Raw cotton, home grown . . . 293,000 1,225,000
FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
Cottons, spinning . .
,, printing and dyeing
. 7,410,000 18,760,000
. 9,970,000 22,230,000
. 6,110,000 7,280,000
C. IRON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY.
The following tables will give some idea of the growth of
mining and metallurgy in Germany.
The extraction of minerals in the German Empire, in
metric tons, which are very little smaller than the English
ton (0.984), was:
76 773 OOO
Mineral salts (chiefly potash) . .
Half finished and finished iron and
Imports of iron and steel .
Exports of same ....
Total home consumption of pig iron,
iron and steel ....
Do. per head of population
Production of same per head of
For the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg the proportion is
still more striking :
Iron ore raised
Pig iron produced (1871) .
Steel, begun to be produced in 1886
Workmen employed ....
(From the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, vol. xlviii., 1895,
D. MACHINERY IN GERMANY.
The growth of the productive powers in Germany is best
illustrated by the development of machinery. In the year
1879 Prussia had 29,985 standing engines (887,780 horse-
power), 5442 moving engines (47,100 horse-power), and 623
engines on ships (50,310 horse-power). Total, 35,960
engines (985,190 horse-power). Fifteen years later the re-
spective figures were: 57,224 standing (2,172,250 horse-
power), 14,425 moving (147,130 horse-power), and 1726 on
ships (219,770 horse-power). Total, 73,375 engines
( 2 >539> I 5 horse-power).
Same increase in Bavaria. In 1879, 2411 standing engines
(70,680 horse-power), 892 moving (5520 horse-power), and 98
on ships (2860 horse-power). Total, 3401 engines (79,060
horse-power). In 1889 there were 3819 standing engines
(124,680 horse-power), 2021 moving (13,730 horse-power),
and 38 on ships (4370 horse-power). Total, 5868 engines
For the German Empire Prof. Lexis estimated the total
of all engines in 1879 at 65,170 engines, 4,510,640 horse-
power. In 1892 the aggregate horse-power was 7,200,000,
namely, 2,500,000 horse-power in standing engines, 4,200,000
in moving, and 500,000 on ships (Schmoller's Jakrbuch, xix.,
i-> P- 275).
The rapid progress in the fabrication of machinery in
Germany is still better seen from the growth of the German
exports as shown by the following table :
Machines and parts thereof . .2,450,000 3,215,000
Sewing-machines and parts thereof . 315,000 430,000
Locomotives and locomobiles . . 280,000 420,000
Every one knows that part of the German sewing-machines
and a considerable amount of tools find their way even into
this country, and that German tools are plainly recommended
in English books.
224 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
E. COTTON INDUSTRY IN GERMANY.
Dr. G. Schulze-Gaewernitz, in his excellent work, The
Cotton Trade in England and on the Continent (English trans-
lation by Oscar S. Hall, London, 1895), calls attention to the
fact that Germany has certainly not yet attained, in her cotton
industry, the high technical level of development attained
by England; but he shows also the progress lately realised.
The cost of each yard of plain cotton, notwithstanding low
wages and long hours, is still greater in Germany than in
England, as seen from the following tables. Taking a cer-
tain quality of plain cotton in both countries, he gives (p.
151, German edition) the following comparative figures:
Hours of labour 9 hours 12 hours
Average weekly earnings of the opera-
tives i6s. 3d. us. 8d.
Yards woven per week per operative . 706 yards 466 yards
Cost per yard of cotton . . . o.275d. o.303d.
But he remarks also that in all sorts of printed cottons, in
which fancy, colours and invention play a predominant part,
the advantages are entirely on the side of the smaller German
In the spinning mills the advantages, on the contrary, con-
tinue to remain entirely on the side of England, the numbei
of operatives per 1000 spindles being in various countries as
follows (p. 91, English edition):
Per TOGO spindles.
Bombay ........ 25 operatives.
Alsace ........ 9^ ,,
Mulhouse . . 7^ ,,
Germany, 1861 .' 20
1882 8 to 9
England, 1837 7
1887 ....... 3
For the last ten years considerable improvements have
taken place. "India shows us, since 1884, extraordinary
developments," Schulze-Gaewernitz remarks, and " there is
no doubt that Germany also has reduced the number of
operatives per 1000 spindles since the last Inquest-". " From
a great quantity of materials lying before me, I cull," he
writes, " the following, which, however, refer solely to lead-
ing and technically distinguished spinning mills :
Per 1000 spindles.
Switzerland 6.2 operatives.
Baden and Wiirtemberg 6.2 ,,
Saxony (new and splendid mills) . . .7.2
Vosges, France (old spinning mills) . . 8.9
The average counts of yarn for all these are between
twenties and thirties.
The progress realised in Augsburg between 1875 and 1891
appears as follows :
Per spindle, Ib. yarn 32.6 35.9
Counts. 34 34
Per spindle, Ib. cotton 39.3 42.4
Operatives, per 1000 spindles . . . 9.7 7.8
Hours of labour, per week 72 66
Wages have been raised everywhere."
F. MINING AND TEXTILES IN AUSTRIA.
To give an idea of the development of industries in
Austria-Hungary, it is sufficient to mention the growth of her
mining industries and the present state of her textile in-
The value of the yearly extraction of coal and iron ore
appears as follows :
Coal (Austria) .... .1,611,000 2,796,000
Brown coal (Austria) .... 1,281,300 2,837,400
Raw iron (Austria-Hungary) . . 1,749,000 3,015,800
At the present time the exports of coal entirely balance the
As to the textile industries, Austria alone, already in 1890,
had 1970 steam-engines, of 113.280 horse-power, employed in
226 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
the fabrication of textiles. For cotton spinning she had
153 establishments, with 2,392,360 spindles, employing 33,815
work-people, while for cotton weaving she had 194 estab-
lishments, with 47,902 power-looms.
The imports of raw cotton attained, in 1894, the respect-
able sum of ,4,333,000 (cotton yarn, ,1,375,000); of wool,
.3,000,000 (woollen yarn, ;i,775> oo ) ; of silk ;i56o,ooo;
while her exports of woollen goods quite balanced the im-
ports of the same.
G. MR. GIFFEN'S AND MR. FLUX'S FIGURES CONCERNING
THE POSITION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN INTER-
A few remarks concerning these figures may be of some
When a sudden fall in the British and Irish exports took
place in the years 1882-6, and the alarmists took advantage
of the bad times to raise the never-forgotten war-cry of pro-
tection, especially insisting on the damages made to British
trade by " German competition," Mr. Giffen analysed the
figures of international trade in his " Finance Essays " and
in a report read in 1888 before the Board of Trade Commis-
sion. Subsequently, Mr. A. W. Flux analysed again the same
figures, extending them to a later period. He confirmed
Mr. Giffen's conclusions and endeavoured to prove that the
famous " German competition " is a fallacy.
Mr. Giffen's conclusions, quoted by Mr. A. W. Flux (" The
Commercial Supremacy of Great Britain," in Economical
Journal, 1894, iv., p. 457), were as follows:
" On the whole, the figures are not such as to indicate any
great and overwhelming advance in German exports in com-
parison with those of the United Kingdom. There is greater
progress in certain directions, but, taken altogether, no great
disproportionate advance, and in many important markets
for the United Kingdom Germany hardly appears at all."
In this subdued form, with regard to German competition
alone and due allowance being made for figures in which
no consideration is given to what sort of goods make a given
value of exports, and in what quantities Mr. Giffen's state-
ment may be accepted. But that is all.
If we take, however, Mr. Giffen's figures as they are re-
produced in extended tables (on pp. 461-467 of the just
quoted paper), tabulated with great pains in order to show
that Germany's part in the imports to several European
countries, such as Russia, Italy, Servia, etc., has declined,
as well as the part of the United Kingdom, all we can
conclude from these figures is, that there are other countries
besides Germany, namely, the United States and Belgium,
which compete very effectively with England, France, and
Germany for supplying what manufactured goods are still
taken by Russia, Italy, Servia, etc., from abroad.
At the same time such figures give no idea of the fact
that where manufactured metal goods were formerly supplied,
coal and raw metals are imported now, for the home manu-
facture of those same goods; or, where dyed and printed
cottons were imported, only yarn is now required. The whole
subject is infinitely more complicated than it appears in Mr.
Giffen's calculations ; and, valuable as his figures may have
been for appeasing exaggerated fears, they contain no answer
whatever to the many economic questions involved in the
matters treated by Mr. Giffen.
H. COTTON MANUFACTURE IN INDIA.
The views taken in the text about the industrial develop-
ment of India have been confirmed by a mass of evidence.
One of them, coming from authorised quarters, deserves
special attention. In an article on the progress of the Indian
cotton manufacture, the Textile Recorder (i5th October, 1888)
" No person connected with the cotton industry can be
ignorant of the rapid progress of the cotton manufacture in
India. Statistics of all kinds have recently been brought
before the public, showing the increase of production in the
country ; still it does not seem to be clearly understood that
this increasing output of cotton goods must seriously lower
228 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
the demand upon Lancashire mills, and that it is not by any
means improbable that India may at no very distant period
be no better customer than the United States is now.
" In former times, Manchester goods were to be found in
the most remote villages on the banks of the Ganges and
the Brahmaputra, and even in the far distant bazaars of
Assam, Sylhet and Cachar. But now," the Recorder wrote,
"a change is taking place. Indian cotton piece goods are
coming to the front, and displacing those of Manchester.
" Unbiassed persons having a thorough knowledge of the
resources of the country, and having watched the growth of
the cotton industry during the last ten years, do not hesitate
to say that in a limited period of time the output of all the
plainer classes of goods will be sufficient to meet the Indian
demand without the supply of goods from Lancashire."
One hardly need add at what price the Indian manu-
facturers obtain cheap cottons. The report of the Bombay
Factory Commission which was laid before Parliament in
August, 1888, contained facts of such horrible cruelty and
cupidity as would hardly be imagined by those who have
forgotten the disclosures of the inquiry made in this country
in 1840-42. The factory engines are at work, as a rule, from
5 A.M. till 7, 8, or 9 P.M., and the workers remain at work
for twelve, thirteen, fourteen hours, only releasing one an-
other for meals. In busy times it happens that the same set
of workers remain at the gins and presses night and day
with half an hour's rest in the evening. In some factories
the workers have their meals at the gins, and are so worn
out after eight and ten days' uninterrupted work that they
supply the gins mechanically " three parts asleep ".
" It is a sad tale of great want on one side, and cruel
cupidity on the other " the official report concludes. How-
ever, it would be absolutely erroneous to conclude that Indian
manufactures can compete with the British ones as long
as they continue the terrible exploitation of human labour
which we see now. Forty years ago the British manufac-
tures offered absolutely the same terrible picture of cruel
cupidity. But times will come when Indian workers will
restrain the cupidity of the capitalists, and the manufactures
of Bombay will be none the worse for that in the compe-
tition with the British manufactures.
I. IRRIGATED MEADOWS IN ITALY.
In the Journal de f Agriculture (and Feb., 1889) we find
the following about the mar cites of Milan :
" On part of these meadows water runs constantly, on
others it is only left running for ten hours every week. The
former give six crops every year ; since February 80 to 100
tons of grass, equivalent to twenty to twenty-five tons of
dry hay, being obtained from the hectare (eight to ten tons
per acre). Lower down, thirteen tons of dry hay per acre
is the regular crop. Taking eighty acres placed in average
conditions, they will yield fifty-six tons of green grass per
hectare, that is, fourteen tons of dry hay, or the food of three
milch cows to the hectare (two and a half acres). The rent
of such meadows is from ,8 to ,9 125. per acre."
For Indian corn, the advantages of irrigation are equally
apparent. On irrigated lands, crops of from seventy-eight
to eighty-nine bushels per acre are obtained, as against
from fifty-six to sixty-seven bushels on unirrigated lands, also
in Italy, and twenty-eight to thirty-three bushels in France
(Garola, Les Cereales).
As to the ways in which agriculture is ruined in Italy
we can best see them from the work of Mr. Beauclerck
(Rural Italy, London, 1888). Speaking of the Milan pro-
vince, he remarks that we find there " one of the densest
agricultural populations in the world, congregated in a
country, of which half is occupied by arid mountains " (416
inhabitants to the square mile). " Flanders alone equals
Milan in density of population. The soil is not naturally
fertile, and an immense expenditure of capital and labour
has alone produced the richness of the land." But " the
taxation is fabulously high," as it attains 2620 francs per
square kilometre of the cultivated area. Altogether, Mr.
Beauclerck considers that rural Italy pays 300,000,000 francs
of direct taxes, out of returns not exceeding 1,000,000,000
francs, not to mention the salt tax, the tax on persona]
property and the indirect taxation.
230 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
J. THE CHANNEL ISLANDS.
The excellent state of agriculture in Jersey and Guernsey
has often been referred to in the agricultural and general
literature of this country, so I need only refer to the works
of Mr. W. E. Bear (Journal of the Agricultural Society, 1888 ;
Quarterly Review, 1888; British Farmer, etc.) and to the
exhaustive work of D. H. Ansted and R. G. Latham, The Chan-
nel Islands, third edition, revised by E. Toulmin Nicolle
(London, Allen, 1893).
Many English writers, certainly not those just named, are
inclined to explain the successes obtained in Jersey by the
wonderful climate of the islands and the fertility of the soil.
As to climate, it is certainly true that the yearly record of
sunshine in Jersey is greater than in any English station.
It reaches from 1842 hours a year (1890) to 2300 (1893),
and thus exceeds the highest aggregate sunshine recorded in
any English station by from 168 to 336 hours (exclusively
high maximum in 1894) a year; May and August seeming
to be the best favoured months.* But, to quote from the
just mentioned work of Ansted and Latham :
" There is, doubtless, in all the islands, and especially in
Guernsey, an absence of sunheat and of the direct action of the
sun's rays in summer, which must have its effect, and a
remarkable prevalence of cold, dry, east wind in late spring, re-
tarding vegetation " (p. 407). Every one who has spent, be
it only two or three weeks in late spring in Jersey, must
know by experience how true this remark is. Moreover,
there are the well-known Guernsey fogs, and " owing also
to rain and damp the trees suffer from mildew and blight,
as well as from various aphides ". The same authors re-
mark that the nectarine does not succeed in Jersey in the
open air " owing to the absence of autumn heat " ; that " the
wet autumns and cold summers do not agree with the
apricot," and so on.
If Jersey potatoes are, on the average, three weeks in
advance of those grown in Cornwall, the fact is fully explained
by the continual improvements made in Jersey in view of
* Ten Years of Sunshine in the British Isles, 1881-1890.
obtaining, be it ever so small, quantities of potatoes a few
days in advance, either by special care taken to plant them
out as soon as possible, protecting them from the cold winds,
or by choosing tiny pieces of land naturally protected or
better exposed. The difference in price between the earliest
and the later potatoes being immense, the greatest efforts
are made to obtain an early crop, and it would seem that
the potatoes begin to be grown earlier and earlier, so that
three or perhaps even four weeks have been won within the
last ten years.
The following table shows when the exporting season
began and what prices were realised per cabot ( = -j^ of a
ton) on the very first day of export :
1883, May 22
1886, June 2
1887, May 24 8
1893, April 24 8
The decline of prices per ton is best seen from the fol-
o to 14
Week ending :
18 2 6
22 10 7
20 12 6
&7 6 8
7 18 4
10 14 7
ro 14 7
6 14 4
6 13 4
6 15 5
July 2 .
9 15 6
4 7 6
5 17 o
6 17 6
5 12 7
2 18 6
6 17 6
6 ii 9
2 8 II
2 12 O
232 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
As to the fertility of the soil, it is still worse advocacy,
because there is no area in the United Kingdom of equal
size which would be manured to such an extent as the area
of Jersey and Guernsey is by means of artificial manure.
In the seventeenth century, as may be seen from the first
edition of Falle's Jersey, published in 1694, the island " did
not produce that quantity as is necessary for the use of the
inhabitants, who must be supplied from England in time
of peace, or from Dantzic in Poland ". In The Groans of
the Inhabitants of Jersey, published in London in 1709, we
find the same complaint. And Quayle, who wrote in 1812
and quoted the two works just mentioned, in his turn com-
plained in these terms : " The quantity at this day raised
is quite inadequate to their sustenance, apart from the
garrison " (General View of the Agriculture and the Present
State of the Islands on the Coast of Normandy, London, 1815,
p. 77). And he added: "After making all allowance, the 1
truth must be told ; the grain crops are here foul, in some
instances execrably so ". And when we consult the modern
writers, Ansted, Latham and Nicolle, we learn that the soil
is by no means rich. It is decomposed granite, and easily
cultivable, but "it contains no organic matter besides what
man has put into it ".
This is certainly the opinion any one will come to if he
only visits thoroughly the island and looks attentively to its
soil to say nothing of the Quenvais where, in Quayle's time,
there was " an Arabian desert " of sands and hillocks cover-
ing about seventy acres (p. 24), with a little better but still
very poor soil in the north and west of it. The fertility of
the soil has entirely been made, first, by the vraic (sea-weeds),
upon which the inhabitants have maintained communal
rights; later on, by considerable shipments of manure, in
addition to the manure of the very considerable living stock
which is kept in the island; and finally, by an admirably
good cultivation of the soil.
Much more than sunshine and good soil, it was the condi-
tions of land-tenure, and the low taxation which contributed
to the remarkable development of agriculture in Jersey.
First of all, the people of the Isles know but little of the
tax-collector. While the English pay, in taxes, an average
of 505. per head of population; while the French peasant
is over-burdened with taxes of all imaginable descriptions,
and the Milanese peasant has to give to the Treasury full
30 per cent, of his income all taxes paid in the Channel
Islands amount to but IDS. per head in the town parishes
and to much less than that in the country parishes. Besides,
of indirect taxes, none are known but the 25. 6d. paid for
each gallon of imported spirits and pd. per gallon of im-
As to the conditions of land-tenure, the inhabitants have
happily escaped the action of Roman Law, and they continue
to live under the coutumier de Normandie (the old Norman
common law). Accordingly, more than one-half of the
territory is owned by those who themselves till the soil ;
there is no landlord to watch the crops and to raise the rent
before the farmer has ripened the fruit of his improvements ;
there is nobody to charge so much for each cart-load of
sea-weeds or sand taken to the fields ; every one takes the
amount he likes, provided he cuts the weeds at a certain
season of the year, and digs out the sand at a distance of
sixty yards from the high-water mark. Those who buy land
for cultivation can do so without becoming enslaved to the
money-lender. One-fourth part only of the permanent rent
which the purchaser undertakes to pay is capitalised and has
to be paid down on purchase (often less than that), the
remainder being a perpetual rent in wheat which is valued
in Jersey at 50 to 54 sous de France per cabot. To seize
property for debt is accompanied with such difficulties that it
is seldom resorted to (Quayle's General View, pp. 41-46).
Conveyances of land are simply acknowledged by both parties
on oath, and cost nearly nothing. And the laws of inheri-
tance are such as to preserve the homestead notwithstand-
ing the debts that the father may have run into (ibid., pp.
After having shown how small are the farms in the islands
(from twenty to five acres, and very many less than that)
there being " less than 100 farms in either island that exceed
twenty-five acres; and of these only about half a dozen in
FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
Jersey exceed fifty acres " Messrs. Ansted, Latham and
" In no place do we find so happy and so contented a
country as in the Channel Islands. . . ." " The system of
land-tenure has also contributed in no small degree to their
prosperity. . . ." " The purchaser becomes the absolute
owner of the property and his position cannot be touched
so long as the interest of these [wheat] rents be paid. He
cannot be compelled, as in the case of mortgage, to refund
the principal. The advantages of such a system are too patent
to need any further allusion." (The Channel Islands, third
edition, revised by E. Toulmin Nicolle, p. 401 ; see also p,
The following will better show how the cultivable area is
utilised in Jersey:
Barley and here
Oats and rye
.Beans and peas.
Turnips and swedes
.Other green crops
Clover, sainfoin and f For hay
grasses under rotation \Not for hay .
Permanent pasture or f For hay .
grass \Notforhay .
Green crops .
25 6 3