Peter Bullions.

A Latin reader : adapted to Bullions's Latin grammar and to Bullions & Morris's Latin grammar : with an introduction of the idioms of the Latin language, an improved vocabulary, and exercises in Latin prose composition : on a new plan online

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Online LibraryPeter BullionsA Latin reader : adapted to Bullions's Latin grammar and to Bullions & Morris's Latin grammar : with an introduction of the idioms of the Latin language, an improved vocabulary, and exercises in Latin prose composition : on a new plan → online text (page 2 of 32)
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lowing nouns be translated ?

Of a boy. To a boy. friend. For a man. The
horseTxm^ A man gives a hook to a loy. A man strikes
a i^orse with a whip. In a city. The soldiers were
moted by pity. Rome was named from the nam^ of
Eomulus. The king's house (=the house of the king.
See Bullionis Practical English Grammar^ 176). John^
come here. Love oi glory. Ccesafs army w^ victorious.

DECLENSION OE NOUNS.

How many dedensums in Latin (44) ? How are they distin-
guished ? What is meant by the Theme {46) ? What is meant by
the case-ending, or Termination ? What are the general rules for
the declension of nouns {47) ? Give the number of the Declen-
sion of the following words ; also the Theme :

Dextra, gen. sing, dextrae ; dolor, gen. sing, doloris ;
factum, gen. sing, facti ; fuga, gen. sing. fugsB ; dies, gen.
sing, diei; cantus, gen. sing, cantus; urbs, gen. sing.
urbis; lupu0, lupi; senatus, senatus; nauta, nautae;
veru, verus; moles, molis; praemium, praemii; sermo,
Bermonis ; spes, spei ; vicinus, vicini ; sonitus, sonitus ;
res, ieir

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4 IKTRODUCTORT EXERCISES.

EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION.

Note 1. Since in Latin there is no article, the pupil may supply,
in translating, the definite or indefinite article as the sense may
require. Penna may be translated "pen," or "a pen," or "the
pen" ; and Pennae, in the plural, means " pens," or " the pens."

2. Let eadh word be declined, and from the ending find out the
case, and then translate, prefixing the " sign " of the case as found
in the Grammar, 4:3, also see Idioms, 3-6.* Where a word may be
found in more than one case, let it be translated for each case.

Scheme -for tlie Etymological Parsing of a Noun.-^l. Kind; 3.
Gender ; 3. Declension ; 4 Decline ; 5. Derived from (if derived);
6. Case ; 7. Number.

FIRST DECLENSION {51).

Penna. Pennae. Arae. Aram. Massis. Stella.
Ara. Puellam. Puellae. puella {97S). Aras. Ara-
rum. Eeginis. Eeginamm. Filia. Eeginae {7ST).
Ora. Ala ColnmbsB {751). Alae columbarum. (Jra
Italiae {751). Casa agricdlae. Eeginas. Scientia geo-
metriaB. Natura. Naturis. Orae Graeciae {751). La-
viniae filia. Vitae pugna. Ruina Trojae.
Give the gender of the following nouns from the termination (53).

Hora. Cometes. Boreas. Ballista. Grammatice,
grammar. Stella. Midas.. Dynastes, a sovereign. Epi-
t6me, an abridgment, -^neas. Anehises. Tiaras, a
turban. Peneldpe. Babylonia.

VOCABULARY I.
Puella, /., girl • Nauta, m., sailor.

Eegina, /., queen. Columba, /., a dove.

Stat, (sto), stands. Stant, stand.

Videt (video), sees. Vident, see.

NOTB. — ^In the following exercises the numbers indicate the
order for the arrangrement of the words in Latin (1384).

Trar^late into Latin. — The girl stands. The girls



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imrRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 5

stand. The sailors stand. The girls* see* the qneen.'
The girP sees' the doves.' The sailors* see' the girls.*
The queen stands. The dove sees the sailor.

SECOND DECLENSION ^58),
Proelii. PrcEho. Dominus. DomlnL Heu serve!
{975). Equus domini Ventis. Eegno. Eegna. Reg-
norum. Donnm. Magistros. Dona. Equi collum
{7 SI). 'Cceli ventns. Donum doniinL Cum.gladio
Eomuli (470 and 982). Ab initio. Templi porta.
Ovum gallinaB. Cum reginae dono. Agri domine. Dei
oculis (6*7). Cum filiabus magistri (57). A coeli
vento. Cum otio. Ab -ffineae filio.

Give the gender of the foUowihg nomiB from the termifUh
Urn {71).

Ager. Barbiton, a lyre. Velum. Oulter, a knife.
Bamus. fiellum. Liber. Templum*

VOCABULARY II.

Equus, m., a horse. Eegnum, n., a kingdom.

Puer, in., a hoy. Donum, n., a gift

Habet (habeo), has. Habent, have.

Voeat (voco), calls. Vocant, calL
Translate into Latin. — The boy* has' a horse.' The
boys* have' gifts.' The sailor* calls' the boys.' The
boys* see' the horses.' The boy* calls' (his) horse.' The
queen* has' a kingdom.' The girls* have' gifts.' The
horses stand.
For gender of nouns in Third Declencdon, see 151-175.

THIRD DECLENSION (75).

Translate the following nouns, and point out those which
''increase" (75, Obs.).

Leo. Mare. Urbs. Moles. Mons. Hiems. Legio.

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6 tOTBODUCTOKY EXEBCISES.

Lex. lis. Navis. Dux. Lapis. Carmen. Turris.
Onus. Miles. Nubes. Caput Cutis. Iter. Amor.
Canis.

IMPARISYLLABA {86).

Duci. Legis. Duces. Crux. Crucis. Frbem. Duci-
bus. Urbium. Montes. Artis. Ducem. Lex loci
(751). Dux militum. Post ^neae mortem (981).
A nomine Bomuli. Nix. Mvis. Virtute ducis. Noeti.
Filia cum patre. Ab oratione Ciceronis. Ad Tempus.
Temporibus. Carminis. Ad senecttitem. Ex militibus
Caes&ris. Onus. On^ra. Temp5re. Carmina. Amore
TitflB. Liber de bonitate. Cum labore. Sine dignitate.
Caput. Capita. Opus. Op6ri. Operibus. Contra
naturam. Pro patria.

PARISYLLABA {98).

Prolem. Mari. Maria. .Auris. Auri. Nubes. Nu-
bium. Sub aure. Trans mare {981). Sermo de ani-
malibus. In nubibus (988). Sedes regni. In mare
{987). In nayi. In navem. Propter mare. Coram
grue.

VOCABULARY ni

Di^x, m.y a leader. Carmen, n.y a song.

Urbs,/., a' city. Consul, m., a consul.

Amat (amo), loves. Amant, hve.
Translate into Latin. — The consul' loves' the city.'
The boy* sees* the horse' of the leader' {gen). The con-
sul' loves* the song' of the girl.* The horse' of the con-
sul' stands.' The queen' calls^ the leader.'

FOURTH DECLENSION {137).

Motus. Motus. Pluctu. Fluctui. Cantuum. Can-
tibus. Senatu. Senatum. Senatuum. In tecto domus



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IITTBODUCTOBT EXEECISES. 7

{751, 144). Comu copiae. Verua. PuellsB cantus.

Fluctus motus. Solisortus. Amanu. Iiicursu. Post

occasum solis. Per metum. Porticu templi. Beneficia
Senatus. v

FIFTH DECLENSION. (^4^).

Diei. Die. Faciem. Spe gloriae. Fades. Index
rerum. Sine die. In Mem. Ante* diem. Diebus.
Cum manu militum. Sonitu tintinnabuli. Faeies
urbis. Spes vietorise.

VOCABULARY IV.

Currus, m.y a chariot. Acies, /., an army.

Domns,/., a house (144). Spes,/, hope.
Dat (do), gives. Dant, give.

Translate into Latin. — The leader* gives* hope' to the
city^ (dat). The army has hope. The queen* gives* a
chariot^ to the leader.' The queen* gives* the house* of
the leader® to the sailors.'* The boy sees the chariot of
the queen. The army loves the leader.

ADJECTIVES {189).

What accidents have adjectives in En^lisJh f (Bullions's Pr. Eng.
Gram. 208). What accidents in Latin (189) f

Note. — ^An adjectfve in Latin is placed sometimes before and
sometimes after the noun it qualifies (1387).

Decline the fojlowing adjectives and substantives separately;
then together. Translate them in each case and number. (See
Latin Idioms, 3 and 14). Tell the case and number here, and trans-
late them. Give the rule for their agreement (6S0-6SS). Show
how they agree.

Scheme for the Etymological Pa/rdng of an Adjective. — 1. De-
clension; 2. Decline it; 3* Compare it (if compared); 4. Case; 5.
Number ; 6. Gender.

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8 Il^RODUCTORY EXERCISES,

ADJECTIVES OP THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.
(190)

Bonus vir. Ingenni pu6ri. Prima hora {1387, 1).
Blando servo. Doctum magistrum. Cum multis Tro-
janis. Serve bone. Servis bonis. Eegina bona. Lseta
puella. Per bgiignos dominos. Misero homine. Heu
misSr homo ! In toto orbe (191). Altus mons. Alta
arbor. Altum saxum. In area sacra. Capita equorum
magnorum. In alto tecto. Alba columbae penna {1387 ,
2). Fabiila de pavone superbo. Per totum orbem. . In
media caede. {1387, 1, Idioms, 17). Mulier vidua. In
sinistris manibus. Aregiissatellitibus. Pro bono publico.

Make the following Adjectives agree with tJie Nouns
according to Rule F., {630), and translate.

Rotundus terra. Bonus reginas. Fidus militem.
Aureus annulorum. Pulcher urbium. Fidus pastores.
Tota orbis {191)* Spes multus. Sine magnus labore.
Serenus noctem. Primus anno. In medius nocte.
Puellarum pulcher. Mors certus. Verus virtus. Frigi-
dus nox. Antiquus urbem. Equi pulcher. Bonus
exempla.

ADJECTIVES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION {193)

Felicis hominis. Prudentem hominem. Prudens
mulier. Ingentia animalia. Post vitam brevem. Letale
vulnus. Fertilium agrorum. Utili labore. Fortibus
ducibus. Mitibus servis. Hiems glacialis. Alacribus
• sociis. Oeleber dux. Celebri duci. - Celebri duce. Equi
veloces. Anima immortalis. Bellum ferox. Principes
potentes. Magna pars plebis. Ad ceitamen singulare.
Ab ingenti favore militum. In omnibus terris.

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rNTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 9

Make (he following Adjectives agree with the Nouns
according to Rule F., {650), and translate.

Brevis aetatem. Fugax anni. ^ Cettus mortL Equites
velox. Sapiens viris. Atrox bella. Carmen dulcis.
Crudelis hostem. Legibus brevis. Medius noete. Ad
onmis aetatem. Post iter brevis. CelSber domo. Velox
equibus.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES (201),

Quatuor arbdres in colle (988)* Duo consules pro
nno rege. Duos filios. Per septem reges. Post bellum
undequinquagenta annorum. Ad quintum milliarium.
Tricesimo octavo anno. Milliario octavo decimo ab urbe.
Mille navium (204, a). Cum mille Eomanis {204, *).
Tria millia civium Eomanorum {204).

COMPABISON OF ADJECTIVES (214).

Altus mons. Altior mons. Altissimus mons. Bre-
vior vita. Brevissima vita. Digniores viri. Antiquis-
simis temporibus. Canis vigilantior. Brevius tempus.
Audacissimorum militum. In loco apriciori. Grave
saxum. Gravius saxum. Gravissimum saxum. Acer-
rimus vindex libertatis {218). Sex nobilissimi homines.
Antiquissimis temporibus. Meliore habitu {219). Ad
imam vallem (222). Ultima via {222).

Change the following Adjectives to the comparative and
superlative degrees, make thern agree with the Nouns,
and tra7islate.

Beata puella. Altus fluvius. Doctus regium. Donum
gratus. librorum utilis. Crudelis puSros. Altus
aarboribus. Nobilis duces. Clarus luci. Bonus vir
(219)f Urbem antiquus. Equus velox.

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10 rNTEODFCTOET EXEBCISES.

PEOE"ou]5rs (230).

How many classes of pronouns in Latin, and what are they?

Scheme for the Etymological Pan'sing of a Pronoun, — 1, Kind ;
3. Decline it ; 3i Person (if any) ; 4 Found in — Case ; 5. Number.

MihL Mei. Vobis. Nos. Sibi. Nostrum. Inter se.
Pro nobis. Ad me. Ante te. Mens pater. Tua filia.
• Cum domo sua {144). Meum onus. iKToster rex. Cum
suis amicis. Ad suos amicos. Unus (Idioms, 21)
horum regum {771)» Ad hos ludos. Ejus regis. Ab
ipso Tarquinio {103S). Filius ejus. Ob eam causam.
In illis regionibus. Populi illi. Pro ipso rege. In eodem
prato. Ad aliquenL In qua urbe {1041) ? De ejus
adventu. Una via, qua {683). Per fines suos. Quidam
vir. Pastor illius regionis. A suo nomine. Ee ipsa.
Ex tuis libris. Ille dies. Post ejus mortem. Faustulus
quidam. Hsbc fabula. Idem vir. Quisnam ? Ille puer.
Ipsi fontes. Flamma in ejus capite. Ob banc causam.
PostSri ejus. Tua deformitas. Mea levitas.

YERBS {2S8).

Name the Trarmtive, Intransitive and Attributive Verbs :

Note. — ^In Latin, when the subject of the verb is a personal
pronoun, it is generally omitted {636).

Audio, / hear. Audio ventum, I hear the wind {716).
Amo te, / love thee. Curro, / run. Vita brevis est, life
is short. Equum habet, he has a horse. Dico, / speah.
Dico templum, / dedicate a temple. Vendit servum, he
sells the slave. Miles pugnat, the soldier fights. Fidem
violabant, they were violating the faith. Pomum bonum^
videtur, the apple seems good {667). Deus mundum
regit, God rules the world. Nuncius velox venit, a swift
messenger com^s. Troja fuit, Troy was {1095).

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rOTBODTJCTORT EXEECISES. 11

Point out the voice of the following verbs :

Clarus vir laudatur, a famous man is praised. Bellum
dirum parant, they prepare direful war. Legati missi
sunt, the ambassadors were sent. Caesar misit nuncios,
GiBsar sent messengers. Amicitia confinnata tsi, friend-
ship was established. ImpStum fecit, he made an attack.
Troja eversa est, Troy was destroyed.

The subjunctive mood in Latin corresponds to what mood in
English (BvMont^s FraeticaZ Eng. €hrwmma/r, 380) ?

Mention the voice, mood/ tense, person, and nmnber :
Amabo, / shalhlove. Homo memoriam habet, mem
has memory. Librum laudas, you praise the look. Ful-
gebant, they were shining. Donum dedit pater, the
father has given a gift. Audiamus donum, we may hear
a sound* ' Amabimus amicos, we will love our frimds.
Salutati fuistis, you have ieen saluted.

CONJUGATION.

Tell the conjugation of the following words. The present infi-
nitive of each verb is given. In the vocabulary the present indidt-
tive is given, followed by the present infinitive and other prin-
cipal parts. .

Vitare. Docere. Munire. Animare. Leggret Cogi-
tare. Vinc^re. Jurare. Placere. Venire. E9gare.
Duc^re. Jubere. Lustrare. Pon^re. Deplorare. Salire.
Saevire. Fugare. Pulgere.

Sch^rmforthsBtymohgicalPardngofa Verb, — 1. Kind(j^50);
2. Conjugation (or irregular if it is so) ; 3. Conjugate it ; 4. De-
rived from (if derived) ; 5. Compounded of (if compounded) ; 6. It
is found in — tense ; 7. Mood ; 8. Voice ; 9. Person ; 10. Number.



SUM {277).

Translate each noun or pronoun according to its number and
case, and the verb according to its voice, mood, tense, number and



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li ENTRODUCTOEY EXEBCISES.

person. Parse each word as directed in 1419» In parsing th^
verb, supply the subject if omitted. Thus fui may be parsed to
agree with ego understood.

FuL Eram. Est Sumus. Es. Sunt. Enint. FnSrint.
Fu^ram. Fueramus. Puer sum (666). Terra est (634)
rotunda (671). Hannibal audax fuit. Inermis sum.
Vir bonus est. Arbor alta est Mons altus est. Cic6ro
orator est {6S6)» Cinna consul fu^rat Vita brevis
est Plurimae stellae sunt soles. Tu eris rex. Dulcis
est libertas, Esto. Sunto. Este audaces. Sapiens es.
Brutus sit magnus dux. Caesar princeps esset — For
other Exercises on Suniy see B. & M. Or. {280).

FIRST CONJUGATION (282).
. Amas. Amavit Amat Amant Amabatis. Puer
amatus est {671)- Amo. Amor. Amabor. Eogav6-
ram. Rogatus erat Rogati eratis. Rogav(5ris. Rogem.
Boniviri amati erant {671)- Servus dominum vocat
{712). Amer: Vocetur. Virtutem laudabimus. PAs-
tOres convivium celebrabant. Tullia in forum pro-
peravrt {987)- Agrippa fabulam narravit Tu vocaris
magister. Domus aedificata fuSrit {671)- Philomela
qantaret Canis latret. TJrbes spoliatae erant. Amato
patrem. Pavo pennas suas explicat Homo creatus
est a Deo. Ancus triumphans urbem intravit Ani-
matne puer ? (ne is an enclitic. 505 ^ Id. 56, dd). Aquila
volabat — For other Exercises on First Conjugation see
B. & M. Gr. {284, 285).

SECOND CONJUO-ATION (288).

Doceor. Videbam. Monebar. Jubemus. Placegf
Monebor. Videbit. Jubebamur. Docebamini. Monui.
Monuimus. Vidisti. Vidit Terrebat. Terrebantur.
Territussum. Puellaterritaest Dominusjubet Servus



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IKTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 13

fiaret. Stella yidetur. Luna lucet. ArbSres florent.'
Luna luceat. Sol luceret. Eegina pulchram formam
tabet. Equates gladios habebant. Maneto. Amulius
pegnum obtinuit. Habuistine librum (Id. 56, 3d)?
Paretne serous ? Canis arcebat boves. Porsena urbem
obidebat. Lucetne sol ? Regina pulchram 'formam
habens laudatur. Puella leonem videns terret. Homo
auimum habet. Gladium habuisti ? Time. Eura mane-
bant. Cameli ambulant. Viator fessus sedebat. Ha-
besne sdentiam ? Habeo scientiam. Monento. Doce.
Juberenter. Jubetor. DoceminL — For other Uxereisesi
on Second Congtcgation, see B. & if. Gr. {^90^ 291). *

THIRD CONJUGATION {292).
I Eegebam. Eex regit. Eegimur, Eegor. EQgentur.
Eexi. Recti sunt. Duco. DucSbant. Duximus. Deui^
mundum regebat. Romiilus ciyitatem descripsit. Litgrse
BcriptSB sunt. Centum senatores legit {712). Eeg^remi
Eeg^res. Eeggret. Rectus sit. Oameli currebant Duo .
(203) legiones congerit. Mille equites capti sunt,
.^^as urbem condidit. Silvius Procas duos filios reli-
quit. Romftlus foedus icit. Quid scripsisti ? Epist51am
scripsi. ' Socrates magjiam famam reliquit. Ad quos
dicet? Ad te dicam. Laudant. Docent. Regunt.
Liberabo. Habebo scientiam. Mittam. Legito. Sa-
binos in urbem recepit. Romulus patefecit asylum.
Caesar vicit Galliaili. Vulpes viderat leonem. Bacchus
duxit exercitum in Indiam. Omnis Gallia diyiditur
in partes tres. Duo legati missi sunt.

VERBS IN -10 {294).

Capio. Capit. Capiuni Capiebam. Capiet. Cape.
Cap^re. CepSrit. Capiebar. Capiebamur. Capiar.
PueriAalumjaciebat. Fugiam. Tufugias. Fugerunt.

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14 IKTRODTJCrrOET EXEBCTSES.

Is permntationem fecit. Cepissem. Timidi milites fn«
giuni Captus aim. Captus esses. Populus seditionem
fecit. Gain fugiunt Accipiter rapuit lusciniam. Mum-
mius cepit Corinthum. Hie in urbem confugit. Vir-
gines raptae erant Hie rex interfectus est. Hostes tela
conjiciebant. — For other Exercises on Verbs in -to, see
,B.&M. Or. (298, 299).

FOURTH CONJUGATION (300).

Audio. Audit. Vincit Munit. Venit Audis. Ne-
quis. Sciunt. MoUiuni Audiunt. Serviebas. Sciebas.
Puniebas. Veniebas, Auditur. Audiebant Audie-
bator. Audiam. Audiar. Audient. Audientur. Audi-
tus sum. Bellum finitum est. Dux muniv^rat viam.
Finite bellum. Templa expoliebantuTi Homines tem-
pla expoliebant. Ego audio sonum. Macedoniam Bru-
tus custodiebat. Caesar in urbem venit. Pufiri punian-
tur. Puer punitus est. -^ngas in Italiam pervenit. —
For other Exercises on Fourth Conjugation, see B. <& M.
Qr. {302, 303).

DEPONENT VERBS (304, 399, 408). _

Hoc facinus (712) rex miratur. Miratus ero. Milltes
urbem populabantur. Dux milites hortatur. Regina
regem- hortabatur. Viator templum mirabitur. Ego
novum librum polliceor. Amicus pollicebar epist51am.
Discipulus laudem meretur. Felicitas bonitatem sequl-
tur. Milites gloriam sequuntur. Ascanium secutus est
Silvius. Populus bonam reginam miratur. Dux cum
militibus gloriam partitur. Proditor amieum mentietur.
Pyrrhus Campaniam depopulatus est. Pyrrhus Fabri-
cium admiratus est. — For otlier Exercises on Deponent
Veris, see B. & M. Qr. (311).



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ENTRODUCTORT EXERCISES. 15

- PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION (328).

Amaturus est. Frbem novam aedificaturus sum.
Puella amatiira sit. Omnia mala vitanda sunt. Hostis
amandus est Multos amicos habiturus erat. Discipuli
sunt audituri prseceptores. Parens parendus erat. Mul-
t8B epistdlsB scribendsB sunt. Multas epistdlaa scripturus
est. Virtus amanda est.

IMPERSONAL VERBS (451).

Contingit. Tonat. Curritur ab equo (4S3)* Pug-
natur a miUtibus fortiter {4S7)> Licit nemini menda-
cium dicSre (840). Delectabit me amicos videre. Placet
nobis. Delectet me studere (458). Ventum est a Cice-
rone. Moriendum est ab hominibus. Eegnatum ept
per septem reges. — For other Exercises on Impersonal
Verts, see B. & M. Or. {459).



ADYERBS {460\ PREPOSITIOIS'S {468)
AJSTD OOKJUNOTIOlsrS {488).

Pugnat bene. Egredior mane. Semper esto paratus.
Pugnatum est acriter. Veniebant celeriter. Ees pros-
perd gestae sunt. Libenter bonas artes sequere. Gallina
quotidie ovum paret. Nunquam dice mendacium. In
urbem venit. . In urbe habitat {471). E sylvA rediit
{472). Trans TibSrim natat. Agrum comparat {606).
Prope Athenas vivit Imperium dedit {479). Munus
negabat {487, Obs. 2). Obsides et arma poposcit.
Komulus, ut civium numgrum augeret, asylum pate-
fecit. In praelio cita mors aut victoria laeta venit {643).

Adverbs, Prepositions, Interjections and Conjunctions are parsed
in Latin as in English. See Bullions' Prac. Eng. Oram., 637, 56&
660, 573.



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16 LNTEODirOTOBY EXEBGISE&



SEI^TEISrOES.

A sentence is such an assemblage of words as expresses
a thought and makes complete sense {616^ 1).

I. As to the form of the afl&rmation,* sentences are
of four kinds :

1. Declaratory, or such as declare a thing, as, Terra est

rotunda, The earth is round.

2. Interrogatory, or such as ask a question, as, Quis me

vocat f Who calls me ?

3. Imperative, or such as express a command ; as, Reve-

rere parentes. Reverence your parents.

4. Exclamatory, or such as contain an exclamation ; as,

Ofonmse pvsr ! fair boy !
n. As to the nature of the affirmation depending
chiefly on the meaning of the verb, sentences are of
three kinds :

1. Transitive; as, Eripuit me morti. He rescued me

from death.

2. Intransitive ; as, Romam erat nuncidtum, The report

was carried to Eome.

3. Attributive ; as, Ego vocor poeta, I am called a ppet.
IIL As to the number of propositions {616^ 4) they

contain, sentences are either

1. Single, containing one proposition; as, Pu£r studef.

The boy studies.

2. Compound, containing two or more propositions or

single sentences connected ; as, Puer studet
et suus pater Icetus est, The boy studies,
and his father is glad {1411).

* TTie verb is the principal word in a sentence, and the different
kinds of sentences are classified p^enerally by the form or meaning
of their leading" verba The various significations of a verb, as ex-
pressed in its different moods, are included in the term affirmation.



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INTRODUCTOEY EXERCISES. 17

There are three kinds of single sentences, viz.: {616,
7, 1413).

Simple, containing one subject, one verb, etc. ; as, " The
girl reads (the book).''

Subject; as, "The boy and the girl

read."
Verb ; as, " The boy reads and writes.''
Compound in - Object j as, " The boy read the letter

and the book."
Attribute j as,* " The boy is studious
and industrious."
Complex, containing a dependent clause which hmits
the principal clause or some part of it ; as,
" When he studies he is content."
A* single sentence may be enlarged by an adjunct
word or phrase in any or all of its parts, or by the sub-
stitution of a clause for its subject, object or attribute
{616; 2, 3),

Note. — For General Principles of Syntax, see Grammar, S17»
For ExBiRCiSES in Latin Composition, see page 335 of this book.

RESOLUTION OR ANALYSIS.

Every simple sentence consists of two parts, the sub-
ject and the predicate, 243, 616, 8, 9, 10, 1399.
In analyzing a sentence, it is necessary to distinguish
between the Grammatical subject and predicate, and the
Logical subject and predicate.

The Grammatical Subject is the person or thing spoken
of, without, or separated from, all modifying words or
clauses, and which stands as the nominative to the verb,
or the accusative before the infinitive, 754, 1400.
' The Logical Subject is the same word, in connection
with the qualifying or restricting expressions which go to
make up the full and precise idea of the thing spoken of.



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18 INTEODUCTOET EXEECISES.

The Grammatical Predicate is the word or words con-
taining the simple affirmation made respecting the sub-
ject, 1404:.

The Logical Predicate is the grammatical predicate,
combined with all those words or expressions that modify
or restrict it in any way ; thus :

In the sentence, " An inordinate desire of admiration
often produces a contemptible levity of deportment;^'
the Grammatical subject is •" desire f the Logical, " An
inordinate desire of admiration/' The Grammatical
predicate is "produces ;" the Logical, ''prodiices often a
contemptible levity of deportment''

ARRANGEMENT, 1S85.

In Latin and English, the general arrangement §f a
sentence is the same; Le,, the sentence commonly be-
gins with the subject and ends with the predicate. But
the order of the words in each of these parts, is usually
so different in Latin from what it is in English, that one
of the first difficulties a beginner has to encounter with
a Latin sentence is to know how to arrange it in the
proper order of th^ English. This is technically called
construing or giving the order. To assist in this, some
advantage may be found by carefully attending to the
following

DIRECTIONS FOR BEGINNERS.

DiBBCTioN I. — ^As all the other parts of a sentence depend upon
the two leading parts, namely, the subject or NOMINATIVE, and
the predicate or. VERB ; the first thing to be done with every sen-
tence, is to find out these. In order to this,

1. Look for the leading verb, which is always in the present,
impeifect, perfect, pluperfect, or future of the indicative, or in the
imperative mood,* and usually at or near the end of the sentence. •

* All the other parts of the verb are generally used in subordinate clauses. So,
also, is the pluperfect indicative. In obliqne discourse, the leading verb is in tlie
infinitive. 061, 1296, A.



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tETrRODUCTOEY EXERCISES. 19

2. Having found the verb, observe its number and person ; this
-will aid in finding its nominative, which is a noon or pronoim in
the same number and person with the verb, commonly before it,



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