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(fiTCKf)

. 56 7



DAXTER, PKINTtn, OXrOKb,



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PREFACE.



The object of this little work is to furnish those
who are studying history with a manual, by which
they may easily and readily obtain a glance at the
results which the industry and ingenuity of learned
men have deduced as to the situation of the coun->
tries, towns, &c» mentioned in ancient authors ; for
this purpose an Index, as complete as possible, has
been appended to the volume, in which the reader
will find immediate reference to the text for a sum-
mary of whatever the generality of geographers have
admitted to be probable respecting the position of any
place, mountain, or river, the name of which he may
meet with in the Classics. It was not intended here to
canvass the various arguments which, in almost every
question of ancient geography, may be produced
on both sides; such a work would occupy many
volumes, and require the possession of acquirements
and talents which the author does not pretend to :



■m2im? 170099

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vi PREFACE.

his aim has been merely to collect what appears
to him, of all that has been written on these
interesting but difficult subjects, the best calculated
to claim the assent of rational minds : he therefore
disavows any pretensions to originality, and fully
acknowledges, that any merit that may be found in
these pages is due not to him, but to the illustrious
geographers and antiquaries of this and other
countries, whose works he has followed ; more par -
ticularly to the German writers on this science, who
have devoted to it, in late days, a degree of indus-
trious, patient, and ingenious investigation, of which
the examples have been not very frequent since the
death of D'Anville.

But in order that this Introduction may answer
another purpose besides that of reference only, brief
sketches of the general geography, of the products,
of the inhabitants, of their revolutions, will be found
under the head of every country ; thus it is hoped
the reader may, with comparative facility, lay the
foundation in his own mind of a most useful and
indispensable science, the superstructure of which
he will complete at leisure, and to what degree of
perfection his future means and desires shall allow.

Some admonitions on the mode of studying
ancient geography will not therefore be improperly



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PREFACE. vu

placed in these prefatory remarks. The student
should provide himself with two atlasses, one of
the ancient world, and the other of the modern ;
for it must be recollected, that ancient geography
consists in determining, on the world as now known,
the modern appellations and positions of places
mentioned in antiquity, a research which, to be
conducted with a proper degree of accuracy, requires
not only a perfect knowledge of the ancient writers
themselves, but likewise an acquaintance no less ex-
tended with all the (acts which modern geography
displays: ancient geography is therefore closely
connected with, and dependent of, modern geo-
graphy ; these studies must go hand in hand; their
nnnatural separation cannot fail to superinduce
ignorance of either.

The study of the ancient geography of any country
must then be preceded by that of the country
which corresponds to it on the modern map : in this
preparation the attention is to be particularly di-
rected to its natural features ; to its outline, which
ought to be copied until fully impressed on the
memory ; to its mountains — those ramparts of nations
and barriers against invaders — their direction, their
connexion with other ranges in the neighbouring
r^ons, and more particularly their passes or defiles.



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viii PREFACE.

for the understanding of the march of armies, and
the roads of trade and communication by land ; to the
rivers, their size, their capability of being navigated,
and the roads of communication which they throw
open ; to the nature of the coasts, whether abounding
in safe ports, and in inlets running deep inland ; to
its products, and to its means of trade.

The attention is then to be addressed to the
different revolutions which history points out, as
having at sundry periods occurred in this land ; the
settlements there of various races ; its subjection to
some dominant nation ; the introduction of civiliz-
ation and government, and the succession of resi-
dence in towns and villages, to the nomad or roving
state, and to the troglodytic condition of bar-
barians.

Then, comparing the facts stated by the ancient
authors, who have expressly written upon, or slightly
hinted at, the geography of the country under review,
with the data of modern geography, it will be
possible to ascertain with sufficient accuracy the
true geographical nomenclature at any period for
which there is historical authority.

Rivers, mountains, and seas, generally speaking,
have undergone little or no change, since the great
convulsions of the world, which preceded authentic



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PREFACE. ix

history ; they must therefore have been known to
the ancients as well and in many cases better than
to ourselves : the correspondence between ancient
and modem geography, so far as these main features
are concerned, is clearly, and we may almost say
completely, demonstrated, and where discrepancy
arises, it is to be attributed not unfrequently to
the scantiness of our present information. Sufficient
evidence of this fact will be gradually placed before
the reader to convince him of the futility of the
opinion frequent among many, that the ancients
knew but little of geography ; researches made,
comparatively speaking, in our own day have
irrefragably proved the truth of Herodotus, in
almost every tittle of practical information that he
gives us respecting the world as known in his
days.

The case, however, is wholly different with rci.
spect to towns and the works of men ; they are
reared by one generation, swept down by another,
and in some rare instances left to the slow but sure
devastations of time; hence the political face of
countries is perpetually changing ; some hillocks of
bricks now point out the situation of mighty
Babylon ; Sparta is reduced to a few walls traced
with difficulty ; while of other places, once cele-



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X PREFACE.

brated by the tongues of men, not a vestige reoaains.
A map, therefore, that would represent the political
geography of any state at a given period, should
contain only the names of those towns for the
existence of which, at that specified time, sufficient
authority can be produced. However useful a
series of such maps, composed for every distinct
period, would be in the study of history, the mag-
nitude and difficulties of such an undertaking are too
great to admit of its ever being executed, or, if ever
executed, of coming into general use. Geographers,
considering this difficulty, have, in their publications
on the ancient world, generally chosen the period at
which the Roman empire had reached its fullest
extension ; marking on those maps not only the
places then in existence, but also some which had
long ceased to be, and of which, even then, the site
was disputed ; such, for instance, as Troy ; to these
some few are sometimes added, which arose at
later periods.

This observation must be constantly borne in
the mind ; the reader must recollect the period
which he selects for the consideration of the
geography; whether the age of Homer; that of
Herodotus ; the time subsequent to the death
of Alexander; or the period when the Roman



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PREFACE. xi

empire was all-powerful. Great attention, there-
fore, must be paid to the probable dates of the
foundation and destruction of different cities ; and,
in the study of the map, abstraction must be made
of all the places which had ceased to exist, or
had not yet arisen, at the period selected. Thus
the reader will easily perceive, that the map
of Asia, in the time of Herodotus, must have
borne an appearance in its details very different
from that which it had under the successors of
Alexander.

With these admonitions on the proper mode of
study, the reader is left to enter upon the elements
of a science, which, although perhaps at the opening
somewhat tedious and dry, is one of the most noble,
interesting, and useful, which can occupy the mind
of man.



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ANALYSIS.



INTRODUCTION. '^
DiTision of the ancient world into three parts, Europe,
Asia, and Africa. Definition of the Orbis Terrarum

of the Romans. xxi

EUROPE.

General observations on Europe. 1

Spain or Hispaiiia. ^

Lusitania, B

Baetica. 9

Tarraconensis. 10

Islands in the Iberian sea. 13

Gallia Ulterior or Transalpina 14

Gallia Narbonensis or Provincia. Id

Gallia Lugdunensis or Celtica. IB

Gallia Aquitania or Armorica. 20

Gallia Belgica. 21

Cities of the Belgee, &c. of the Helvetii, <Src. 22

Cities in Germania Inferior. 23

Cities in Germania Superior. ibid.

Cities of the Rauraci. 24

Islands north af Gaul, the JnsttldB BritannicaB,

Britannia, 25

Britannia Romana. 26

Britannia Barbara. 28



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xiv ANALYSIS.





Page


Hibernia.


29


Smaller islands about Britain.


ibid.


Italy.


31


Upper Italy or Cisalpine Gaul and l4iguria.


33


Gallia Cisalpina.


ibid.


Gallia Transpadana.


34


Gallia Cispadana.


36


Liguria.


37


Central Italy or Italia Propria.


39


Etruria.


ibid.


Latium.


42


Latium Yetus.


43


Latium Novum.


47


Campania.


ibid.


Umbria.


61


Picenum.


52


Samnium.


53


Lower Italy, or Magna Graecia.


55


Lucania.


M


Bruttium.


58


Apulia.


59


Apulia Daunia.


60


Apulia Peucetia.


61


Calabria.


ibid.


Islands about Italy.


02


Sicily.


ibid.


Sardinia.


67


Corsica.


68


The smaller islands.


70


In the Tyrrhenian sea.


ibid.


In the Sicilian seas.


ibid.


In the Adriatic.


71



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ANALYSIS. XV

Page

Umdft South of the Dauube. 72

Vindelicia. ibid.

Rhaelia. 73

Noricum. 74

Pannonia. 75

Pannonia Superior. 76

Pannonia Inferior. 77

Mcesia. 78

MoBsia Superior. ibid.

Mcesia Inferior. 79

lUjricuin. 81

lUyris Barbara or Romana. ibid.

lapydia. 82

Libumia. ibid.

Dalmatia. ibid.

lUyris Graeca. ibid.

Illyrian islands. 84

Macedonia. 86

Thrace. 92

Achaia or Greece, Helles. 101

Northern Greece. 106

Thessalia. ibid.

Histiaeotis. ibid.

Pelasgriotis. 107

Thessaliotis. 108

Phthiotis. ibid.

Magnesia. 109

Epirus. 110

Chaonia. Ill

Thesprotia. ibid.

Molossis. 112



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XVI



ANALYSIS.




rapt


Central Greece or Hellas.




113


Attica.




ibid.


Megaris.




117


Bceotia.




ibid.


Phocis.




122


Locris.




125


Epicnemidian Locris.




ibid.


Opuntian Locris.




ibid.


Western Locris.




ibid.


Doris.




126


iBtolia.




ibid.


Acamania.




128


The Peloponnesus.




130


Arcadia.




ibid.


Laconica.




132


Messina,




135


£lis.




137


Achaia.




139


Sicyonia.




141


Phliasia.




ibid.


Corinthia.




142


Argolis.




143


Tbe Greek islands.




146


Islands along the coasts.




ibid.


On the west coast.




ibid.


On the south coast.




147


On the east coast.




ibid.


Groups of islands in the ^gtean sea.


149


The Cyclades.




ibid.


The Sporades.




150


Distinct islands, such as Crete,


Cyprus.


1(>2


The Hellenic islands on the coast of Asia




Minor.




153



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ANALYSIS, xrn





VHfi


Lands north of the Danube.


155


Dacia.


ibid.


Dacia Ripensis.


ibid.


Dacia Alpensis.


150


Dacia Mediterranea.


ibid.


Getorum Solitude.


157


Sarmatia Europtea.


ibid.


Chersonesus Taurica.


160


Gemiania.


163


Between the Rhine and the Elbe.


166


Between the Elbe and Vistula.


167


South-Germany.


160


Beyond the Vistula.


ibid.


ASIA.




Southern Asia.


173


Western Asia.


ibid.


Countries within the Euphrates.


174


Asia- Minor.


ibid.


Countries of Asia-Minor.


ibid.


Greek colonies on the coast.


ibid.


Greek cities in the interior.


17B


On the gauth coast.




Cilicia.


179


Paniphylia«


185


Lycia.


180


Caria.


189


Lydia.


192


On the west coast.




Mysia and Troas.


194


Bithynia.


201


Paphlagonia.


208


PontUB.


211


In the centre.




Pisidia and Melyas.


217


b





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xviii ANALYSIS,

Isauria. 2l®

LycaoDia. 220

Phrygia and Galatia. 221

Cappadocia. 228

Armenia Minor. 233

Cataonia. 235

Syria. ' 238

* Upper Syria. ibid.

Coele-Syria. 244

Phoenicia. 246

Cyprui. 249

Pal«»tine. 262

Arabia. 260

Petraea. 263

Deserta. 264

Felix. ibid.

Countries between the Euphrates and Tigris. 268

Mesopotamia. ibid.

Armenia. 270

Babylonia. 273

Countries between the Tigris and Indus. 277

Assyria. ibid.

Susiana. 280

Persis. 281

Carmania. 283

Gedrosia. ibid.

Media. 284

North-Media. 286

Atropatene. 286

Great Media. ibid.

Aria. 287

Arachosia. 288

Partbia. 289



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ANALYSIS. xix

Paf«

Parthyea. ibid.

Hyrcania. 200

Bactria. 203

Sogdiana. 205

Sace. 206

Soiith-Easteni Asia. 20B

India intra Gangenm. 302

India extra Gagem. 307

Cenlral Asia. 310

Sarmatia Asiatca. ibid.

Caucasus. 314

Colchis. 316

Iberia. 31^

Albania. 317

Scythia. "bid.

Intra Imauni. 318

Extra Imauni« 320

Serica. 322

Northern Asia. 326



Egypt



AFRICA.

333

Upper Egypt. 33B

Central Egypt. 341

Lower Egypt. 343

East Coast of Africa to the unknown regions. 347

Ethiopia. 361

Kingdom of Ax ume. 362

Kingdom of Meroe. 364

Marmarica. 368



Cyrenaica. 360



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XX ANALYSIS.

The Carthaginian Territory. 361

Regio Syrtica. ibid.

Regio Byzacena. 303

Regio Zeugitana. 363

Numidia. 366

Mauretania. 368

Caesariensis. ibid.

Tingitana. 369

Islands about the north of Africa, and th« Mediterranean,

and in the Atlantic. 370



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INTRODUCTION.



\



The inhabited and known world was divided by
the ancients (with the exception of Herodotus) into
three parts, Asia, Libya or Africa, and Europa.
The Hellespont, Thracian Bosporus, and the Pontus
Euxinus, and higher up the Tanais and Phasis, con-
stituted the boundaries of Europe and Asia. Be-
tween Asia and Africa, the Nile was regarded as
the boundary, (Egypt being however reckoned as
belonging to Asia,) or an imaginary line drawn be-
tween the two, or, as in Ptolemy after Herodotus,
the isthmus between the Mediterranean and Red
seas. America and Polynesia were both unknown
in antiquity.

The general boundaries of the Roman empire —
of their Orbis terrarum, surrounding the Mediter-
ranean, although at certain periods extended still
farther — were, in the time of the Emperors, the
Rhine and Danube, in Europe ; the Euphrates and
Syrian desert, in Asia ; the Sandy Desert or Zahara,
in Africa. It contained therefore the finest countries
of the three quarters of the world. In Europe,
it stretched over Spain and Portugal, France, the



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xxii INTRODUCTION.

British islands, Switzerland, Italy, with Sicily,
/Sardinia, and Corsica, &c. the countries south of
the Danube, namely, Vindelicia, Rhaetia, Noricum,
Upper and Lower Pannonia, Upper and Lower
Moesia, Illyricum, Macedonia, Thrace, Greece;
and under Trajan, Dacia, also north of the Danube.
In Asia it comprised Asia-Minor, Syria, and
Phoenicia, the island of Cyprus, and Judaea ; under
Trajan it extended over Armenia and Mesopotamia,
beyond the Euphrates. In Africa, the Roman
dominion extended over Egypt, Cyrenaica, Africa,
Numidia, and Mauretania, that is to say, over the
whole of the north of Africa.

The Romans had communication of some kind
or other with all the other parts of the known world.
With Asia we have become geographically ac-
quainted by means of the caravans, at least so
far as war is not concerned ; these caravans tra-
velled from the Volga, over the laxartes, to the
Comedi mountains, through the country of the
Sacae, to the Stone Tower, and from thence across
the desert of Shamo to Sera in China : other cara-
vans crossed over Armenia, through Parthia, Bac-
triana, and Sogdiana, to the Stone Tower, and
then on to China : by these caravans the wares of
the east were brought to Constantinople, and there
shipped for exportation. Another famous caravan
road proceeded from Phoenicia, through Palmyra to
Babylonia, and so on to India, where it joined
another road leading through Thibet to Sera. All
these roads were the scene of great commercial



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K INTRODUCTION. iixiii

/ activity. By sea the principal road of trade ws)s
from the Red sea, Persian gulf, and from Ethiopia^
to India. We must likewise take notice of the
caravan roads leading from the Don into Siberia,
fix)m India to the Imaus, and from Sera northwards.
Similar caravan roads, which we shall elsewhere
describe, have brought us acquainted with the interior
of Africa.



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EUROPE.



\

This quarter of the world, visited and colonized at an
early period by the Phoenicians, (such appears to be the
real meaning of the fable of the Rape of Euro^) lies
afasost wholly in the temperate zone* The name, ori'>>
ginally confined to a district of Thrace, extended to4Ke~
whole- continent, and is still preserved. The inhabitants ^^ ^
of this r^on, by the efforts of the Hellenes or Greeks, and
the victories of Alexander the Great over the Asiatics,
first obtained the dominion of the world : civilization ori*
ginated among the Europeans with the Greeks, to whom
we are indebted for the fine arts and strict sciences : from
the Romans, the next nation conspicuous in the history of
Europe, and the inheritors of Grecian civilization, we bor.
rowed our superiority in legislature, polity, and the art
military ; all of which, fostered by the benign influence of
Christianity, have raised this quarter of the earth to the
first rank in the world. Before we enter upon a descrip*
tion of Europe as known to the ancients, we purpose to
sketdi the main feature of its physical geography, as deter^
mined by modem science and discovery.

Europe, then, is bounded on three sides by sea ; it may
therefore be considered as a peninsula ; eastward it abuts
on Asia, from which it is divided by a line drawn from the
mouth of the Don or ancient Tanais, along the lower
course of that river, and the Ural mountains, not clearly /
dislingaished in antiquity. /

The seas and numerous gulfs, by which the European/
peninsula is washed, constitute one of the characterist^Q

/

^ I



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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

fj^tures of this part of the world ; no such vast bodies of
irater penetrating deep inland are found in Asia or Africa,
^or even in the New World : their influence on the tempe-
rature, which they render humid and variable, is sensible ;
they serve to assist communication and trade ; conjointly
with the mountain chainsi they form barriers to defend the
independence of nations. On the west lies that wide sea,
till the time of Columbus unpassed, by which the Old
World is divided from the New. In the north we find the
Arctic ocean, with that deep and frozen inlet known by the
name of the White Sea. Descending from the high north,
we enter, below Cape Stat in Norway, a gulf called the
North Sea, extending from the Shetland isles, to the straits
of Dover and coast of England; and to the entrance of the
channel which lies between Denmark, Norway, and Swe-
den, three small straits leave openings for communication
with the Mediterranean of the north, the Baltic, in which
we distinguish the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. Re-
turning on our steps, we pass the straits of Dover, and
enter the British dbannel, narrow and of little depth, but
exposed to the winds and tides of the Atlantic ; we cross
the Bay of Biscay, and, sailing through the straits of
Gibraltar, find ourselves on the Mediterranean sea. The
western portion of the Mediterranean ends at Cape Bon
and Messina, being itself divided into two unequal parts
by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia ; the more western
portion is sometimes distinguished by the name of the gulf
of Grenoa or Lyons ; the eastern portion, or sea of Italy, is
scattered with volcanic islands, connected, no doubt, with
the common focus which feeds the fires of Vesuvius and
Mtnfu The second or eastern division of the Mediterra-j
nean, nearly double in extent of the former, stretcheti
uninterrupted from the coasts of Sicily and Tunis to those
of Syria and Egypt In the north of the Mediterranean
are found two inlets, celebrated in history, and important
in geography; they are the Adriatic and Archipelago; Um
latter, covered with groups of islands, floating over the
crater of some vast volcano, the fires of which have been



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ON EUROPE. 3

extinguished by the waters of the iGgsean. But the most
remarkable of the seas connected with the Mediterranean
is the Euxine or Black Sea, the magnificent entrance to
which is formed by the strait of the Dardanelles or



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