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A monograph of the British phytophagous Hymenoptera .. (Volume 2) online

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this colour. Lceta also differs somewhat in habits, it
forming its galls in the leaf -bud and in the leaf -stalk
issuing from it.

The larva of the present species lives in the leaf-
buds of Salix caprea. These become thereby swollen
and a little distorted. Internally they become con-
verted into a green granular matter on which the
larva feeds. The greater part of the inside is devoured,
and when the larva leaves it the greater part of one
side is eaten or at least destroyed to enable the larva
to leave the bud. A thin layer of the green substance
is left next to the outer scale. Some of the larvas
creep into suitably sized twigs, boring their way into


the pith for a little distance, but others drop to the
ground. In my breeding cases they preferred pupating
in corks rather than in the twigs.

The larva is greenish-yellow, the head darker, espe-
cially on the top, mandibles brownish. At the last
moult it became slate coloured, as in the other

It is certainly destructive to Salix caprea. On one
large bush I found nearly every bud occupied by a
larva, and these certainly would produce no leaves
next year. I have often seen branches destroyed by

The Ab. a, c and d were all bred together, and I am
satisfied that they belong to the same species. Ab. b
was not reared, but, apart from the white tegulaB, I
am not able to find any other points of difference, and
in one bred c? the tegulge were greyish.

Common in Clydesdale. The imago in May, the
larvae principally in August, September, and October.


Nematus angustus, Htg., Blattw., 2221 ; Thorns., Hym. Sc., i,

167, 102.

saliceti, var. c, Thorns , Opus., 639.

Cryptocampus angustns, Yoll., Tijd. Ent., xiv, pi. xii ; Andre,
Species, i, 86 ; Cam., Fauna, 45, 3 ; Kalt.,
Pfl., 582 ; "Br. and Zad., Beob. ii. Blattw.
(2), 13, 13.
ater, Br. and Zad., 1. c., 4, 1. ?

Black ; antennae, tegulae, cerci and mandibles light brownish ; knees,
tibiae and tarsi, pallid testaceous ; the apex of coxae, trochanters, base,
and apex of femora, and more or less of apex of abdomen, brownish or
piceous. Clypeus sharply incised in the middle. Antennae shorter
than the abdomen. Wings hyaline, stigma fuscous, white at the

Length 2J 3 lines.

A specimen not distinguishable otherwise from the
form described above, has the tegulaB black, which
seems to be the only differences between the C. ater and


C. angusta of Zaddach. The species compared with E.
nigritarsis has the abdomen longer in proportion to the
head and thorax, the body generally is not so broad, the
antenna3 are, if anything, shorter and lighter coloured
beneath, the legs have a much more testaceous or
brownish tinge. The hind tarsi are not black but
brownish, the cerci are testaceous, and the anal
segment brownish. In one specimen the labrum is

The imago has been often bred from the twigs of
willows, and no doubt the larva is of similar habits to
N. saliceti, or may form galls in the leaf-stalks like E.

Not common, but widely distributed.

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France,


Tenthredo saliceti, Fall., Acta, 1808, 111.
Nematus mucronatus, Htg., Blattw., 223, 2.

saliceti, Thorns., Opus., 639, 55 ; Hym. Sc. i., 167, 101.
Crypto campus saliceti, Andre, Species, i, 88; Cam., Fauna,

45, 2.

gemmarum, Br. and Zad., Schr. ges. Konig.,

xxiv, Taf. 8, fig. 11 (lar. and gall);
Beob. ii. Blattw. (2), 7, 5.

Black ; shining, covered with fuscous pubescence ; labrum, clypeus,
mandibles, the greater part of the space between the antennae,
tegulse, and legs, whitish-testaceous; more or less of the inner and
outer orbits, the apex of abdomen and cerci brownish, base of coxae, a
longer or shorter line on the femora, black ; the apex of hind tibiae and
tarsi obscure fuscous or brownish ; the greater part of the flagellum
reddish beneath, the apex being sometimes entirely of this colour.
Wings hyaline ; costa and stigma fuscous, the latter white at the base.

The < nas the antennas entirely fuscous (these are also darker in tint
than in the $ ) ; the flagellum is almost wholly red, the white on the
oral region is more extended and the femora have more black.

Length 1| 2 lines.

A somewhat variable species. The eyes are some-
times entirely bordered with brown ; the femora are
not unfrequently almost entirely black ; the amount of


the white colour on the mouth varies ; and often the
black on the abdomen has a decidedly brownish or
fuscous tinge, I have also seen specimens in which
the flagellum of the antennae had scarcely a trace of
brown or red, and others with the tegulse fuscous.
The clypeus may be entirely whitish or only so at the
apex. In the $ generally the tegulae are brownish or
fuscous. It is the smallest of our species.

The larva lives in the leaf -buds of Salix aurita, and
in habits scarcely differs from E. nigritarsis. The larva
is greenish-yellow with a more or less brownish head,
fuscous on the top ; mandibles brownish. It enters the
twig from the bud and penetrates 2 or 3 lines into it
for the purpose of passing into a pupa.


Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France.

I have found this autumn, in Cadder Wilderness,
near Glasgow, leaves of Salix caprea with their leaf-
stalks considerably thickened, the swelling extending
from the base to the commencement of the leaf. The
galls were green like the leaf-stalk itself, but some of
the younger ones had a slight reddish tinge in the
centre. Each contained a yellowish-green larva, with
a more or less fuscous-tinted head, black eye-spots, and
brownish mouth. The gall was eaten out almost
entirely, and became towards the end filled with
brownish frass. The larva left it by making an irre-
gular hole, if it pupated in the ground, but some spun
the cocoon inside the leaf-stalk itself.

I hope to rear this species next spring. From the
description of the gall and larva I have no doubt that
it will prove to be E. venusta, Zad. (Beob. ii Blatt.
ii Holzw. (2) p. 6).

06s. Ed. Newman (Ent. Mag., iv, p. 260) describes two species which
he named E. gallce and E. cynips, which I am unable to identify from
his descriptions. Mr. Kirby (List of Hym., i, p. 151) refers the former
to E. saliccti, and the latter he gives as a distinct species. It is not likely
that either of them is distinct from any of the species I have recorded
in the preceding pages.

Jurine (Hym., pi. vi) figures a species of Euura under the name of


Pteronus ater, which Hartig doubtfully referred to aw gusto, -, Mr. Kirby
(List of Hym., i, p. 152) inclines to the opinion that it is pentandrte,
and Kriechbaumer (Mitth. Schw., Ent. Ges., vi, 390) is also of this
opinion. The tegulse and edge of pronotum, however, are quite black,
and the length given rather too small for E. pentandrce. The ater of
Zaddach will prove, 1 think, to be only a var. of E. angusta.


SPIRACLES (p. 19).

The third sentence of this paragraph should read as
follows : " The second is on the mesothorax close to its
junction with the metathorax, the rest are on first (=
fourth body segment) to seventh abdominal segments.


Since the publication of my first volume our know-
ledge of the occurrence of parthenogenesis in saw-flies
has been largely increased, and there seems to be no
doubt that the phenomenon is quite common. Our
additional information may be tabulated as before (see
p. 29).

1. Eggs laid by virgin females produced males in
Emphytus cinctus, L. ; Emphytus viennensis, Schr.
(von Siebold*) ; Cladius padi, (von Siebold and
Cameron), CL pectinicornis, Fourc. (von Siebold) ;
Cl. viminalis (von Siebold), Nematus cadderensis
(Cameron), N. papillosus^ (von Siebold), Nem. conju-
gatus (von Siebold), Nematus coereolocarpus, Htg.
(von Siebold) ; Croesus septentrionalis (von Siebold
and Cameron), Trichiosoma lucorum (Cameron), Ahia
nitens (Cameron), Hylotoma berberidis (von Siebold),
Hyl. rosce (von Siebold), Lophyrus pini (von Siebold
and Cameron).

* Of. Ent. Nachr., x, p. 93-95.
f Probably N. pavidus, Lep.


2. Eggs laid by virgin females yielded males and
females with Alia fasciata (Dr. Osborne* and von
Siebold), Nematus ribesii (von Siebold and Cameron).

3. Eggs laid by virgin females produced females with
Cimbex connata (von Siebold " from the virgin females
without exception only females were bred," lib. cit.,
p. 94), Nematus appendiculatus (Cameron), N. con-
ductus (Cameron), N. gallicola (Adler).

4. Eggs were laid by virgin females of the follow-
ing species, but did not yield imagos. Blennocampa
nigripes (von Siebold), Eriocampa limacina (von Sie-
bold), Cladius ruftpes (Cameron), Nematus ruficornis
(Cameron), Nem. compressicornis (Cameron), Tri-
chiosoma sorbi (von Siebold), Hylotoma ustulata

Dr. Osborne* has made some highly interesting ex-
periments and observations on Abia fasciata. From
larvse gathered outside Dr. Osborne bred flies which,
without any connection with males, laid fertile eggs
abundantly which duly hatched and yielded female
flies the following year. These again laid eggs par-
thenogenetically, but much less freely ; from these were
obtained a third generation of flies which also laid a
few eggs, none of which, however, developed.

In this species the males are very rare compared to
the females. Thus von Siebold bred only five or six
males to hundreds of females from parthenogenetic
eggs (Ent. Nachr., x, p. 94). From larvae collected
outside Dr. Osborne obtained 172 females and only one
male from 282 cocoons, besides 28 which yielded ich-
neumons. During the present year he had 270 cocoons
spun by larvae the produce of parthenogenetic females
reared in confinement from larvae collected outside.
These only produced 100 living flies, 97 females and 3
males, while he found 32 dead females and 3 dead
males, which had perished in the cocoons. From 32
doubly parthenogenetic cocoons Dr. Osborne only
obtained 4 living flies, and in the cocoons found 11
* E. M. M., xix, 97 j xx, 145 and 205 ; and xxi, 128.


more, in all 15 flies, all females. Dr. Osborne had also
9 cocoons produced from presumably fertilised eggs
which yielded 5 living and 3 dead ? flies, only one
larva having perished.

If these observations are normal they show "first,
there is a smaller number of flies excluded alive from
the cocoons ; thus, in the 282, 270, and 32 respectively,
came out 1 in 2, 1 in 27, and 1 in 8, while in the case
of the 9 cocoons from fertilised eggs, more than half
excluded flies, and in all but one of the remainder the
insects had reached the imago state ; secondly, there
is progressive infertility, flies from fresh larvae lay eggs
abundantly, their descendents much more sparingly,
and in the third generation hardly any eggs were pro-
duced ; thirdly, we see a striking increase in the pro-
portion of males in the second generation" (Osborne,
B. M. M., xxi, p. 129). No doubt a certain allowance
must be made for the artificial conditions under which
the larvae were reared, but generally Dr. Osborne's
observations lend support to the views I ventured to
enunciate in the first volume (p. 29), viz., that the
parthenogenetic progeny have not the same vitality as
those which owe their origin to sexual generation.


At p. 162, add-


Tenthredo pratorum, Fall., Acta, 1808, 64, 27.

Tenthredo (Dolerus) equiseti, King., Berl. Mag., viii, 298, 225;

Htg., Blattw., 233, 9.

Dolerus pratorum, Thorns., Hym. Sc., i, 281, 5 ; Andre, Species,

i, 268, Cat. 33*, 7;
Brischke, Beob. ii
Blattw. u. Holz. (2),
43, 5 ; Cam., E. M. M.,
xx, 265.

Black; segments 2 6 of abdomen, femora and tibiae, red. Eyes
oblong, inner orbits margined; third joint of antennae longer than
fourth ; tegulse black, fuscous or white ; labrum white.

Length 4 4^ lines.


Sometimes the clypeus is white, and in one specimen
(a (J ) the flagellum is reddish.

From the two British species with oblong eyes the
red-belted abdomen separates it ; from the other red-
banded species the oblong eyes afford a good distinc-
tion, this being the only red-banded species with eyes
of this form.

Taken by Mr. Edward Saunders at Chobham. It is
not, I believe, a common species, and has been only
recorded from Sweden, Germany, and France.

To Synopsis of Species at p. 231, add

27a (276) Hind legs black, except the knees. Alternipes.

'27 b (27 a) with the tibiae broadly white at base. Suibcana.


As the tf of JB. melanocephala seems to be a puzzle
to many entomologists, I give a full description of it
here :

Black ; abdomen and legs reddish-yellow ; sides of abdomen yellow ;
coxae clear yellow, lined with black at base and at sides ; trochanters
clear yellow, black at base and apex ; four anterior femora marked with
black at the base. The abdominal segments are marked with black
transverse lines, and along the sides is a row of black marks. Palpi
white. Wings sub-hyaline, large, costa and stigma testaceous. First
radial ^ cellule longer than second; second cubital cellule nearly
equal in length to the second above, but much shorter on lower side,
owing to the third transverse cubital nervure having a very oblique
slope ; second recurrent nervure nearly interstitial. In the hind wings
the recurrent nervures are at the edge of the wing. Antennae longer
than the abdomen, thickish, microscopically pilose. Tegulaa white.
Cenchri large, clear white.

Length 3 lines.

At p. 252, add-


Tenthredo (Allantus) alternipes, Klug, Berl. Mag., viii, 67, 42;

Htg., Blattw., 272, 21.


Blennocampa alternipes, Thorns., Hym. So., i, 207, 3 ; Andre,

Species, i, 310 ; Cat.,
38*, 13; Brischke,
Beob. ii Blattw. (2),
80, 31, Taf. v, f. 3,

Black, covered with fuscous pubescence, the knees and anterior tibiae
in front, white ; cerci testaceous. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma
black ; transverse radial nervure interstitial ; second radial cellule a
little longer than first ; second cubital cellule longer than the third on
the upper side, but shorter on the lower owing to the third transverse
cubital nervure having an oblique curve towards the apex, and forming
a very sharp angle with the cubital nervure.
Length 3 lines.

I suspect that this is only a form of B. subcana with
the posterior legs entirely black, for beyond this I
have been unable to find other points of distinction.
If this view be found correct, Zaddach's name will of
course sink.

The larva (teste Brischke, I. c. supra) feeds on the
raspberry in gardens, eating out holes from the under-
sides of the leaves, and living solitarily. It is from 4
44 lines in length, somewhat thickened in front, clear
green, darker on the back through the food canal,
which forms a dark stripe. On each segment stand
two transverse rows of white thorns, which, except on
the last segment, are cleft at the top, the anal segment
having them single. The head is shortly pilose and
dark green with a blackish spot on the vertex running
from one eye to the other. Between the eyes are two
blackish spots ; the mouth region darker. At the
last moult the larva casts off the spines, and becomes
shining green, only the eye-spots being black. The
longish cocoon is spun in the earth.

Not common : Loughton, Essex (T. R. Billups).

Continental distribution : Sweden, Germany, France.

To Synopsis of Species at p. 258, add

6 a (66) Lateral lobes of mesonotum black. Cratacgi.

66 (6 a) Lateral lobes of mesonotum not black. Plagiata.


At p. 261, add-


Tenthredo (Allantus) plagiata, Klug, Beii. Mag., viii, 56, 22 ;

Htg., Blattw., 278, 40.
Hoplocampa plagiata, Andre, Species, i, 324 ; Cat., 41,* 2.

Reddish-yellow; flagellum, metathorax, base of abdomen, apex of
bind tibiae and hind tarsi, blackish. Wings yellowish hyaline, stigma
reddish-yellow. The legs are pallid yellow, almost white. Body im-
punctate, shining.

Length 2| lines.

Is perhaps only a variety of crataegi, as already
suggested ; it differing from it mainly in the mesonotum
bearing no black.

Weybridge (T. R. Billups).

Austria, France.

FENUSA, p. 292.
To Synopsis of Species add

3 (2) Pronotum white.

3 a (36) Wings sub-hyaline, a broad smoky fascia at stigma ; trans-
verse radial nervure not received near third transverse
cubital ; pleurae black, femora black. Quercus.

36 (3 a) Wings sub-hyaline throughout, transverse radial nervure
almost interstitial; pleuras white, femora testaceous.


At p. 296 add

4 a. FENUSA QUERCUS, sp. nov.

Black, shining ; palpi, tegulae, pronotum broadly, knees, tibiae and
tarsi, white. Antennae filiform, as long as the abdomen and metathorax ;
third joint about one-fourth longer than fourth ; the apical joints
brownish beneath. Pentagonal area distinct, frontal sutures well
marked. Pleurae pilose. Abdomen scarcely as long as the head and
thorax, the apex above pilose, pale ; sheath of saw broad, pilose. Wings
large ; costa pale ; stigma fuscous. First radial cellule a little longer
than second; transverse radial nervure curved. First cubital cellule
considerably longer than second; transverse basal nervure almost
interstitial. The hind wings are sub-hyaline, without a fascia. ? .

Length 2 lines.

In its general structure this species comes near F.


hortulana, but that species differs from it markedly in
the coloration of the wings and legs. In the colora-
tion of the latter it agrees with F. pygmcea, but it is
longer than it, has the antennae longer and more fili-
form, the pentagonal area and sutures are much more
clearly defined, the pronotum is broadly bordered with
white, and the wings have a broad, smoky fascia
stretching across from the stigma, the wings in
F. pygmcea being uniformly tinted, except that the
apex is lighter; the eyes of the latter, too, being

This interesting species was discovered by that
indefatigable investigator of insect economy, Mr. J. E.
Fletcher, mining the leaves of the oak near Worcester,
thus being similar in habits to F. pygmcea.


At p. 8, after Pristis, add

Pelmatopus, Htg., Blattw., 244.

At p. 22 add

Synopsis of Species.

1 (2) Tegulse black, edge of pronotum testaceous, legs ochreo- testa-

ceous, wings infuscated. Luridiventris.

2 (1) Tegulse and edge of pronotum white above and beneath ; legs

white, black at the base, wings hyaline. Apicalis.

At p. 23 add


Leptopus apicalis, Brischke, Beob. ii Blattw. (2), 18, 4.

Black, shining, covered all over with greyish pubescence ; palpi, the
tegulse, the edges of the pronotum above and beneath and legs, white ;
the greater part of the coxse, the base of femora black ; the apex of hind
tibiae, apex of metatarsus, the greater part of second and the whole of
the other joints of the hiud tarsi, fuscous ; the long pilose cerci and the


apex of ninth abdominal segment testaceous. Wings hyaline, costa
white, stigma brownish-testaceous. Antennae long, thin, covered closely
with fine pubescence. Clypeus roundly incised, sutures on vertex deep,
vertex obscurely punctured ; front broadly projecting.

The according to Brischke has the palpi brownish, the costa brown,
stigma darker, the legs black, the knees, tibipe, and tarsi clear brownish-
yellow, the last with darker apices of the joints, the last segment, too,
being brownish as in the $ .

Length 3 lines.

Weybridge (T. R. Billups).


In the Entomological Magazine, iv, p. 261, appears
the following note by Mr. Newman : " I have received
specimens of a Croesus from Ireland with the body
entirely black, with the MS. name of Croesus
Stephensii. Mr. Stephens mentions this as a variety,
saying it is probably referable to a distinct species. I
could wish that so fine an insect, with Mr. Stephens'
name attached to it, may prove distinct."

"What this may be I know not. Mr. Kirby (List of
Hymen., i, p. 103) thinks the locality may be wrong,
and that perhaps it may be a North American species,
there being two species in the United States with
the abdomen black.


Page 29, 3rd line from bottom, for Solids read melanocephalus.
61, 3rd line from bottom, for Cceesus read Croesus.
68, 3rd line from top, for three read two.

111, 16th line from bottom, for dorsata read dorsalis.

134, 14th line from top, for luteifrous read luteifrons.

160, 23rd line from bottom, for 19 read 26.

165, 16th line from top, for abietinus read abietina.

190, at top, for maculus read macula.

231, 21st line from top, for (19) read (18).

245, for melanocephalus read melanocephala.

248 and elsewhere, for eppiphium read ephippium.

283, 5th line from bottom, for " fass " read " frass."

313, bottom line, for Scutellarice read Scutellaria.

320, 15th line from top for Zwickan read Zwickau.


Synonyms are printed in italics. Generic names in large type.


Abia fasciata, 218, pi. v, fig. 4 ; pi.

xiii, fig. 1, lar.
nitens, 217, pi. v, fig. 5 ; pi. xi,

fig, 9, lar.
Amasis crassicornis, pi. v, fig. 6, $


alternipes, 220
fuscula, 19
melanocephala, 220
nigripes, 218
purvula, 19
subcana, 220


Healtei, 22

luridiventris, 22, 222, vol. i, pi.
iv, fig. 2, lar. ; pi. xv, fig. 5,
$ , 5 a, antenna ; vol. ii, pi.
xxvii, fig. 4, trophi of larva
CEPHUS arundinis, pi. vii, fig. 3, ?
cynosbati, pi. vii, fig. 1, ?
linearis, pi. vii, fig. 2, $
Cynipidae, habits of, 185
Cynips amerinse, 210
albipes, 33

Brullsei, 26, 35, vol. i, pi. v,
fig. 1, lar. ; vol. ii, pi. xiv,
fig. 2, saw


difformis, 27
Drewseni, 26, 29, 32
eradiatus, 26, 29, 32, pi. xiv,

fig. 3, saw
eucera, 29
Geo/royi, 27
immunis, 33
lacteus, 27
luteicornis, 29
luteiventris, 29
morio, 32
padi, 26, 33, 217, vol. i, pi. v,

fig. 4, lar. ; pi. xv, fig. 4, <J,

pi. xxi, fig. 9, saw; vol. ii,

pi. xxvii, fig. 3, tropni of lar.
pallipes, 33
pectinicornis, 26, 27, 217, vol.

i, pi. xv, figs. 1,^,2,?; vol.

ii, pi. viii, figs. 1, 1 a, lar. ;

pi. xiv, fig. 4, saw
pilicornis, 33
rufipes, 26, 29, 31, 218, pi. ix,

fig. 4, lar.; pi. xiv, fig. 5,


tristis, 35
ulmi, 31
uncinnatus, 31
viminalis, 26, 29, 217, vol. i,

pi. v, fig. 2, lar. ; pi. xv, fig.

3, (? ; vol. ii, pi. xiv, fig. 1,



lutea, pi. xii, figs. 5, 6
sylvarum, pi. v, fig. 1 ; pi. xii,
fig. 3




CLAVELLARIA amerinse, pi. v, fig.

3 ; pi. xii, fig. 4

Brischkii, 41

largipes, 38

laticrux, 38

latipes, 37

septentrionalis, 38, 217, vol. i,

pi. iv, fig. 5, lar. ; pi. xiv, fig.

6, ? ; vol. ii, pi. xxvii, fig. 5,

maxilla of larva
Stephens!!, 224
varus, 37, 42, vol. i, pi. iv, fig.

4, lar.

angustus, 214
ater, 213
gemmarum, 214
mucronatus, 210
pentandra, 210
saliceti, 215



alni, 5

despecta, 11, 19, vol. i, pi. xii,

fig. 4, ? .
flaveola, 13
fuscula, Cam., 19
Hartigii, 12
opaca, 16
pallipes, 16
parvula, 19
rufa, 6

selandriiformis, 11, 18
simulans, 11, 20
stilata, 11, 13, vol. i, pi. iii,

fig. 7, lar. ; pi. xiv, fig. 5, $ ;

vol. ii, pi. xiv, fig. 6, saw
testaceipes, 11, 15, vol. i, pi. iv,

fig. 1, lar. ; vol. ii, pi. xiv,

fig. 7, saw
ventralis, 15
verna, 12, 16, vol. i, pi. xiv,

fig. 4, $ ; 4 a, mandible
virididorsata, 11, 12, vol. i,

pi. iii, fig. 4, lar. ; pi. vi, fig.

12, mandible of larva; pi.

xxi, fig. 7, saw. ; vol. ii, pi.

xxvii, fig. 2, trophi of lar.


fuscicornis, 2
equiseti, 219


palustris, pi. xiii, fig. 5
pratorum, 219


EMPHYTUS cinctus, 217
tibialis, pi. xiii, fig. 2
viennensis, 217
ERIOCAMPA limacina, 218
varipes, pi. xiii, fig. 6
EUURA, 209

angusta, 210, 213

cynips, 215

flavipes, 210, 211

gallse, 215

nigritarsis, 212, pi. viii, fig.

12, lar. ; 12 a, galls
pentandrse, 210, pi. iv, fig. 9,
$ ; 9 a, ant. ; pi. viii, fig. 11,
lar. ; pi. xi, fig. 1, gall ; fig.
6, lar.
saliceti, 210, 214


FENUSA hortulana, 222, pi. xiii,

fig. 8
quercus, 222



alni, 3, vol. i, pi. xiv, fig. 8, ? ;
pi. xxi, fig. 8, saw ; vol. ii,

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