Sonata-allegro form is the
design in which the classic overture and the first movement of the
symphony, sonata and concerto are usually framed. The student must be
careful not to confound this musical form with the _complete_ sonata of
three or four movements. It is not to be called the "sonata form," but
the "sonata-allegro form." It is to one movement only, generally the
first one, which is (or was) very commonly an _allegro_ tempo in the
sonata and symphony, that the present design refers; and its name,
sonata-allegro, is derived from that old historic species of the sonata
which consisted originally of but one movement, generally an _allegro_.

THE SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM. - As distinguished from the sonatine-form, with
its two Divisions, this larger species, based upon precisely the same
structural idea, has _three Divisions_, - the Exposition, a middle
Division called the Development (growing out of the brief interlude of
the sonatine-form), and the Recapitulation. The diagram (the keys of
which correspond to the plan of Beethoven, op. 14, No. 2, first
movement) is as follows:

Exposition. Middle Div. Recapitulation.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Pr. Sub. Codetta. Development, Phr. Sub. Codetta
Th. Th. various keys, Th. Th. and Coda.
- - - - - - - - - - - ending with - - - - - - - - - - - - -
G maj. D maj. D maj. Retransition. G maj. G maj. G maj.

Compare this diagram, also, with that of the Third Rondo-form, and
note, accurately, the points of resemblance and contrast.

Compare it, further, with the diagram of the sonatine-form, on page
122. It will be observed that here the Recapitulation does not follow
the Exposition at once, as there, but that a complete middle division
intervenes, instead of the brief interlude or re-transition; from which
the student may conclude that the sonatine-form gradually grows into
the sonata-allegro form, as this interlude becomes longer, more
elaborate, and more like an independent division of the design. Or
inversely, and perhaps more correctly, the sonata-allegro becomes a
sonatine-design _by the omission (or contraction) of the middle

THE EXPOSITION. - The presentation of the thematic factors, the
statement or Exposition of the two themes and codetta, is made exactly
as in the sonatine-form, though probably upon a broader scale. The
Principal theme is usually a Two-Part Song-form, at least; often
Three-Part. In broader designs, a separate transitional passage
appears; in more concise designs, the transition is developed out of
the last Part of the Principal theme by the process of dissolution - as
will be seen. The object of the transition is, as usual, _to lead into
the new key_ (of the Subordinate theme). It is sometimes, though very
rarely, omitted.

The Subordinate theme contrasts notably with its fellow, but asserts
equal importance, as a rule, and may be of equal, or nearly equal,
length. The addition of a codetta is almost indispensable, and
frequently two or more appear, growing successively shorter, and
generally repeated. In the sonata-allegro _the Exposition closes, as a
rule, with a very decisive perfect cadence_, followed by a double-bar,
and - especially in older sonatas - repetition-marks; the repetition of
the Exposition being justly considered important, as a means of
emphasizing the "statement," and enforcing the hearer's attention to
the thematic contents before preceding to their development in the
second division of the form. In the sonatine-form, on the contrary,
this positive termination of the Exposition (and consequently the
double-bar and repetition) will very rarely be found.

THE DEVELOPMENT, OR MIDDLE DIVISION. The second division of the
sonata-allegro form is devoted to a more or less extensive and
elaborate manipulation and combination of such figures, motives,
phrases or Parts of the Exposition as prove inviting and convenient for
the purpose, or challenge the imaginative faculty of the composer. In
this division, opportunity is provided for the exhibition of technical
skill, imagination and emotional passion; for the creation of ingenious

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