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contrasts and climaxes, and, in a word, for the development of
unexpected resources not strikingly manifest in the more sober
presentation of the thematic factors during the Exposition. The
intermingling of _new material_ is naturally also involved in the
process of development; sometimes to such an extent that the new
predominates over the old, - in which case the middle Division is more
properly called an EPISODE.

This second Division of the sonata-allegro form (the Development or
Episode) corresponds precisely, as will be recognized, to the second
Part of the Three-Part Song-form; consequently, it represents the
"departure" (see page 90), and entails, in rational form, the
significant "return" to the beginning. Further, it matches to some
degree the "digression" in the rondo-forms. At all events, its
important structural function is to establish contrast; and the
necessity for corroboration of the leading thematic ideas - in
consequence of this contrast - is satisfied in the Division which

It is sometimes possible to mark the exact point where the Development
ends and the process of re-transition commences; but usually the return
to the beginning is accomplished so gradually that no sensible
interruption occurs.

THE RECAPITULATION. - This, the third Division, is, as usual, a review
of the original presentation of the thematic material, - the recurrence
of the Exposition. It is sometimes a nearly exact reproduction,
_excepting the necessary change of key in the Subordinate theme and
codetta_, and such modification of the transitional section as may be
thereby involved. Sometimes, however, considerable alteration is made,
at times so elaborate (especially in broader examples) that, though
preserving easy recognizability, the Recapitulation assumes the
appearance of a new version of the Exposition, and becomes a more
independent part of the design.

A _coda_ is almost always added; sometimes brief, but occasionally so
elaborate and extensive as to merit the appellation "second

DISSOLUTION. - When any section of a higher form starts out with a
perfectly definite structural intention, pursues this intention for a
time (sufficient to establish it), but then insensibly diverges and
gradually adopts a new modulatory direction, - as transition into the
following section, - the form is said to be dissolved. Such dissolution
takes place, naturally, within the _later_ section of the theme, or
Part, or whatever it may be, whose actual, definite ending in the
expected key is thus frustrated. For instance, the second (or third)
Part of a theme may be dissolved; or the last phrase of a period or
double-period; or the repetition of a phrase. And the dissolution is
invariably applied before a transition or re-transition, as a means of
interlocking the factors of the form more closely and coherently.
Therefore it is a process peculiarly adapted to the higher designs of
composition, and is seldom omitted in the sonata-allegro form. For an
illustration, see Beethoven's sonata, op. 14, No. 2, first movement:
The Principal theme is a Two-Part Song-form; Part I, a period, from
measures 1 to 8; Part II begins in measure 9, and has every appearance
of becoming also a period; its Antecedent phrase closes in measure 12,
its Consequent begins in measure 13 - but its end, _as Second Part_, in
the usual definite manner, cannot be indicated; the key is quietly
changed from G to D, and then to A, in obedience to the call of the
Subordinate theme (beginning in measure 26), into which these last 10
or 12 measures have evidently been a Transition. The Second Part of
the Principal theme therefore includes the transition; but where the
Second Part (as such) ends, and the transition (as such) begins, it is
impossible to point out accurately. The definition of this Principal
theme is, "Two-Part form with dissolved Second Part," or, still better,
"_with transitional Second Part_."

* * * * * *

In our illustration of the sonata-allegro form it is necessary, on
account of limited space, to select a very concise example, of unusual
brevity, - Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 1, first movement; the
original may be referred to, for the omitted details: -

[Illustration: Example 55. Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]

The thematic factors are small, but none is omitted; every essential
component is represented.

For a more extended and fully developed example of the sonata-allegro
form, see Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 2, first movement;
number the 200 measures, and verify all the details according to the
following analysis (figures in parenthesis refer as usual to the
measures): -

_Principal Theme_, Part I, period-form (1-8). Part II (9- ), dissolved
(about 14) into _Transition_ ( -25).

_Subordinate Theme_, Part I, period, extended (26-36). Part II,
period, probably (37-41-47).

_Codetta I_, period, extended (48-58).

_Codetta II_, Small phrase, extended (59-63). Here the Exposition
closes, with the customary double-bar and repetition marks.

_Development_, Section I (64-73), from Principal theme. Section 2
(74-80), from Subordinate theme. Section 3 (81-98), from Principal
theme. Section 4 (99-107), closely resembling the Principal theme, but
in a remote key. This section practically ends the Development,
inasmuch as it culminates upon the _dominant of the original key_.
Section 5 (107-115), establishment of the dominant. Section 6
(115-124), the _Re-transition_. The _Recapitulation_ begins with the

_Principal Theme_, Part I, period (125-132). Part II, group of
phrases, longer than before (133-152).

_Subordinate Theme_, as before, but in the principal key (153-174).

_Codetta (I)_, as before, but slightly extended (175-187). The second
codetta is omitted.

_Coda_, phrase, repeated and extended (188-200).

RELATION TO THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM. - In a former chapter (XIII) the
Three-Part form was defined as the type of perfect structural design,
upon which every larger (or higher) form is based. Nowhere is the
connection more striking, and the process of natural evolution out of
this germ more directly apparent, than in the sonata-allegro design.
See the diagram on page 124. The Exposition corresponds to the First
Part, _so expanded as to comprise the two themes and codetta_, fused
into one larger division; the "statement" of a more comprehensive
thematic group than the ordinary Part contains, but no more, for all
that, than the usual initial "statement." The Development corresponds
to the Second Part (proportionately expanded), and the Recapitulation
to the Third Part, or recurrence and confirmation of the "statement."

Any Three-Part Song-form, the moment that its First Part expands and
divides into the semblance of two fairly distinct thematic sections,
becomes what might be called a miniature sonata-allegro form. Many
Three-Part Song-forms are so broad, and many sonata-allegros so
diminutive, that it is here again often difficult to determine the line
of demarcation between them. Example 55 (cited because of its
comparative brevity) is scarcely more than such a broadly expanded
Three-Part Song-form. An example which approaches much more nearly the
unmistakable Three-Part song, may be found in Mozart, sonata No. 12,
_Menuetto_: -

_Part I_, section one (embryo of a principal theme), measures 1-10,
period, extended; section two (embryo of a subordinate theme) measures
11-18, period, _in different key_.

_Part II_, group of three phrases, measures 19-30.

_Part III_, section one, as before, measures 31-40; section two, as
before, _but in the principal key_, measures 41-48.

This is, of course, a Three-Part Song-form; but the essential features
of the Sonata-allegro are unquestionably present, in miniature.

See also, Beethoven, sonata, op. 101, first movement; certainly a
sonata-allegro design, but diminutive.

* * * * * *

The superiority of the sonata-allegro form over all other musical
designs, is amply vindicated by the breadth of its thematic basis, the
straightforwardness and continuity of its structural purpose, the
perfection of its thematic arrangement, and the unexcelled provision
which it affords for unity, contrast, corroboration, balance, and
whatever else a thoroughly satisfactory structural design seems to
demand. Hence, while brief triumphs of apparent "originality" may be
achieved by simply running counter to this and similar designs, it
seems scarcely possible that any musical form could be contrived that
would surpass the sonata-allegro, the last and highest of the forms of

LESSON 17. - Analyze the following examples, as usual, carefully
defining all the details of the form, according to the general plan
adopted in our text: -

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 2, No. 1, first movement
(diminutive, but very complete and perfect).

Op. 2, No. 2, first movement.

Op. 10, No. 3, _Largo_.

Op. 22, first movement (four or five codettas).

Op. 14, No. 1, first movement.

Op. 22. _Adagio_.

Op. 27, No. 2, last movement.

Op. 28, first movement.

Op. 31, No. 1, first movement.

Op. 31, No. 3, first movement (the last 2 1/2 measures of the
Exposition are a transitional Interlude, which leads back into the
repetition, and on into the Development).

Same sonata, _Scherzo_.

Op. 31, No. 2, last movement (coda contains the entire principal theme).

Op. 78, first movement (diminutive).

Op. 79, first movement.

Op. 90, first movement, (no "double-bar").

Op. 57, first movement.

Same sonata, last movement.

Mozart, sonatas: No. 7, first movement.

No. 3, first movement. No. 4, first movement; also _Andante_.

No. 8, first movement. No. 5, first movement.

No. 10, first movement. No. 6, first movement.

No. 1, _Andante_. No. 6, last movement.

Mendelssohn, pianoforte _Caprice_, op. 33, No. 2 (brief introduction).

Sonata, op. 6, first movement.

Op. 7, No. 7.

_Fantasia_, op. 28, last movement.

Schubert, pianoforte sonatas: op. 143, first movement.

Op. 42, first movement.

Op. 120, first movement.

Op. 147, first movement (in the Recapitulation, the principal theme is

Op. 164, first movement (the same).

Beethoven, symphony, No. 5, first movement.

Symphony, No. 1, first _Allegro_; also the second movement; and the


CAUSES. - Despite the many points of resemblance between the various
forms to which our successive chapters have been devoted, - the natural
consequence of a continuous line of structural evolution to which each
plan owes its origin, - they are separate and independent designs, with
individual character and purpose; so much so, that the composer may,
and usually does, select and apply his form according to the purpose
which he has in view. But the form is made for the music, not the
music for the form; no serious composer writes music for the sake of
the form, but chooses the form merely as a means to an end. The
highest ideal of structural dignity and fitness is, to work from the
thematic germ _outward_, and to let the development of this germ, _the
musical contents_, determine and justify the structural plan and

But the aims of the composer outnumber the regular forms, and therefore
modifications are unavoidable, in order to preserve the latitude which
perfect freedom of expression demands. The student may rest assured of
the existence of many irregular species of these fundamental forms (as
exceptions to the rule) and must expect to encounter no little
difficulty and uncertainty in defining the class to which his example
belongs, - until wider experience shall have made him expert.

All such irregular (or, in a sense, intermediate) varieties of form
must necessarily either admit of demonstration as modification of the
regular designs; or they will evade demonstration altogether, as
lacking those elements of logical coherence which constitute the vital
and only condition of "form and order" in musical composition.

To these latter comparatively "_formless_" designs belong: - all the
group-forms; the majority of fantasias, the potpourri, and, as a rule,
all so-called tone-poems, and descriptive (program) music generally.

On the other hand, those irregular designs which nevertheless admit of
analysis according to the fundamental principles of structural logic,
and are therefore directly referable to one or another of the regular
forms, may be classified in the following four-fold manner - as
Augmentation, Abbreviation, Dislocation, or Mixture, of the proximate
fundamental design.

1. AUGMENTATION OF THE REGULAR FORM. - To this species belong those
forms (small and large) which are provided with a separate
Introduction, or Interludes, or an _independent_ Coda (in addition to,
or instead of, the usual consistent coda).

For example, Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 13, first movement; the
first ten measures (_Grave_) are a wholly independent Introduction, in
phrase-group form, with no other relation to the following than that of
key, and no connection with the fundamental design excepting that of an
extra, superfluous, member. The principal theme of the movement (which
is a sonata-allegro) begins with the _Allegro di molto_, in the 11th
measure. Similar superfluous sections, derived from this Introduction,
reappear as Interlude between the Reposition and Development, and near
the end, as independent sections of the coda.

In a manner closely analogous to that just seen, the fundamental design
of any movement in a _concerto_ is usually expanded by the addition of
periodically recurring sections, called the "_tutti_-passages," and by
a "_cadenza_," occurring generally within the regular coda. In some
concerto-allegros (for instance, in the classic forms of Mozart,
Beethoven and others), the first orchestral _tutti_ is a complete
_introductory_ Exposition, in concise form, of the thematic material
used in the body of the movement. See the first piano-forte concerto
of Beethoven, first movement.

Further, when the design is one of unusual breadth, as in some
symphonic movements, or in elaborate chamber music, the number of
fundamental thematic members may be so multiplied that it is necessary
to assume the presence of _two successive Subordinate themes_, of equal
independent significance, - such significance that neither of them could
be confounded with a mere codetta, or any other inferior thematic
member. See Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 7, first movement; the
Subordinate theme runs from measure 41 to 59; it is followed by another
thematic section (60-93) which is so independent, important and
lengthy, that it evidently ranks coordinate with the former, as _second
Subordinate theme_. It might, it is true, be called the second Part of
the Subordinate theme (the latter being no more than a repeated
period); or it might be regarded as the first codetta; its thematic
independence seems, however, to stamp it Second Subordinate theme.

Further, it is not uncommon to extend the sonatine-form by adding, at
the end, a more or less complete recurrence of the Principal
theme, - instead of, or dissolved into, the customary coda. This may be
seen in Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 3, _Andantino_; the superfluous
recurrence of the Principal theme begins in measure 19 from the end,
after the regular sonatine-design has been achieved, fully, though

2. ABBREVIATION OF THE REGULAR FORM. - This consists chiefly in the
omission of the Principal theme after the Development (that is, in
beginning the Recapitulation with the Subordinate theme). Other
contractions, by omission of _portions_ (Parts) of important thematic
members, during the Recapitulation, are also possible, but not so

An illustration of the omitted Principal theme may be found in
Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 5: -

_Principal Theme_, period, extended (measures 1-11, dissolved into
Transition - 18).

_Subordinate Theme_, phrase, repeated and extended (19-28). _Codetta_
(28-33). _Double-bar_.

_Development_ (measures 34-58). _Retransition_ (59-62).

_Principal Theme_ - omitted.

_Subordinate Theme_, as before (63-76). _Codetta_.

3. DISLOCATION OF THEMATIC MEMBERS. - By this is meant, any exchange or
alteration of the regular and expected arrangement of members. This
can refer, naturally, only to what occurs _after the Exposition_, - that
is, during the Recapitulation; for it is the Exposition which
determines the plan, and regular order, of the thematic members. For
example, Mozart, pianoforte sonata. No. 13, first movement: -

_Principal Theme_, with _Transition_ (measures 1-27).

_Subordinate Theme_ (28-41).

_Codetta I_ (42-53).

_Codetta II_ (54-58). In the Recapitulation, the arrangement is thus: -

_Principal Theme, Codetta I, Subordinate Theme, Codetta II_; that is,
the first codetta appears before, instead of after, the Subordinate

4. MIXTURE OF CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS. - This process tends to affiliate
the two distinct classes of larger or higher forms, whose respective
characteristics were explained and compared at the beginning of Chapter
XVI. Upon very careful revision of this explanation, and reference to
the given diagrams, the student will perceive that the distinctive
trait of the sonata-allegro form is the section of Development which it
contains; and that of the three Rondo-forms is the absence of such a
Development. Of the mixed forms under consideration there are two: one
in which a section of _Development_ is introduced into the Rondo (as
substitute for one of its Subordinate themes); and the other a
sonata-allegro, in which the Development is omitted, and a new theme (a
sort of additional Subordinate theme) inserted in its place. In other
words, a Rondo (second or third form - probably _not_ the first
rondo-form) with a Development; and a sonata-allegro with a new Middle
theme, or Episode (as we have already called it).

The Rondo with Development is illustrated in Beethoven, pianoforte
sonata, op. 27, No. 1, last movement; it is the third rondo-form,
designed as follows: -

_Principal Theme_, Two-Part form (measures 1-24).

_Transition_ (25-35).

_First Subordinate Theme_, period, extended, - or phrase-group (36-56).
_Codetta_ (57-72).

_Re-transition_ (73-81).

_Principal Theme_ (82-97).

_Transition_ (98-106). Then, instead of the Second Subordinate theme, a

_Development_ (106-138); followed by an elaborate

_Re-transition_ (139-166), and a regular

_Recapitulation_. Two wholly independent coda-sections are added, an
_Adagio_ (derived from the third movement of the sonata) and a
_Presto_, based upon the Principal theme.

The sonata-allegro with new Middle theme is illustrated in Beethoven,
pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 1, first movement; the middle Division
contains a preliminary allusion to the Principal theme, but is
otherwise an entirely new thematic member, very suggestive of the
"Second Subordinate theme" of the Rondos (17-measures long, - up to the
Re-transition, in which, again, the Principal theme is utilized).

LESSON 18. - Analyze the following examples of Irregular form. They are
classified, as in the text: -

1. Beethoven, sonata, op. 81, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 2, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 2, No. 3, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 1, last movement (_not_ "Rondo," as
marked, but sonatine-form, augmented).

Mozart, sonata No. 1, first movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 17, last movement (Rondo, with three Subordinate

Mendelssohn, _Capriccio brillant_, in B minor. Schubert, pianoforte
sonata No. 8 (Peters ed.). _Adagio_.

2. Mendelssohn, _Praeludium_, op. 35, No. 3.

Mozart, sonata No. 8, last movement.

Schubert, sonata No. 8, last movement.

Brahms, pianoforte _Capriccio_, op. 116, No. 1.

Chopin, pianoforte sonata, op. 35, first movement.

3. Mozart, sonata No. 3, first movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 13, last movement (the Development occurs _after_
instead of before the Principal theme, - in the Recapitulation).

4. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 31, No. 1, last movement.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 90, last movement.

Mendelssohn, pianoforte étude, op. 104, No. 2.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 10, No. 1, first movement.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 1, last movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 7, _Andante_.

Mozart, sonata No. 14, last movement.


The use of the various forms of composition, that is, their selection
with a view to general fitness for the composer's object, is,
primarily, simply a question of length. The higher aesthetic law of
adjusting the design to the contents, of which we spoke in the
preceding chapter, comes into action after the main choice has been

The smallest complete form, that of the PHRASE, can scarcely be
expected to suffice for an independent piece of music, though its
occurrence as independent _section_ of an entire composition is by no
means rare. The nearest approach to the former dignity is the use of
the Large phrase in one instance by Beethoven, as theme for his
well-known pianoforte Variations in C minor; this theme, and
consequently each variation, is a complete and practically independent
composition. At the beginning of Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, Op.
27, No. 1, the student will find a succession of independent
four-measure phrases, each with a definite perfect cadence, and
therefore complete in itself; this chain of independent phrases is, in
fact, the structural basis of the entire first movement, interrupted
but briefly by the contrasting _Allegro_. The simple phrase may, also,
find occasional application in brief exercises for song or piano; and
we have witnessed its use as introduction, and as codetta, in many of
the larger designs.

The next larger complete form, the PERIOD, is somewhat more likely to
be chosen for an entire composition, but by no means frequently. The
early grades of technical exercises (public-school music, and similar
phases of elementary instruction) are commonly written in period-form,
and some of the smallest complete songs in literature (a few of
Schumann's, Schubert's, and others) may be defined as period-forms,
extended. The theme of the Chaconne (found in the works of Handel,
Bach, and even some modern writers) is usually a period. Of the
Préludes of Chopin for pianoforte (op. 28), at least four do not exceed
the design of the extended period. But these are, naturally,
exceptional cases; the proper function of the period-form in music is,
to represent the _Parts_, and other fairly complete and independent
thematic members of larger forms. This is very largely true of the
DOUBLE-PERIOD, also; though it is a very appropriate and common design
for the hymn-tune, and similar vocal compositions; and is somewhat more
likely to appear as complete composition (in exercises, smaller piano
pieces and songs) than is the single period. Nine of Chopin's Préludes
are double-periods.

The TWO-PART SONG-FORM, as already intimated, is not as common as might
be supposed. It is sometimes employed in smaller compositions for
piano (variation-themes and the like), or voice; and is probably the
form most frequently chosen for the hymn-tune. But its most important
place in composition is in the larger forms, as its design adapts it
peculiarly to the purposes of the themes, both principal and

The THREE-PART SONG-FORM, on the contrary, is unquestionably the most
common of all the music designs. Probably three-fourths of all our
literature are written in this form, with or without the repetitions,
or in the related Five-Part form. It is therefore difficult to
enumerate the styles of composition to which this admirable design is
well adapted, and for which it is employed.

The GROUP-FORMS will be found in many songs, études, anthems, and
compositions of a fantastic, capricious, rather untrammeled character,
in which freedom of expression overrules the consideration of clear,
definite form. It is the design perhaps most commonly selected for the
Invention, Fugue, and - particularly - the various species of Prélude;
though these styles, and others of decidedly fanciful purpose, are not
unlikely to manifest approximate, if not direct, correspondence to the

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