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Archives, Case 2-C3), telling him he need not be troubled over Propaganda's attitude
towards the American restoration — "de internis Praetor non judicat!", he writes.
Again, on August 9, 1807, Brzozowski wrote to Carroll about his great hopes for
the American branch of the Society; the novices were to be placed in the care of the
wisest of the new members, and the "doors were to be opened wide" to receive all
who wished to join the Society {Ibid., Case 2-C4). The opinion of Father Strickland
on Propaganda's attitude is expressed in a letter to Carroll, dated London, December
16, 1808 {Ibid., Case 8-C3) — "Propaganda is a public tribunal and could not accept
the vivae vocis oraculum, but would have to have official documents of a legal value;
moreover, if Propaganda recognized the Society, certain properties which the Sacred
Congregation has confiscated, would have to be restored, particularly in the East."

Society of Jesus 553

Cathedral from 1786- 1807; and he had experienced the peculiar
bent of Charles Neale's character in several matters of importance,
particularly in his influence over the Carmelite nuns at Port
Tobacco. But he had no illusions about any of these men. Of
Molyneux, he wrote to Plowden, at the time of the former's
death (December 9, 1808) :

About the beginning of last December, I advised you of the apprehen-
sion I was then under, of dailj' hearing of the death of our old, good,
and much respected friend, Mr. Robt. Molyneux, which event took place
at Georgetown on the 9th of that month, after his being prepared by a
life of candor, virtue and innocence, and by all those helps, which are
mercifully ordained for the comfort and advantage of departing Chris-
tians. Not only your charity, but your friendship for him, with whom
you passed so many cheerful and happy days of your life, will induce
you to recommend very often his soul to the Father of mercies. He was
my oldest friend, after my relation and companion to St. Omcrs in my
childhood, Mr. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who remains among us. As
he often and feelingly reminded me the first time I saw him, in the
month of September, there were very slender hopes of meeting more in this
world. R. I. P. No successor in the presidency of the College is yet
appointed. Previous to his death, in consequence of powers vested in him
by the proper authority, he had appointed Mr. Chas. Neale to be the
Superior of the body lately revived among us.^^

Father John Bolton and Sylvester Boarman soon joined the
revived community, and to aid the new Province, the Father-
General Brzozowski, sent over some foreign Jesuits : Father Adam
Britt, S. J. ; John Henry, S. J. ; Francis Maleve, S. J. ; Anthony
Kohlmann, S. J., and Peter Epinette, S. J."*^ The danger of a
conflict over property rights and transfer was avoided by an

" Stonyhurst Transcripts.

" Strickland to Carroll, London, August i6, 1806 {Baltimore Cathedral Archives,
Case 8-Dio). Fathers Britt, Henry and Maleve came out first, and were followed
later by Fathers Kohlmann and F,pinettc. The six priests were admitted into the
Select Body of the Clergy on Septemher i, 1807 (Hughes, op. cit., Documents, vol. i,
part ii, p. 871. This action was nullified by the Corporation on May 12, 1808, on the
ground that the six priests were foreigners, and as such were not recognized as
beneficiaries by the Maryland laws. It would be asking too much of the American
ex-Jesuits to have been thoroughly in harmony with these new foreign members of the
revived Society. Grassi, in his Mcmorie, tells us that many of those who joined the
American Jesuits at this period (1805-1817) were former members of other religious
Orders (pp. 33-37). These prie.sts were immediately dispatched by Carroll to different
parts of his Diocese. Father-General Brzozowski wrote to Carroll from Russia on
August 18, 1808, congratulating him on the division of the Diocese of Baltimore and
regretting that the troubled condition of Europe had prevented him from sending more
Jesuits to the American group {Baltimore Cathedral Archives, Case 2-Cs).

554 ^^^ ^^/^ ^^^ Times of John Carroll

agreement signed by Carroll and Molyneux (September 20,
1805) whereby under certain conditions the Society re-entered
into possession of the old estates, some of which dated back to
the time of the early Calverts. Bishop Carroll was to receive an
annuity, allotted to him from the estates, which were to remain
perpetual and inalienable.''^ This arrangement lasted until the
time of Marechal, when around it was centered for a time a no-
torious controversy, the last echoes of which do not seem yet to
have died away.

The eminent Sulpician, Father Anthony Garnier, who had
returned to France in 1803, with characteristic bonhomie wrote
to Bishop Carroll about this time (January 17, 1806) :

Je vous fais bien sincerement mon compliment de retablissement de la
tres sainte et tres utile Compagnie de Jesus dans votre diocese. C'est
elle qui la premiere a jete le fondement de la foi dans vos contrees, c'est
a elle qu'il appartient de I'etablir et de le consolider. Puisse-t-elle se
retablir dans toute sa f erveur primitive I Puisse-t-elle produire de nou-
veaux Frangois-Xaviers propres a la maintenir et a I'^tendre dans
I'immense diocese que la divine Providence vous a confiee."*

To prepare Francis Xaviers — men of learning, of erudition
even, who would obey in the simplicity of their sanctity the voice
of the Superior who should send them out to convert the world
in the name of Christ — required the very thing Bishop Carroll
feared could not then be given, namely, that special training in
the novitiate in which the true follower of St. Ignatius Loyola is
formed to the Founder's spirit and ideal. The condition of the
little band who had set their hands to the task of bringing life
back to the Society was a lame and crippled one, and the com-
mencement of the business, — to use Charles Sewall's phrase —
was "perfectly awkward." A novitiate was opened at George-
town with Father Charles Neale as novice-master, and Carroll
accounts in his letter of April 2, 1806, to Strickland, for eleven
novices, scholastics, and lay coadjutors. Amongst the novices and
scholastics there were some young men of brilliant talents. When

^^ These articles of agreement will be found in Hughes, /. c, pp. 929930. The
two parties agreed that the properties had now been vested in the restored Society, that
Carroll's annuity as Superior, that is, as Bishop, would continue, and that the said
annuity should be attached in perpetuity to the See of Baltimore.

" Georgetown College Archives, Shea Collection, printed in Hughes, /. c, p. 822

Society of Jesus 555

Father Molyneux, the first Superior, was dying (December 8,
1808) he named Charles Neale as Superior and Father-General
Brzozowski '" confirmed this appointment, making him Superior
on September 13, 1809. If we are to accept the word of Father
John Grassi, whose Memoir on the restored Society of Jesus in
the United States (1810-1817) is one of the literary sources for
this period, there never had been a strong bond of affection be-
tween Bishop Carroll and Charles Neale, and considerable friction
seems to have arisen between them (1808) owing to the Jesuit
Superior's action in removing at will the priests who belonged
to his community. Strictly speaking, if the Society in the United
States had been given full canonical existence in 1806, as it was
in 1814, Father Neale was within his rights in using his subjects
to what he considered the best advantage. But during those eight
years of its private (foro intcrno) reestablishment. Archbishop
Carroll could not help taking offense at actions which objectively
at least were a derogation of his episcopal jurisdiction. Apologies
were made to the Metropolitan of Baltimore by Brzozowski, who
also wrote a warning letter to Neale, and later relieved him of his
post to make way for Father John Grassi, S. J., who had arrived
in 181 1. The point at issue was, however, something more impor-
tant than mere personal dislike, which Carroll certainly had for
Charles Neale. It was the regulation passed liy the bishops in the
Meeting of 1810 regarding priests who are members of secular
or regular Congregations : namely, that once they have been en-
trusted to the care of souls in a specified locality, they ought not
to be recalled against the will of the bishop. This was a protec-
tive measure highly necessary in the condition of the Church here,
where priests were so few in number. It was Neale's imprudent
use of his powers as Superior in removing Father Adam Britt,
S. J., from Holy Trinity Church, Philadelphia, which finally
aroused Carroll and caused him to write to the Father-General
suggesting that some one else be appointed as Jesuit Superior in
the United States.^" Father Brzozowski's letter (November 20,

"* Father-General Gruber died on April 7, 1803, according to Brzozowski — letter
to Carroll, May 12, 1805 {Baltimore Cahcdral Archives, Case I-Pj). Father-General
Brzozowski's appointment is mentioned in a letter to Carroll from Strickland, November
4, 180S (Ibid., Case 8-D6), who added in a postcript: "How to pronounce his name,
I know notl"

** The Britt-Carroll correspondence will be found in the BaJtimort Caihedral

556 The Life and Times of John Carroll

181 1 ) relieving Neale and appointing Grassi, says that Father
Kohhnann would have been given the post, but that he was
needed in New York.

The most remarkable of the Jesuits sent from Europe by the
General was Father Anthony Kohlmann, whose career in Amer-
ica and in Europe as a teacher and missionary places liim above all
who belonged to the American Province during his time here.
Bishop Carroll quickly saw the brilliant qualities of Father Kohl-
mann and used him to bring peace to the factions in the churches
of Baltimore and Philadelphia. When Bishop Concanen advised
Archbishop Carroll of his inability to set out for America, Father
Kohlmann was sent to New York as administrator and vicar-
general during the interim, which lasted until Bishop Connolly's
arrival in 1815." Here in 1808-09 he began a classical school,
called the New York Literary Institute, on the present site of
St. Patrick's Cathedral. Plis stay in New York is equally re-
markable for the famous decision in a confessional case, to the
effect that confessions of penitents were inviolable and could not
be revealed in court.^^ In 18 15, Father Kohlmann returned to
Georgetown and became master of novices. Two years later he
was appointed Superior, and in 1824, when the Gregorian Uni-
versity was reopened in Rome, he was recalled to take the chair of
dogmatic theology. One of his pupils was Joachim Pecci, later
Leo XIII. He died in Rome on April 11, 1836.

The imprisonment of Pope Pius VII and the partial disorgan-
ization of business routine at Rome, together with the blockade of
European ports and the War of 1812 between England and the
United States, caused an almost complete stoppage of letters at
this time ; in a way, this was not an evil to the Church in America,
or to the restored Society. The leaders, the priests and the laymen
who were officials in church temporalities, were thus thrown
upon their own resources, and were forced to fight their way

Archives, Case 2-A1-18. Carroll's letters to the Father-General on Neale's acts are in
the same Archives, Case 2-C7 (September 11, 1808), Case 2-C9 (October 18, 1812).

" Baltimore Cathedral Archives, Case 2-C7.

^* Sampson, The Catholic Question in America (New York, 1813), contains in
an appendix the report of this first legal tilt over the seal of the confessional. The
book aroused considerable controversy, to which Kohlmann replied in 1821, with his
U nitarianism. Theologically and Philosophically Considered. Cf. Finotti, Bibliographia
Catholica Americana, pp. 232-234. Boston, 1872; Brownson's Quarterly Review, vol. ii,
July, 1846.

Society of Jesus 557

through difficulties which outside advice or guidance might only
have made more complicated and, perhaps, insoluble.

The College of Georgetown which had passed over to the So-
ciety of Jesus, at its partial restoration here, began to flourish
under Father John Grassi's rectorship (1811-1817). Carroll
writes to Plowden, on December 12, 1813: "Mr, Grassi has re-
vived the College of G. Town which has received great improve-
ment in the number of students, and course of studies. His pre-
decessor (Father Francis Neale, S. J.) with the same good inten-
tions had no ability for his station, and was nominated by a
strange combination. There are, I think, nine or ten novices under
a Fr. Beschter of Flanders, a very holy man, but one, in whom
the want of a regular education in the Society is very discern-
ible." '" The novitiate was removed from Georgetown to St.
Inigoes, in 1812. The danger of British invasion and other rea-
sons led the Fathers to prepare the house at Whitemarsh for the
novices. "" The Whitemarsh plantation had been placed under the
care of Father Germain Bitouzey, in 1801. Father Bitouzey soon
acquired considerable influence in the Corporation of the Clergy,
being elected one of the Trustees (1802). He had little love for
the leaders of the American Jesuits, whom he contemptuously
referred to as "the Russians," and the Society found it difficult
to induce him to give up the Whitemarsh plantation, Bitouzey's
letters are filled with indignation against the restored Society and
he refused to yield possession of Whitemarsh on the score that
the Society had not been reestablished in the United States,^^
Bishop Carroll realized the unpleasant effect not only of Bitou-
zey's attitude, but of Grassi's insistence upon the Society's rights
over the old Jesuit houses. He writes on October 16, 181 3 :

Let me beseech you to recommend to the members of the Society to
follow the instructions of the Very Rev. Father-General, and convince
themselves that they have not, and cannot have yet, any corporate right
in the ecclesiastical property of this country. I see, methinks, a cloud
gathering and raised up by some anti-Jesuitical clergymen of different

"• Stonyhurst Transcripts.

•* Cf. Hughes, op. cit., Documents, vol. i, part i, pp. 366-363, part ii, pp. 839-842.

" Baltimore Cathedral Archives, Case I-R5-9. For Grassi's comments on the
foreign Jesuits (Mcmorie sulla Compagnia di GesA, ristabilita ncgli Stali Uiiiti
deW America Settcntrionale, pp. 24-37), sec Hvches, op. cit., Documents, vol. i,
part ii, p. 866, note 144.

558 The Life and Times of John Carroll

nations among us, which threatens much trouble, if they can raise it; but
their enmity would give me little alarm, if it were not vitiated more and
more by the presumptuous language and premature pretensions of some of
your subjects.*'^

A week later, Carroll again warned Grassi (October 25, 18 13)
that his impetuous desire for the immediate management of the
old Jesuit temporalities would kindle a flame of resentment against
the Society ; and he warns the Jesuit Superior to proceed with
the utmost legal caution.*'^ Father Bitouzey resigned (October
26, 1813), and the novices finally reached Whitemarsh after
staying for a period at Georgetown and at Frederick (1812-1814).

Archbishop Carroll's letter of January 31, 1814, to Father
Stone, the English Superior is of the highest importance for the
proper appraisal of the relations between the See of Baltimore
and the Jesuits down to Carroll's death, in 1815:

Rev. and respected Sir,

At the time of receiving the last letter from my Venerable friend,
Mr. Strickland, began by him, and in consequence of his illness finished
by you, hostilities broke out between our two countries, and rendered
the conveyance of letters so uncertain, that I did not presume to answer
you on the interesting subject, on which you did me the honour to ask
my opinion. Before touching on it at present I must first express my
real uneasiness at not hearing more concerning our common highly valued
friend, tho within the last three last months Mr. Grassi had had letters
from Stonyhurst, and I likewise from both Messrs. Charles and Robt.
Plowden. All of these contain a mortuary list of our Brethren, but
nothing of Mr. Strickland, which encourages me to hope, not only that
he lives, but likewise so as to enjoy comfort, to continue, to a certain
degree, his accustomed usefulness.

On the subject, about which you were pleased to advise with me, I
presume, that our friends in England are precisely in the same state, as
we are here ; that is, that nothing has been done for annulling and
repealing the destroying Brief of Clement 14th. with equal authority,
publicity and authenticity; as was given to that Pontiff's act, which had
its full execution in all coimtries where it was published. Even the mem-
bers of the Society, namely those at Liege, in Flanders, in England and
here entered their free, tho certainly reluctant submission to it. Review-
ing the severe injunctions contained in the Brief, the censures on the
Ordinaires, who allow, and the individuals who attempt its violation, it
seems to me, that without a derogation from it by an act of equal author-

•* Hughes, /. c, part i, p. 367.
«» Ibid., p. 368,

Society of Jesus 559

ity, and quite as authentic; those, who with you and us, bind themselves
by vow to live under the obedience of the Genl. in Russia, or to conform
to the rules of the Society, will nor can be a religious body, or enjoy
the privileges of such. Their sacrifice is highly meritorious before God,
but in the face of the Church, those, who enter into Orders, and those
who are already in thcni, must be subject to the general discipline as to
their title for ordination, and be, as secular priests under the authority of
the Bishops. This has been declared by Fr. Czerniewicz, in his letter to
Mr. Jn. Howard at Liege, Fr. Grubcr and the present Genl, in their com-
munications to me, copy of which would now be forwarded, if I were
not confident that you have received such already. Tho these restraints
diminish much the usefulness of our Dear Brethren, and may discourage
some from making the sacrifice mentioned above, yet it is a misfortune, to
which submission is due, as long as it pleases God to keep us under it,
which I trust will not be long.

This matter has often engaged my very serious attention, and caused me
to refer to the authorities of the ablest Divines, from whom many extracts
were occasionally made to aid my judgment. I have sometimes hoped,
that these researches would lead to a different conclusion, but I am sorry
to say that they all ended in confirming the opinion already expressed.
Wherever the Brief was executed, the Society was extinguished ; and to
revive it, the same authority was requisite, as for the creation and appro-
bation of a new Order. In Russian Poland, the Brief was not executed
by the competent authority. But where fresh authority has not been
authentically exercised, I cannot reconcile with the doctrine of our Divines,
how the difference between simple and solemn vows, can be established;
how any who embrace the Society here or in England can be Professi
quatluor votoruni; and consequently, how the Society can exist, unless
there be professed Frs. What must then be the meaning of that part
of the first vows, pro)iiitto candcm Societatcm tne ingressuruui etc? With
these impressions on my mind and the recollection of the solemn orders
of his Holiness contained in the Briefs for my Consecration, the erection
of this, and other Episcopal Sees in the United States, my obligation to be
subject to the commands of Congn de Propgda fide etc. I never could
persuade myself to admit that our young men, who associate themselves
to the Society, can be admitted to Orders, titulo rcUgionis: they are
ordained titulo missionis under the authority of the Ordinary — As long
as I and my Coadjutor, Bishop Neale continue alive, there will be little
or no inconvenience ; for we shall always act in harmony with the
Superior of the Society ; but in England I am sensible that this must
be a disagreeable situation.***

During Father Grassi's rectorship the college was raised by
an Act of Congress to the rank of a university (March i, 1815),
and from his day down to the present, it has never lost its place

•* Stonyhurst Transcripts.

560 The Life and Times of John Carroll

of eminence in the educational life of the United States. Father
Grassi returned to Rome in 181 7, succeeding to high posts in
the Society, among which was the rectorship of the Collegio
Urbano. He died at Rome, December 12, 1849.

On December 7, 1814, Archbishop Carroll had the happiness
of receiving a copy of the Bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum
(August 7, 1814) which restored in full canonical form the So-
ciety of Jesus throughout the world. That night he dispatched
it to Father Grassi, at Georgetown. Laudcmus Deum et exultemus
in eo, Carroll wrote to Grassi on December lo-ii, 1814.^^ It was
the end of all of his fears that the partial reestablishment in
Russia, the Two Sicilies, England and America would not last,
and in a pardonable burst of enthusiasm he proposed to the Jesuit
superior the rather impractical suggestion of a meeting between
the ordinaries of the United States and the head of the Society
of Jesus here. He proposed also to publish a Pastoral to the
Catholics of the United States, calling to their attention the pro-
found meaning of the memorable event. Many eloquent pages
of jubiliation were written by the members of the Society during
these last weeks of the old year 181 4. Dr. Carroll's letter to
Father Plowden on receiving an authentic copy (January 5, 1815)
of the Sollicitudo reflects the joy felt in the United States at the
news of the Restoration :

My dear and respected Sir,

Your most precious and grateful favour of Octr. 8th accompanied by a
copy of the bull of restoration was received early in Deer., and diffused
the greatest sensation of joy and thanksgiving not only amongst the
surviving and new members of the Society, but also all good Christians,
who have any remembrance of their services, or heard of the unjust
and cruel treatment, and have witnessed the consequences of their sup-
pression; but your letter of Sepr. 27, to which you refer, has not been
received, nor any other copy of the bull, nor a scrip of paper from Rome,
since the Pope's delivery, tho I have written by various ways, and the
last time, inclosed my letters to the Nuncio at Paris. You, who know
Rome, may conceive my sensations, when I read the account transmitted
in your most pleasing letter, of the celebration and mass by his Holiness
himself at the superb altar of St. Ign. at the Gesii ; the assemblage of the

*^ Cf. Hughes, /. c, pp. 846-847. There is a contemporary account (by Mar^chal?)
of the condition of the Society in the United States, in the Baltimore Cathedral
Archives, Letter-Books, vol. i, p. 105. See Fenwick's letter to Grassi in Camfbxll,
The Jesuits, p. 705.

Society of Jesus 561

surviving Jesuits in the Chapel to hear the proclamation of their resurrec-
tion; the decree for the restitution of the residence in life and the scene
of the death of their Patriarch of the Novitiate of S. Andrew, its most
enchanting church, and the lovely monument and chapel of S. Stanislaus,
which I fondly hope have escaped the fangs of rapine and devastation.
Is there no hope, that these acts of justice and religion will be followed
by the restoration likewise of the Roman College, the magnificent Church
of S. Ignatius, and the wonderful monument of S. Aloysius? If as I
believe, these were appropriated not to private uses, but became the public
University of the City and Diocese of Rome, they will be restored to
their former owners with less difficulty. But how many years must pass
before these houses will be repeopled by such men as we have known and
whom sanctity of manner, zeal for the divine glory, science, eloquence
and talents of every kind rendered worthy of being the instruments of
divine providence to illustrate his church, maintain its faith, and instruct
all ranks of human society in all the duties of their respective stations.
When I consider the length of preparation required to renew this race
of men, my apprehensions is, that the friends of the Society will be too
precipitate, too hasty in expecting benefits from it, before its pupils will
be mature enough to produce them. I was sorry to notice, that you ap-
prehend opposition in England to its existence there and of course in
Ireland, notwithstanding the favorable disposition of the Irish Bishops.

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