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[Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1847^ by
Peter Bullions^ in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the
United States, for the Northern District of New- York.]

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Xhu w6rk formerly published as a uew translation of
Moor's Greek GmAMMAR with additions, ims undergone a
thorough revisal. Many errors have been discovered and eor-
rected, defects have been supplied, and many improvemints
introduced^ which a daily intercourse in the ^class-roolh with
students in almost every stage of progress has suggested. A
close attention to this subject for many years, with favourable
opportunities for observing the attainments' made by many^
who had commenced their studies by different systems, has
strengthened the conviction long felt, that a radical defect exists
iu the plan of most of the Greek Grammars now used in our
public schools. However excellent the elaborate treatises of
tHe German Grammarians are, and however useful the many
compends of these recently published may be as books of re-
ference, or as guides to such as commence the study of Greek
iD»maturer years, and have resolved, from a sense of its impor-
tance, to master its principles ; yet on trial, I am persuaded,
they will be found but imperfectly adapted to the condition of
the great mass <^ youth in this country who begin, and too of-
ten end, their Greek studies at an early age. With such, it is
believed, that no system of Grammar will answer a good pur-
pose, which do«s not present the leading facts and principles
in such a way as to be eanly committed to memory^ and so to
be ready for immediate application when necessary.

It is true that youth c^ ordinary capacity by knowing only
the inflexion of words. With the aid of a dictionary, and mode-
rate application, will^ in time, be able to guess at the meaning
of a passage in Greek ; but this is about all. An accurate,
philosophical, and practical knowledge of its principles will,
in this way, seldom be acquired. And wherever a Grammar^
in the form of a lecture or treatise upon the subject, designed
to be read and studied, biH not adapted, or but ill adapted for
being committed to memory, is put into the hands of young
students, such will seldom fail to be the result.

To remedy this evil and to provide a comprehensive manu-
al of Greek Grammar, adapted to th& use of the younger, as
well as to the more advanced class of students iu our schools

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u' ■


and colleges, and especially of those under my own care, wa^
the original design of publishing this work. To this end the
leading principles of Greek Grammar are exhibited in rules,
as few and brief as possible, fO as fo {le easily committed iff
m^ory, and, at the same time, so comprehensive and perepi-
cuous, a« to be of general and easy application. These being
firaj accurate^ committed to mcmery, and then constantly ap-
plied in the inflection of words, and in analyzing their forms,
soon become so4horoughly understood and fixed in tll« mem^*
ry as hardly ever to be effaced, and to be always ready after,
watds, to account for every form which words in their nume-
rous dllanges assume, and to solve every difficulty caused by
these changes almost without an effort of thought. A student,
though young, if thus exercised but for one year or two, has
tt immense advantage, in the future prosecution of his studies,
over those who have not laid the foundation of their success in
a thorough course of diilling.

. Several excellent elementary works on Greek Grammar
nave been published within the last ten years, by men eminent
for talents and learning, and to whose labours I freely own
myself under many obligations. But none of these, so far as
known to me, have adopted to any great extent the plan just
alluded to. To carry out such a plan to a greater extent than
has yet bien done, has be%n chieAy aimed at, and it is hoped
in some degree attained in the present work. But while the
leading and fundamental parts have been reduced to rules brief
and easy to be committed to memory by the younger student,
a copious illustration of these principles, and of the exceptions
and varieties of usage umler them, with every thing important
to aid the advanced student, has been inserted in its place in
smaller type, in the form of Observations and Notes, all of
which are numbered for the sake of easy reference.

In the preface to the first edition a Cull statement was given
of the principal sources from which the materials, herecollect-
•dj were drawn, and which need not here be repeated. Suf-
fice it to say, that I have not hesitated to avail myself of every
aasistance within my reach, and to gather from every quarter,
and especially from the ample stores of German Philologists,
whatever appeared suited to my dea^n. The labour of con.
densiug and arrai^ing, and, to borrow a term from the prin-
ter's voc<abulary, justifying the several parts with due regard to
harmony and proportion, into one compact whole, has been very
great. The first editioii extended to a much greater length
Uian was intended. A special object in preparing this edition

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Das been to reduce the size of the book without impairing its
value. To attain this, nearly the whde has been re- written
and condensed, some thin^ unimportant have been omitted" to
make room for others of greater value. The number of para-
digms of the declension of nouns, adjectives, and participles
has been increased, and tbe verb has been thrown into the
form of a table, so arranged as to present the whole of each
^oioe at once to the view, and to render it equally convenient
in studying it to follow either the order of the tenses under
each mood, or of the moods under each tense.

I would beg leave in this place to call the attention ff stu-
' dents and of teachers, who bave not yet examined the subject,
to the method of analyzing and forming the tenses of the verb
which is here exhibited. No part of Greek Grammar has
hitherto proved so puzzling and harassing to the pupil as this.
For want of understanding the few simple principles, on which
the numerous changes in the form of the verb depend, they
appear to him intricate, arbitrary, and incomprehensible to
such a degree as to render the prospect of his fully mastering
them almost hopeless. That this is owing, in a great measure,
to the method of forming the different tenses by deriving one
tense from another to which it has some real or fancied resem*
blance, appears to me beyond a doubt. As there is 90 foun-
dation in truth for this mode of formation, so almost every
writer, following imagination as his guide, has proposed a dif-
ferent theory upon the subject. One, for example, forms the
perfect passive from its own future. Another with equal in-
genuity forms tile future from its own perfect through the me-
dium of the first aorist passive! Another supposes he has
simplified the whole matter by deriving every tense in the pas-
sive voice from its corresponding tense in the active voice,
by making the simple and natural change of -^oi into -^){(70/ua»,
-|(u into -j^^ijaojuat, -y/a into '<pdfjv, -|a into x^r^v, -ya iutm
'fifia&y -/a into 'Yfioci, and -xoc iuto -^a», sometimes into -^fuxk.
Another stdl, in order to arrive, for example, at the first aorist
passive, starts with the present active and, by a succession of
stages, arrives at the end of his journey thus, ax^iijpoi, tatqe^m^
i(jxqeq>a^ MarQafifim, "iaxQama^^ i(TT(^q>drjv, and when he gets
there he finds he has missed his way after all, for the first
aorist of this verb is not iar^cp^jyi' but iaxqi^Briv^ and to bring
him thither, another rule has to be iuvented nearly as dark as
the road he has already travelled ; viz. <* Verbs which change
8 of the future into o of the perfect active, and into « of the
perfect passive, take c again in the first aorist Vr as, iat^amm^


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iatffiifdijy,^ Whitf can be more perplexing and arbitrary
tbau sucb a process? It is fortunate for the rising geLeca^
tidti that such a system is beginning to pass away, and to
Professor Thiersch of Germany must we regard ourselves as
chiefly indebted for the detiverance. Throwing aside the com-
plicated systems of rules and exceptions which the above theo-
ries had rendered necessary, he directs to the more simple
and philosophical method of observing and^ 'dtafeinj* the feet,
that the root or stem runs unchanged, or but slightly so, through
the whole verb, and that one part diffeh^ from another in form,
only i% the part prefixed and added to the stem, and that in all
verbs these parts are nearly the sai^oe. Instead, therefore, of
forming one tense from atf other ^^'proftess much like the
story of " the house that Jack bui^" every tense is fbrmed at
once immediately from its root by simply annexing the proper
Tenae-ending «nd preflxing 4he augment in the tenses that re-
quire it Thus for the stk9 of comparison, instead of the la-
borious and clumsy process above ; in order to form the 1 aor.
p. of atqiffxa all that is necessary is to annex the aorist tense^
ending -Srjv to the root^^r^i^ |i^efixing the augment, and it is
done, — ^you have ior^i^i]^ at once ; and so it is wkh every
other tense. rf^ ' /.; ^

The whole sydleiH.«f forming the tenses from the root ac-
cording to this .method '{s given in about ten lines at the foot
of p. 102, and&U its modifications as applied to the different
classes of mute, pure^ ind liquid verbs occupy only about three
pages, 107 — 109. By forming the tenses in this way, the
Greek verb will be found a simple, regular, and bea\)ti^
structure, as all that l>elong3 to the language is. And t^^-
tate not, again to say, Qf\er ten- .vc^! jfurther experien^C^^^^
after repeated examination: of' Omet' theories, that in i|y opin-
ion <Mhis methodi for l»9|ti^^^^,£d^

accuracy greatly surpassj^v^^rv-^tfear. system or aiialysis,
and that a more minute,: &i/lrnl!%tj and certain knowledge of
the Greek verb can be obtain^d\^ith much more ease and in
a shorter time by studying^^ far4hS»>:^ay than in any other."
If others, however, aUer exanliinfhg the subject may be of a
diflerent mind, and prefer the method of formipg one tense
from another, Moor's rules for the formation of the tenses,
unquestionably thd siinplest and most perfect of their kind,
will be found at page 299, and can be learned either before or
after the pairadigm of the verb, as the teacher may direct.
Those who adopt this method will, of course, omit from § 81
to § 97, except § 87 and 88 on the augment.

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^i^pjitB- rit

Hints respecting the method of studying this Grafnmar.

Those who have had experience in teaching the Greek language wilf need
10 instructions from me how to study this, or any other Grammar which
they may think fit to use ; but still a few Hnts as to the way in which it is
intended to be used may not be useless to the young teacher, or to the Stu-
dent who may be under the necessity of prosecuting his studies without a

It is by no means intended that the beginner should study, and much less
commit to memory, every thing in the boidk. It is nresumed that he oOines

iglish and Latin Gram-

ch with which he is al*

ibour. In general, the

vith the paradigms ot

that should be ^ttend-

urately to memory and

md familiar. If this is

»arra8sed at every step,

By youth of ordinary

of six or seven weeks.

ly with a view to fur-

\y committed. In this

lie belonging to its in*

ycorrecttyand easily,

day will be sufficient

ipil is able thoroughly

I a part of each rocita-

ihould be reviewed re-

B, till the pupil is able

ity minutes. All this

. Longer lessons will

then be proper, and along with this the study of the Grammar taking up

the more important parts of what was omitted before, not to commit to

memory but study so as to become familiar with them, and be able to refer

to them at once when they may be needed. By going over the Grammar

two or three times, in this manner, in the course of a year, every part wiH

become connected in the mind with the rules to which these parts belong,

so as to be readily recalled by them.

There are two or three points to which it is neesisary for the pupil to pay
special attention. 1st The Rules of Euphonyj § 6. To the Euphony ot
their language the Greeks paid the greatest attention. In order to avoid the
harsh sound which would be the result of certain consonants coming toge-
ther, they often exchanged a consonant in certain situations for ancAher of
more pleasing sound, sometimes they changed their order, sometimes drop-
ped one of them, or inserted another. To this is owin^, in part, the appa-
rent irregularity in the flexion of nouns and verbs, which has led to form so
many perplexing rules for cases and tenses. The rules of Euphonv extend
not to the flexion of nouns only, but to the whole structure of tndr lan-
guage — to the composition and derivation of their words, and even to the
collocation of them in a sentence. Those principles are few, thoroughly
systematized, and very easy to be comprehended. They are exhibits in
the sixth section, and occupy a little less than five pages. Thi^ paft, and,
as fundamental to it, the fourth section should be thoroughly mastered b^
fore proceeding to the 3d declension where they will be nSdd^d

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Another thing requiring special attention, and of almost e(]|ual importance,
T8 the rules Jbr contraction* These should be studied in their place after the
third declenm>n - § 34-40, or they may be omitted till the second revieal.
Tiiess with the exercises on them occupy about six pages, and should aUo
be thoroughly ^ipastered. These rules account for the changes that take
place in the form of a word when vowels concur, aa the rules of euphony
do in the case of concurrent consonants, and t>oth together are indispensa-
ble in order to understand the forms which words almost uniformly assume
under the operation of these principles. A perfect readiness in the rules
of contraction renders a paradigm of contract verbs entirely unnecessary.
Sdll as some may wish to have such a paradigm, it is furnished in the ap-
pendix § 218.

translation in the Appendix §219, may be worthy of some attention.

I avail myself of this opponunity to return my grateful acknowledge-
ments for the favourable notice taken of the former edition of this work l>y
many eminent scholars, rfnd for the friendly^lcritical hints with which I have
b<$en favoured by teachers and others. They will see that these have gene-
nlly been attended to in this edition. The third edition of the English
Grammar has just b^n published.. The Latin Grammar is in a state of
forwardness, and will likely be published in the Spring. These three will
Complete the series of Grammars, English, Latin, and Greek, on the same
plan, following the same arrangement, and as near as prncticable express-
mg the definitions and rules in the same languagp. So that one will be a
pn^table introduction to another, and the perplexity arising from studying
Ensrtisn Grammar by one system, Latin by another, and G^eek by one still
different, may be avoided.


Septtmber 25<^ 1840.


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. S6


, 44

! 46

! 49

; ^

'other words used

as 184

used adverbially . 246
obs. on the con-
cord of . . . 184
pronouns, con-
struction 01^ ^
use of. . . .'187
words, related con-
struction of . . 198

Adverbs, of 163

signification of . . 163
formation and deri-
vation of ... 165
comparison of . • 167
construction of . . 244
Adverbial particles (insepara-
ble) .... . . . . 167

Alphabet 1

Anaooloutha 261

Analysis : 310


Apostrophe 6

AiDosition 183

ArUcIe . .^ 42

dialects of .... 43
oonstmodon and use

of 192

as a demonstrative pro-
noun 43, 66

as a relative and per-
sonal pronoun 195, 67, 43

Augment, of 93

place of, in com-
pound, words. . . 95
observations on . . 96
Auxiliary verbs 83

fJaesural pause 285

Case, of 15

Characteristic 9f the verb, of . 87
Circumstances, oonstructbn

of 237

ofcauseororigiB . 238

oflimiUtkm ... 239
of cause, manner,

« and instrument . 241

of place .... 242

of time ..... 243

of measure . • . 243

of price 244

ofextlamation- . . 244

Comparison of Adjectives . 53

^nerai rule fof . 53

m 'tta¥ and 'twos . 54

irregular • • • 55

defective . • • 55

dialects of . ^ «. 56

Comparative dej., construe- .

tion and use or ... . 187

government of 213

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CoDJanctions, of , }7'S

construction of 2G9
signiiication and

use of . . . 174

Contractions, of 34

ofthelstdecl. . 35

of the 2d decl. • 36

ofthe3ddecl. . 36

general rules for 37

exercises on . 38

■peciaTrules Sor 39

Dative plural Sd^ecl. of • • 28

construction of . • • 219

after substantives . 219

governed by adjectives 220
by verbals in -rds and

-r<»{ 221

by verbs . . • 222

^ by impersonal verbs . 226

Dedehsion, general rules for 16

first 17

second .... 20

da Attic form of 22

third 22

gen. of • . . 23
do. of adjec-
tives . . 25
accusative of • 26
vocative of . . 27
dative plural «f 28
dialects of . . 29
genders of . • 30
Deponent verbs • • • . . 146
Dialects of the Ist declen. . • 19
of the 2d .... 21
of the 3d .... 29
of the article ... 43
of comparison • . 56
of the pronoim . • 70
of the verb ... 123
of'EifAr ... 141

Diflsresis 7

Diastole ....... 7

Digamma 6

Diphthongs • 3

Etymology ..•••• 13

Euphony, rules of • • •' . 8

Figures afieoting syllables. . 7

Final letters of the active voice 98

mid. and pass. 98

ofverbsin-fj.! . 129


Future Ist active, formation . 299

of special rules for • 299

of pure verbs ; . • 300

passive, rules for • 301

apmti do. for . • 301

Future 2d, rules for the penult

of 302

special do. .... 303

verbs which want the . 303

Gender, of *, 15

Genders of the 3d decl. . . 30

rS^flnitivo of dO|| ..... 23

>f adjectives of do. . 25
)bs. on construction

of 205

governed by substan-
tives 207

by adj. in the

neut. gender 209
by acyectives . 210
by the comp. de-
gree ... 212
by verbs . • . 214
Grovemmentof 204

Imperatfve mood, Syntax of • 253

Impersonal verbs .... 147

construction of . 226
Indicative mood^ construction

of . . , 252

Infinitive mood, construction

of .... : 257

as a verbal noun • 258

without a subject . 258

with a subject . . 260

used absolutely . . 262

Metre, of 279

Iambic 281

Trochaic • ... 981

AnaptBstic .... 281

Dactylic .... 282

Choriambio • • • 883

Antispastic ... 283

lonicamajore • , 284

lonio a minore • • 5184

Psonic 285

Metres compound, of . • . 286

tables of 286

Mood vowels, of .... 98

Moods, subjujictiTe and opka.

tive, constmction of • • 8S3

Mutes 4

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New present, formation of. • 149

NegaUveSjOf 247

double .... 248

Norn, case, constniction of . 201

concord of, with the

▼erb in naaiber • • 202

in person . . 204

Noons, of 14

acddentsof .... 15

Nouns, irregular, of ... . 31

defective, of ... . 33

of peculiar signification 33

Number, of 15

Numbers, cardinal .... 57

ordinal 59

notation of • • • 59

table of 60

Numerals, classes of ... 57

PanuHgraofthe active voice . 112
of the middle ... 114
of the passive. • . 116
of contract verbs. . 308
of verbs in -/» . • 133
Participles, of ..... 85
the construction of • 263
for the infinitive . . 265
mth\ay9iim &C. . 267
with tlnly ytpoiuUf &C 267
in the case absolute 268
Particles, conjunctive and ad-
verbial 167

signification of . • 174

Parts of sp^ch . : . • . 14

mdedinable, of the 13
Passive voice, construction of

cases with 235

Perfect active, formation of . 300
active, special rules for

penult of .... 301

passive, formation of . 302

middle, rules for '. . 304

Prepositions, of 168

alphabetical list of 169
construction of . 250
in compo-
sition • 251
Pronouns, personal • • • . 62
possessive .... 63
construction of 191
in apposition . 183

definite 63

reflexive . . • . 64

reciprocal .... 65


Pronouns, demonstrative • . 65

constniction of 188

relative 66

concord of. . 195

attraction of . 197
other words

used as . . 197

in the sense of

other words 198

interrogative ... 67

construction of 191

indefinite .... 68

construction of 190

dedension of . . . 69

correlative ... 69

dialects of. ... 70

Online LibraryPeter BullionsThe principles of Greek grammar: comprising the substance of the most ... → online text (page 1 of 26)