Peter Bullions.

A Latin reader : adapted to Bullions's Latin grammar and to Bullions & Morris's Latin grammar : with an introduction of the idioms of the Latin language, an improved vocabulary, and exercises in Latin prose composition : on a new plan online

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Online LibraryPeter BullionsA Latin reader : adapted to Bullions's Latin grammar and to Bullions & Morris's Latin grammar : with an introduction of the idioms of the Latin language, an improved vocabulary, and exercises in Latin prose composition : on a new plan → online text (page 1 of 32)
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LATIN READER:

ADAPTED TO

BULLIONS'S LATIN GRAMMAR, *

AJSID TO

BUILIONS & MORRIS'S lATIN GRAMMAR.

Wiili vox Introbttdion

OH THE IDIOMS OF THB LATIN LANGUAGE;
AN IMPEOVED VOOABULAEY;

AHD

J5XEBCISES Iir IiATIN FBOSE COMFOSITIOM;

OK A KSW PLAN.



Witb- New Marginal Notes and References to Bullions* aad
Bullions & Morris's Latin Grammarsi



By rev. peter BTJLLIONS, D. D.,

MrmOB OV THE SSKIXe of GBAWKATW, GBBKK, latin and XN«LISH, on THB BAm SHJkM

XTO^ Bio^ xra



NEW TOEK:

PUBIilSHED BY SHELDON AND COMPAKT

498 * 500 BBOADWAT.

1870.



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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by Peter Bullions, D.D.,
Sn the GIerk*B Office of the Distriet Court of the United States for the Northern Dis-
trict of New York.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in .the year 1868, by Sheldon <k Co., In
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trict of New York.



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PREFACE.



/■no



This edition of Bullions's Latin Reader contains aT)ont 50 pages
of Exercises on the Principles and Rules of Bullions and Morris's
Latin Grammar, in t£e regular order of their presentation in that
book with direct references in heavy-faced figui^es to its para-
graphs. These introductory Exercises are for the most part sim-
ple, and in such variety that, with those in the Latin Grammar,
they give the opportunity of having the principles of both Ety-
mology and Syntax rendered very familiar to the mind of the pupil.

Pages from 337 to 380 contain explanations of the leading Idioms
of the Latin Language, arranged under proper heads, and illustrated
by numerous examples, all of which are numbered so as to be
easily referred to for the purpose of illustrating similfr modes of
expression which occur in the course of reading, as is more fcdly
explained on page vi., in " Explanation of References." Though
this part is intended chiefly for reference, mnch advantage wiU be
derived from studying it in course in short lessons, simultaneously
with lessons in reading and parsing, and rendering the wh<^e
familiar by frequent reviews.

The Introductory Exercises, from page 60 to page 79, consist of
short and simple sentences classed in such a way as to illustrate
the leading grammatical principles in the construction of sentences,
both single and compound, and by a sufficient number of examples
to render these principles familiar and easy of application. In
these, as well as throughout the body of the work, constant refer-
ence is made to the Bullions's and Bullions and Morris's Grammars^
as well as to the Latin Idioms, to illustrate and explain the prin-
ciples of the language as they occur, and, by repeated reference, to
render them familiar to the pupil, and impress them indelibly on
his mind. These references are more numerous at first ; but when
any construction or idiom may be supposed to have become fami-
liar, the references to it are less frequent ; and the pupil is left to
exercise the knowledge acquired, in applying the principles with-
out the aid of references. The construction and use of the sub-
junctive mood being one of the greatest difficulties and niceties of
the language, and all important to be well understood, references
for explanation to the Grammar and Idioms, are more numerous
and longer continued on this point than on any other.



IVl522294:^igti-d by Google



IV PBEFACE. •

These references also form a sort of index, hy^ widcli the pupU
may be able to find at once other constructibns of a similar kind
in the portion of the work previously studied, and so compare the
one with the other. For example, the letter ', p. 103, refers to the
Grammar, 627, 5 ; by running the eye back along the references at
the foot of the page, the same construction will be found at the
letter », p. 95 ; at «, p. 90 ; at ^ p. 89 ; at ^, p*87, &c. ; all of which
may thus be compared with great facility.

The method of reference and explanation here adopted entirely
supersedes the use of notes, by rendering them unnecessary, and
it is believed will prove vastly more profitable to the student than
any number of notes could be, which generally do nothing more
than ^ve the meaning of an idiom or phrase in a free translation,
without any explanation of its construction. Though this sort of
aid enables the pupil to get along with the translation of a sen-
tence,*it leaves him as much in the dark as ever respecting its
construction. The consequence is, that when he meets with a
similar construction again in diflTerent words, he is as much at a
loss as ever, and finds his progress arrested, unless he is again
lifted over blindfolded by the aid of another friendly note. It is
obvious that persons, in this way, may go over much surface ; anfl
if they have a memory capable of bringing to their aid the trans-
lation in the note when it is wanted, they may be able to give a
good translation of what they have gone over, and yet know
nothing, or next to nothing, of the construction of what they have
read ; and hence it happens, that knowing but little of principles,
or of the method of analyzing the idioms and more difficult con-
structions of the language, whenever they come to an author or
passage where the wonted supply of notes is wanting, they find
themselves imable to proceed understandingly. It is therefore not
without reason that many of onr best teachers think that such
notes, like translations, do more evil than good. This evil, it is
hoped, is in a great measure avoided by the method here pursued ;
for while all needful assistance is furnished, it can be attained only
by referring to the grammatical principle which contains the
explanation needed ; and which soon becomes so familiar, that it
can be readily applied to the analyzing of every sentence in which
it is involved.

The primary meaning of a word is not always its most
common meaning : it may even have passed into disuse ; but
Btm it is necessary to be known, in order to have a clue to its

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PEEFACE. Y

various derived significations, both in its simple and componnd
forms. If instead of the primary, a secondary and distant mean-
ing, thougli a more common one, should be associated in the mind
with the word, it will be tound impossible in many instances to
account for, or to perceive any sort of propriety or analogy in its
use in certain cases. Take, as an example, the verb emo, the more
common but not the primary meaning of which is, " to buy," and
it will be impossible to trace any sort of connection between such
a meaning and that of its compounds, aMmo, e^x^lmo, int&riTno,
peHmo, dirimo, and the like. . But assign to emo its primary meaur
ing, "to take," and the whole is perceived at once to be clear and
consistent. This one example will show how important it is that
not only the derivation and composition of words should be fully
exhibited in a good dictionary, but also, tHat the radical and pri-
mary signification of all words, where that can be ascertained,
should be first stated, and then the secondary and more 4istant
meanings in that order which appears the most natural. In this
respect, our school dictionaries are generally defective. In the
Latin-English Dictionary of this series, and also in the Vocabulary
appended to this work, the plan just stated has been followed ; so
that the pupil is here furnished with the means of tracing every
derivative and compound word to its source, if that is in the
Latin language, (derivations from the Greek not being given,) and
of ascertaining what is the primary signification of each word,
from the best authorities within my reach, as well as those signifi-
cations which are more common, or which belong to the words in
the various places where they occur in this work. Care has been
taken in connection with this also to dis^nguish those words
usually considered as synonyms.*

A few Exercises in Composition are appended, see pagfe 825,
drawn, as wiU be perceived, from the reading lessons indicated
both by the number of the page and the paragraph. Lessons in
composition, of the simplest character and to any extent, may^ be
framed in the same way from every reading lesson, or even from
every sentence, and rendered into Latin, either orally in the class,
or as an exercise in writing, as suggested in the remarks prefixed
to the Exercises themselves.

This book is, in fact, a supplement to the Grammar, and the
foundation of thorough scholarship must be laid here.

* This plan is carried out in BnlUons's Latin-English Dictionary.



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EXPLANATION OF REFERENCES.



Thb references at the foot of eacli page are intended chiefly to
explain the construction. Those before page 59, are to paragraphs
of Bullions & Morris's Latin Grammar; those after that page
which have " Grammars" prefixed, are to both Bullions's and Bul-
lions & Morris's Latin Grammars ^ the BomILn figures, as 45, indi-
cating the number of the paragraph in Bullions's Latin Granmiar
leferred to ; and the heavy-faced figures, as 4J, indicating the
paragraph in Bullions & Morris's Latin Granmiar referred to.

In the references which have Id. or Idioms prefixed, the first
number directs to the corresponding number in the Idioms on
page 337 of this book, and the second to the example under that
nnmber. Thus, for example, 42, 1, directs to the example, I>ignu8
qui cmeter, (p. 23), and shows how the words qui amSter, in that,
and aU similar constructions, are to be translated. The words
particularly referred to and intended to be noticed in the reference,
are distinguished by being printed in a different character. The
references are intended to explain particular phrases and idioms, and
to give an example of the mode of translating them. This will be
found a more valuable aid in translating than notes, a^ it reduces
the idioms of the language to a sort of system, with every part of
which the attentive pupil will soon become familiar. •

When § is placed before a number in Roman figures used else-
where than at the foot of the page, for reference, the number indi-
cates the section of Bullions's Latin Grammar referred to. The
heavy-fiused figures used in connection with such a section refer-
ence, refer to a paretgraph in Bullions & Morris's Latin Grammar.

In many cases there is a reference both to the Grammar ^d to
the Idioms. AU of these should be carefully looked out and
applied.

^ In the references to the Rules of Syntax in the Grammar, If there
is only one Rule in the section, it is indicated simply by the letter
B ; if there are more than one, the number of the Rule is annexed.
Msp. refers to the Explanation under the rule. Words to be sup-
plied are indicated by the syllable " Snp." for " supply," prefixed.



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INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES.



ORTHOO-RAPHT («).

What letter in the English alphabet is not found in Latin?
In what words is " y '* found ? Name the dip?ith<mg8 in the fol-
lowing words ? The mtUes f The liquids t

Caesar. Proelium. Conspectu. Dixi Ferre. Amat.
Musae. Quid (5). Haec. Aumm. Heu. Phoebus.
Audax. Urbs. Miles. NSpos. Lingua. Nihil Queror.

How did the andeAts punctuate f ' How many systems of pro-
nunciation are used in the United States ? Tell the number q|
tyUablea in each of the following words (12) ?

D3<re. Stare. Ire. Manes. Monte. DieL Sese.
Ames. Grates. Ore. Dice. Mores. Fides. Vulpes.
Sites. Fore. Fame. Extreme. Late.

Give the rules for dividing Latin words into syllables*?
In the following list, divide the words into syllal>le8-? Name
the dissyllables, tiissyllables, etc. ? Also the penults and ante-
penults {12, 13) ?

Delecto. Facturus. Ferinus. OstendSre. Orcus,
Pardus. Promitto. Prolapsus. Pritoius. Scriptus.
Sectatus. Distribugre. Ductus. Dissimilis. Civitas.
Cognomen. Colloquium. Versutus. Vestigium. Vin-
culum. Victima. Villicus. Vestis. Tergum. Eex
tamenpacempatebat. Junx^^rat. Victus. Eege (16~ifl).

Give the quantity of the penults in the following list (1^) ?

Noster. Inter. Posse. Amissis. Propter. Caesar,
Servos. Conquiruntur. Poposcit. Castris. Postea. Co-
pias. Proelium. Filius. Eaptus. Pupillus. EegnuuL
Capitolium. Prius. Saevus. -^ger. ^gaeus. Aggen



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2 Iin:RODTJeTOET EXEBCISES.

On wMch syllable are dissyllables accented? When do words
of more than two syllables accent the penult, and when the ante*
penult ? Are monosyllables ever accented (20-22) ? Divide and
accent the following words. Pronounce them according to the
English, and also according to the Continental system.

-^tas. JStatis. PossS. Erg* Amicus. K^ligio.
Eobustus. Vict6r. Vdluntarius. Pulcher. Servus.
Tempus. Tertius. Quattu6r. LuxuriS* GraeciH. Imp^-
riiiin. Incertiis. Fructus. Fructus. Coerceo. Conjux.
Me, te, re. Mihi, tibi, sibi, nos, yds, nobis, vobis. Contra.



ETYMOLOG-Y {24j.

What part of speech in English is not found in Latin {26)^
What parts of speech in Latin are declined? Point out the
proper and common nouns in the following, and state whether they
axe collective,abstract, or material nouns (30):



THE E'Oim.

TibSris, the Tiber. Tullus, [a Roman king.} Hora,
an hour. "Pax, peace. 'N^tuia^ naiure. Horatins, Horace.
Seditio, a rebellion. Filius, a son. Plumbum, lead.
FamilisB, a family. Judex, a jvdge. Populus, people.
Libertas, liberty. Bellum, war. Gallia, Gaul. Concilium,
a council Judcunditas, pleasantness. lignum, wood.

Gender. ^

In English what nouns are masculine, what are feminine, and
what are neuter (^t^Mw*** Practical English Grammar, 123-125) ?
In Latin, nouns of what signification are masculine f of what signifi-
cation are feminine f Of what signification are neuter (S3-3S) ?
State the gender of the following nouns, from signification :

Puer, a boy. Pater, a father. Mulier, a womun. Filia,
a daughter. Nihil (indeclinable), nothing {35). Nefaa
(indecL), wicTcedness. Agric61a, a farmer. Notus, the



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nTTEODUCTOEY EXEECISES. 3

south v)ind (33). Eoma, Rome. Attica, \a country] (34).
Kex, a Icing, Auster, a south wind. Eurus, the south-
east wind. Januarius, January. Mains, the apple-tree.
Poeta, a poet. Salix, a willow tree. Pri^mus, Friam.
Puella, a girl. Thasus, [an island.]

Note. — ^The gender of most Latin noons is determined by the
ending of the declension, the rules for which niay be fouiid in
BuUUms and Morria'a Latin Gra/mmar^ under each declension.

Case.

How many casM are there in Latin \ Which are the obUque cases
(4:2) ? The NommatvDe corresponds to what in English {4:3) ?
The Genitive to what? The Dative? The Accusative? The
Vocative? The Ablative? By whatcoa^ in Latin must the fol-



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