Peter Cameron.

A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 1) online

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The only noteworthy peculiarity as regards the


secondary sexual characters is tliat in one group
(lineolata) the transverse median and recurrent nervures
are situated along the edge.

The larvae are short and thick compared to their
length ; in shape they are either cylindrical or flat ; in
the latter case the body is much broader before than
behind, and is covered with a slimy secretion. The
cylindrical larvae have either bare bodies, or bodies
covered with long or short, branched, or simple spines.
A cocoon is spun in the earth.

By some authors Blennocampa is split up into three
genera. Blennocampa distinguished by having no
middle cellule in hind wing ; Monopliadnus by having
one middle cellule ; and Pliymatocera (= Pectinia) by
its long pilose antennas, which have the third joint
shorter than the fourth, the reverse being the case
with the other species. I have not, however, adopted
Monopliadnus and Phymatocera. From Selandria the
structure of the lanceolate cellule and the neuration
in the hind wings readily separate it ; from Hoplocampa
the same characters distinguish it. Its affinities are
undoubtedly strongly with Fenusa, from which, apart
from its having four cubital cellules, it is very difficult
to point to any other absolute marks of distinction, and
the difficulty of doing so is further increased by the
first transverse cubital nervure in B. nana and B.
betuleti being almost obsolete at least in the middle.

The species of Blennocampa have a very wide range,
being abundant in the Palsearctic and Nearctic regions,
rarer in the Oriental and Australian, and not uncom-
mon in the Neotropical. There are more than fifty
European species, while thirty-two have been described
from North America, the greater number belonging to
the subgenus Monopliadnus. The neotropical genus
Waldhcemia is very closely related to the latter, with
which it agrees in the neuration, but differs in having
the coxae very large and the antennae densely pilose,
thickened in the middle, and with the four last joints
abruptly shorter.


Synopsis of Species.

1 (8) Abdomen reddish.

2 (7) The recurrent nervure in hind wings present.

3 (4) Thorax (and legs) reddish. Melanocephalus.

4 (3) Thorax black.

5 (6) Legs reddish. Fuscypennis.

6 (5) Legs black. Nigripes.

7 (2) Recurrent nervure in hind wings absent. Assimilis.

8 (1) Abdomen black.

9 (10) Mesonotum red, legs black. Eppiphium.

10 (9) Mesonotum black.

11 (12) Legs testaceous. Beiuleti.

12 (11) Legs not testaceous.

13 (30) Femora black, tibia} and tarsi white.

14 (26) Tegulte and pronotum white.

15 (20) Recurrent nervure in hind wings absent.

16 (17) Wings with a fuscous fascia in middle. Nanct.

17 (16) Wings hyaline throughout ; tr. radial nervure interstitial.

18 (18) Third and fourth joints of antennae about equal ; edge of pro-

notum broadly white; base of legs white; antennae as
long as body in $ , in <$ longer than body. Alchemill'ue.

19 (19) Third joint of antennae distinctly longer than fourth ; edge of

pronotum scarcely white; legs black at base; antenna)
almost shorter than abdomen. Subserrata.

20 (15) Recurrent nervure in hind wing present.

21 (22) Transverse radial nervure interstitial; antennae longer than

abdomen. Ruficruris.

22 (21) Transverse radial nervure not interstitial ; antennae shorter than


23 (24) Third cubital celulle shorter than second, a suture behind the

eyes ; with recurrent nervure in middle of cellule.


24 (23) Third cubital cellule longer than second ; with the recurrent

nervure in hind wings at edge of wing. Jjineolata.

25 (14) Tegulae and edge of pronotum black.

26 (29) Recurrent nervure in hind wings absent.

27 (28) Transverse radial nervure interstitial. Subcana.

28 (27) Transverse radial nervure not interstitial. Pusilla.

29 (26) Recurrent nervure in hind wings present. Albipes.

30 (13) Legs almost entirely black.

31 (32) Antennae longish, pilose, in both sexes, but especially with <$ ;

third joint shorter than fourth. Aterrima.

32 (31) Antennas bare, third joint longer than fourth.

33 (36) Knees on all the legs white.

34 (35) Recurrent nervure in hind wings present; transverse radial

nervure interstitial. Geniculata.

35 (34) Recurrent nervure in hind wings absent ; transverse radial

nervure not interstitial. Cinereipes.

36 (33) Four hind legs entirely black.

37 (38) Recurrent nervure in hind wings absent ; a distinct horny point

in second cubital cellule. Fuliginosa;

8 (37) Recurrent nervure in hind wings present.
39 (42) Third cubital cellule shorter than second on upper side.


40 (41) No suture behind the eyes ; abdomen a half longer than head

and thorax. Sericans.

41 (40) A distinct suture behind the eyes ; abdomen not a half longer

than head and thorax. Sulcata.

42 (39) Third cubital cellule longer than second.

43 (44) Wings clearer at apex than at base ; a horny point in second

cubital cellule. m Nigrita.

44 (43) Wings not clearer at base than at apex ; no horny point in second

cellule. Micans,

SECTION 1. Posterior ivings, with one middle cellule.

Body, legs and wings entirely black. Antenna) longish, filiform,
the joints produced at the apices, pilose, in <^ densely covered
with stiff longish hair ; third joint shorter than fourth. Wings
with the third cubital cellule much longer than second, dilated
at the apex; second transverse cubital nervure oblique, sloping
in the opposite direction from the third ; first transverse
cubital received a little past the middle of the cellule ; trans-
verse median nervure received a little in front of middle of
cellule; tr. radial received not very far from the third tr.
cubital. Accessory nervure in hind wings appendiculated a
little beyond the middle. Cljpeus truncated at apex. The
eyes reach close to mandibles, and they have a longish fovea
at the middle behind. Claws bifid (Species 1) (Phymatocera).

PI. XIV, figs. 3, 3a, (f .

Tenthredo aterrima, King, Berl. Mag., viii, 81, 79 ; Htg., Blattw.,

276, 36 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx,
31, 11.

fuliginosa, Fall., Acta Holm., 1808, 109, 45 ; Bouche,
Naturg., 136.

Phymatocera aterrima, Dbm., Consp., 8; Voll., Tidj. Ent., v,

5559, pi. 2 ; Zool., S. S., 9471 ;
Tasch., Ent. f. Gart., 161; Kalt.
PfL, 723.

Selandria Bobinsoni, Curtis, Trans. Linn. Soc., xxi, 39 41.

Jllennocampa aterrima, Thorns., Opus., 280, 7 ; Hym. Sc., i,

205, 1 ; Cam., E. M. M., xiv, 58,
20 ; Andre, Species, i, 298, pi. xviii,
fig. 13 ; Cat., 37,* 1.

Black, shining, covered with a close fuscous pubescence; apex of
fore femora and tibiae in front testaceous ; wings smoky, iridescent. ?
and .

Length 3^ 4 lines.

The larva is cylindrical, thicker before than behind.


Head black, slightly pilose, and with a horse-shoe
shaped impression on the vertex. The ground colour
of the body is greyish- white, but it is covered with a
bluish powder. Skin much wrinkled and covered on
the upper part with black tubercles, each ending in
short black spines, which form a sort of crown ; the
middle spine is the longest. There are three rows of
the tubercles on the abdomen on each side of the
central furrow; on the fore region they are more
numerous and more irregularly arranged. The skin-
folds over the abdominal legs are also beset with black
spines. Thoracic legs black; those on the abdomen
are short, conical, and coloured like the body.

They feed on Convallaria multiflora, C. polygonata,
&c., usually feeding along the edge of the leaf, or
more rarely in the centre. When full fed they become
entirely bluish-grey, and enter the earth, where a
cocoon is spun. They appear in June and July ; the
imago in the following May.

Found near Putney by Curtis.

Continental range : Sweden, Holland, France, Ger-
many, Italy and Russia.

Body and legs black ; knees and four anterior tibiae testaceous
in front. Antenna? shorter than thorax, thick, the third joint
about one half longer than fourth. Transverse radial nervure
received a little beyond middle of cellule, third cubital cellule
almost shorter and much wider than second ; tr. median
nervure received in front of middle of cellule. Head scarcely
dilated behind the eyes ; frontal sutures distinct ; frontal fovea
large, oval ; pentagonal area not indicated ; clypeus slightly in-
cised. Abdomen longish, sharply pointed at apex (Species 2).


Tenthredo sericans, Htg., Blattw., 275, 33.

Slennocampa sericans, Andre, Species, i, 308 ; Cat., 37,* 7.

Black ; sides of abdomen and legs covered with a grey pubescence
knees and tibia? in front whitish-testaceous. Antenna) as long as the
head and thorax, thick, bare, the third joint a quarter longer than the
fourth ; the joints not closely separated. Front smooth, with scarcely
any pubescence; the antennal fovea large; frontal sutures clearly
defined. Clypeus slightly incised ; tips of mandibles piceous. Abdomen


longer than the head and thorax, broad in the middle, sharply pointed
at the apex; the edges of the segments are white. The breast and
pleurae are smooth and shining; the cenchri are large, white; the
blotch is distinct. The legs are covered with a long white pile ; the
anterior tarsi pale. Wings slightly fuscous throughout ; the tr. radial
nervure is received a little past the middle of the third cubital cellule ;
the second cubital cellule has a distinct horny point ; the first cubital
nervure is received near the middle of the second cubital cellule ; the
second in the basal fourth ; the third cubital cellule is nearly as long as
the fourth. $ and <^.
Length 3f lines.

The long, pointed abdomen, short antennas, uniformly
coloured wings, as well as the coloration of the legs,
will serve to distinguish this species.

Hartig says that the posterior tibige in the ? are
pale, but this is not the case with the specimens I have

Blennocampa monticola, Htg., = feriata, Zaddach
(Beschr., p. 35), differs from sericans in having the
third joint of the antennae double the length of the
fourth, while in sericans it is not more than a quarter ;
in monticola the antennae are scarcely longer than the
thorax ; the legs are shining, black ; the apex of femora
and the tibiae externally white, the tarsi are black, the
anterior, however, being paler than the posterior.

I have seen several English specimens of sericans,
but I do not know the precise locality where they were

Continental distribution : Germany, Holland, France*

Black, anterior knees testaceous ; wings blackish at base. An-
tennse shorter than thorax, thick, third joint double the length
of fourth. Third cubital cellule a little longer than second,
slightly dilated at apex ; second and third transverse cubital
nervure s with distinct bullse ; tr. median nervure received in
middle of cellule. Head dilated behind the eyes ; frontal sutures
and fovea distinct; pentagonal area confused; clypeus trun-
cated at apex. Eyes reaching close to mandibles (Species 3).



Tenthrcdo nigrita, Fab., S. P., 39, 47; Lcp., Mon., 81, 241;

Fall., Acta Holm., 1807, 281, 8.
uiiji-n-iiun, Kl., Bcrl. Mag., viii, 65, 83; Htg.,

Blattw., 276, 35 ; Ratz., Forstins.,

iii, 132 (lav.) ; Kalt., 431.
RcJninlria brevicornis, Ste., 111., vii, 49, 18.
/>'!> nocampa nigrita, Thorns., Opus., 281, 8; Hym. Sc., i, 209,

6; Andre, Species, i, 307; Cat.,

37,* 2.

Deep black, densely pilose; anterior knees and b;nal half of tibiae
whitish-testaceous. Antennae shorter than head and thorax, the joints
short and thick, closely united towards the apex ; the third joint a
little less than double the length of the fourth. Wings fuscous at base,
hyaline at apex ; nervures black ; basal half of stigina fuscous.

The $ has the antennae as long as the abdomen ; the third and fourth
joints are about e<ju;il.

Length 3:, 1 lines.

The deep black, densely pilose body, with wings
fuscous at base only, serve to distinguish this species.

The larva, according to Kaltenbach and Ratzburg,
causes damage to ash trees, upon the leaves of which
it feeds. It becomes mature at the end of June;
pupates in the earth, and appears in the perfect state
early next summer.

Not a common species. Mr. Fletcher takes it at
Worcester, and it is, I believe, occasionally met with
in the London district.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Holland,
France, Tyrol, Hungary.

Black ; knees and anterior tibiae whitish-testaceous in front.
Head projecting behind the eyes, which have a longish suture
behind them. Eyes not reaching close to mandibles ; frontal
area and sutures indistinct. Third cubital cellule shorter than
second; transverse median nervure received close to middle of
cellule. Clypeus with a very slight emargination. Claws
simple. Sheath with a projecting point on its upper side
(Species 4).



Blennocampa sulcata, Cam., E. M. M., xviii, 271 (1882).

Black ; covered with a silky -greyish or blackish pubescence, which
gives the legs a fuscous tint ; apical fourth of anterior femora and
tibiae in front, and the four posterior knees dull testaceous-white.
Antennae thickish, not much longer than the head and thorax ; third
joint about one fourth longer than the succeeding. Head with a deep,
longish depression behind the eyes, and slightly projecting behind them ;
frontal area and sutures indistinct ; clypeus very slightly incised.
Wings smoky, somewhat darker at base; transverse radial nervure
received at apical third of third cubital cellule ; transverse median a
little in front of middle of cellule ; first recurrent a little in front of
middle of second cubital cellule ; second scarcely so near the middle of
the third cubital cellule and not received at such an acute angle as the
first is ; third cubital cellule short and wide compared to the length, which
is a little shorter than second on upper side, but longer on lower ; a
bulla in first transverse cubital nervure. Claws simple. Abdomen
about one-fourth longer than head and thorax ; sheath of saw projecting,
its upper side produced into a projecting rounded point, and marked
with a few longish hairs.

The <J is similar in coloration, and has the antennae a very little
longer, and the wings if anything clearer.

Length 2f lines.

This distinct species is very closely related to B.
exarmata, Thorns. (Hymen. Sc., i, 207), olim monti-
cola, Opus., 279, 3, non Hart., but that has the
antennae filiform, and the third cubital cellule elongated.
From B. micans it may be known by the eyes not
reaching so close to the mandibles, by the indistinct
frontal sutures and area, by the deep suture behind the
eyes, while the head projects more behind, by the
shorter third cubital cellule, the transverse radial
nervure is received farther from the third transverse
cubital, and consequently the second radial cellule is
longer ; and lastly, in micans the transverse median
nervure is received in the middle of cellule, while in
sulcata it is received a piece in front of middle.
Sericans, again, is larger, has the abdomen longer
compared to the head and thorax, the middle tibise
and tarsi are distinctly obscure white in front, the
antennal fovea longer, there is no suture behind the
eye, while the sheath is not prolonged into a projecting
point at the upper partj and the saw is longer with


better marked indentations. As for the common
nigrita, the long third cubital and the short second
radial cellule at once separate it. B. monticola,
Htg.=/e/7ato, Zaddach, is also related to it, but may
at once be distinguished by there being no suture
behind the eyes, by the short second radial cellule, by
the third cubital cellule being double the length of
second, and by the tibiae being all more or less white
at the sides.

Taken among roses at Holgate, York, by Mr. T.

Continental distribution : Germany.

Black; knees and anterior tibiae testaceous. Antennae short,
pilose, third joint about one-third longer than fourth. Trans-
verse radial nervure received not far from third tr. cubital ;
third cubital cellule much longer than second, dilated, but not
very much, at apex; second tr. cubital nervure oblique, not
parallel with third which is straight; tr. median nervure
received beyond middle of cellule. Accessory nervure in hind
wings appendiculated a little beyond the middle. Frontal
sutures and pentagonal area well denned ; frontal fovea very
large. Head not dilated behind the eyes, an indistinct suture
at their middle behind (Species 5).


Tenthredo micans, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 65, 40 ; Htg., Blattw.,

276, 34.
Blennocampa micans, Cameron, E. M. M., xiv, 57; Andre,

Species, i, 309 ; Cat., 37,* 8.

Black, almost shining; head, sides of abdomen, and legs thickly
covered with long, closely pressed hairs. Knees and anterior tibiae
pale testaceous. Antennas a little longer than the head and thorax,
stout, thickly and closely covered with a stiff black pile, the basal joints
distinctly separated from each other, the apical more closely pressed
together; the third joint a quarter longer than the fourth; the fourth
a little longer than the fifth ; the ninth bluntly conical ; the antennal
furrow very large, deep, somewhat projecting ; frontal suture distinct ;
apex of clypeus and labrum truncated ; cenchri large, pale white ;
blotch distinct. Sheath of saw a very little projecting. Wings pale
smoky ; costa and stigma dark fuscous ; first recurrent nervure received
in the middle of the second cubital cellule; second cubital nervure
slopes sharply towards the base of the wing, the third' slightly towards
the apex. Head thick, as broad as the mesothorax. $.

Length 2f 3 lines.


This species is closely allied to nigrita, but is smaller,
tlie wings are clearer, and not much darker at the
base than at the apex ; there is no horny point in the
second cubital cellule ; the first cubital nervure is
more distinct; the frontal and antennal sutures are
deeper ; the head, legs and sides of abdomen more
densely pilose, and generally the body is more shining.
In the $ the antennae are shorter than in the same
sex in nigrita, the joints are more distinctly separated
and not so flattened, the third joint is decidedly longer
than the fourth, while in nigrita they are equal, the
fifth being if anything longer than the fourth, while
the mesonotum in micans is densely pubescent, and
scarcely so in nigrita ; also in the latter the knees only
are testaceous ; in micans the whole of the anterior
tibiae in front are testaceous.

Seemingly rare. Dairy (Sharp), Manchester (Chap-

Continental distribution: Germany, Holland, France,

Tegulse, pronotum and posterior legs except at the knees, black.
Antennae longer than abdomen, filiform. Wings smoky, third
cubital cellule longer than second ; transverse radial nervure
interstitial. Basal nervure received a little behind the middle
of cellule. Clypeus incised (Species 6).

PI. VII, fig. 3, 3a, 3&, Larva.

Tenthredo geniculata, Big., Blattw., 274, 31 ; Evers., Bull. Mosc.,

xx, 31, 9.

longicornis, Htg., Blattw., 275, 32 ; Evers., I.e., 31, 10.
Monophadnus geniculatus, Kalt., Pfl., 237, 242.
Blennocampa geniculata, Thorns., Op., 282, 11 ; Hym. Sc., i,

218, 21; Cam., Fauna, 26, 13;

Andre, Species, i, 308 ; Cat., 37,* 6.

Deep black, shining ; knees, tibiae in front and base of hinder tibiae,
slightly white. Antenna) filiform, thin, slightly tapering towards the
apex ; the third joint is scarcely longer than the fourth. Wings almost
fuscous ; the radial nervure nearly interstitial ; the nervures, costa and
stigma are black.


The has the antenna) nearly as long as the body, thicker and more
compressed than in the ? , and the knees are black.
Length 2f lines.

This species may be known from fuliginosa (its
nearest ally) by its longer antennae, interstitial tr.
radial nervure and clearly white knees.

The larva I find on Spi/rc&a nimaria in June and
July, while it feeds also on Geum urbanum, Rubus
ccesius and durnetomiu, according to Kaltenbach. The
head is shining, faintly pilose, greenish-yellow, the
yellowish tinge being more intense on the vertex ; the
eye spots are black and the mouth brownish. The
body is dark green, the dorsal canal somewhat darker.
On each segment are two rows of double forked
spines, one being placed somewhat in front of the other.
The spines over the anal segment and also those over
the legs are single, while those on the second segment
are four-spined. The legs are glassy, yellowish-green,
claws brown. Length 5 6 lines. It rests on the
underside of the leaves, eating irregular holes and not
unfrequently reducing them to a skeleton. It pupates
in the earth, and does not appear in the perfect state
till the following spring or early summer. At the last
moult the spines are cast off, and it becomes of a
uniform green colour.

A common species in early summer in Scotland. Mr.
Fletcher takes it at Worcester.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,
Tyrol, Hungary, Russia.

Black ; knees, tibia? and tarsi white. Antenna) short, thick ;
transverse radial nervure received a little beyond middle of
cellule; third cubital cellule much longer than third; tr.
median nervure received a piece in front of middle of cellule.
Accessory nervure in hind wings longly appendiculated.
Clypeus truncated, convex (Species 7).


PL II, fig. 7 and 7 a, Larva; PL XXI, fig. 5, Saw.

Tenthredo albipes, Gmel., N. S., v, 2667, 126 ; King, Berl. Mag.,

viii, 67, 34 ; Htg., Blattw., 272, 23 ;
Evers., Bull. Mosc., xx, 31.
mono, Lep., Mon., 105, 298 (nee Fab).

Selandria albipes, Ste., 111., vii, 49, 19; YolL, Tidj. Ent., t. xiv,

274, pi. xii, figs. 17 ; Kalt., Pfl., 9.

Blennocampa albipes, Thorns., Op., 281, 10 ; Hym. Sc., i, 217,

19; Cam., Fauna, 26, 12; Andre,
Species, i, 313 ; Cat., 38,* 22.

Black, shining ; knees, tibiae and tarsi white ; the apex of posterior
tibiae and joints of tarsus fuscous. Antennae as long as the abdomen,
moderately thick, a little thickened towards the apex ; the third joint
one and three quarter times longer than the fourth ; the rest a little
shorter. Wings almost hyaline ; the second cubital cellule is small,
with a round horny dot ; the third large, not very much dilated at the
apex ; the radial nervure is received a little past the middle of the third
cubital cellule. The saw projects largely, and the blotch is large. $
and (f.

Ab. Tibiae lined internally with black.

Length 2 2| lines.

The colour of the legs, subhyaline wings and the
position of the marginal nervure serve to discriminate
this common species.

The larva, according to the observations of Kalten-
bach and Yollenhoven, feeds on the leaves of Ranun-
culus rep ens and acris. It is sea green throughout,
except on the head which is pale-yellow on the face,
brownish or blackish on the vertex. When fully grown
the head is shining black. Sometimes, according to
Vollenhoven, the larva is more or less orange ; and
when very young, Kaltenbach says that it is whitish
and pilose, the head yellow, with the mouth and eye
spots black to brown. It pupates in the earth, where
it remains till the following spring.

A very common species, found all over the country.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, Hol-
land, France, Switzerland, Tyrol, Russia.


Tegula}, edge of pronotum, knees, tibiae nnd tarsi white or testa-
ceous-white. Antennae usually shorter than abdomen, thickish,
third joint longer than fourth. Clypeus incised slightly at
apex; frontal furrows almost obsolete. Head dilated behind
the eyes, a suture behind them at the middle. Wings hyaline,
third cubital cellule shorter (bipunctata), a little longer (rufi-
cruris), or much longer (lineolata) than second; tr. radial
received a little beyond middle of cellule, or interstitial (rufi-
cruris) tr. median nervure received in front of middle of cellule.
Transverse nervures in hind wings in <$ at edge of wing
(lineolata). Eyes at a slight distance from base of mandibles,
but not so high up as in melanocephalus (Species 7, 8 and 9).

Plate XII, fig. 5, ? .

Tcnthrcdo lineolata, Klug, Bcrl. Mag., viii, 76, 62.

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