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Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin.

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in those of Ain, Isere, Loire, Sa8ne-et-Loire, and even those
of Dr6me, Ardeche and Savoie. Sometimes the looms were
supplied by the merchants, but most of them were bought
by the weavers themselves, and it was especially women and
girls who worked on them at the hours free from agriculture.
But already since 1835 the emigration of the silk industry
from the city to the villages began in the shape of great
factories erected in the villages, and such factories continue
to spread in the country, making terrible havoc amidst the
rural populations.

When a new factory is built in a village it attracts at once
the girls, and partly also the boys of the neighbouring
peasantry. The girls and boys are always happy to find an
independent livelihood which emancipates them from the
control of the family. Consequently, the wages of the fac-
tory girls are extremely low. At the same time the distance
from the village to the factory being mostly great, the girls
cannot return home every day, the less so as the hours of
labour are usually long. So they stay all the week at the
factory, in barracks, and they only return home on Saturday
evening ; while at sunrise on Mpnday a waggon makes the
tour of the villages, and brings them back to the factory.
Barrack life not to mention its moral consequences soon
renders the girls quite unable to work in the fields. And,



APPENDIX. 247

when they are grown up, they discover that they cannot main-
tain themselves at the low wages offered by the factory; but
they can no more return to peasant life. It is easy to see what
havoc the factory is thus doing in the villages, and how un-
settled is its very existence, based upon the very low wages
offered to country girls. It destroys the peasant home, it
renders the life of the town worker still more precarious on
account of the competition it makes to him ; and the trade
itself is in a perpetual state of unsettledness.



P. SMALL INDUSTRIES AT PARIS.

It would be impossible to enumerate here all the varieties
of small industries which are carried on at Paris ; nor would
such an enumeration be complete, because every year new in-
dustries are brought into life. I therefore will mention only
a few of the most important industries.

A great number of them are connected, of course, with
ladies' dress. The connections, that is, the making of various
parts of ladies' dress, occupy no less than 22,000 operatives
at Paris, and their production attains ,3,000,000 every year,
while gowns give occupation to 15,000 women, whose annual
production is valued at ,2,400,000. Linen, shoes, gloves,
and so on, are as many important branches of the petty
trades and the Paris domestic industries, while one-fourth
part of the stays which are sewn in France (500,000 out of
2,000,000) are made at Paris.

Engraving, book-binding, and all kinds of fancy stationery,
as well as the manufacture of musical and mathematical in-
struments, are again as many branches in which the Paris
workmen excel. Basket-making is another very important
item, the finest sorts only being made in Paris, while the
plainest sorts are made in the above-mentioned centres
(Haute Marne, Aisne, etc.). Brushes are also made in small
workshops, the trade being valued at 800,000 both at
Paris and in the neighbouring department of Oise.

For furniture, there are at Paris as many as 4340 work-
shops, in which three or four operatives per workshop are



248 FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.

employed on the average. In the watch trade we find 2000
workshops with only 6000 operatives, and their production,
about ^1,000,000, reaches nevertheless nearly one-third part
of the total watch production in France. The maroquinerie
gives the very high figure of ,500,000, although it employs
only 1000 persons, scattered in 280 workshops, this high figure
itself testifying to the high artistic value of the Paris leather
fancy goods. The jewelry, both for articles of luxury, and
for all descriptions of cheap goods, is again one of the
specialities of the Paris petty trades ; and another well-known
speciality is the fabrication of artificial flowers. Finally, we
must mention the carriage and saddlery trades, which are
carried on in the small towns round Paris; the making of
fine straw hats; glass cutting, and painting on glass and
china ; and numerous workshops for fancy buttons, attire
in mother-of-pearl, and small goods in horn and bone.



Q. PETTY TRADES IN GERMANY.

The literature of the small industries in Germany being
very bulky, the chief works upon this subject may be found,
either in full or reviewed, in Schmoller's Jahrbucher, and in
Conrad's Sammlung nation al-okonomischer und statistischer
Abhandlungen. For a general review of the subject and rich
bibliographical indications, SchBnberg's Volkwirthschaftslehre,
vol. ii., which contains excellent remarks about the proper
domain of small industries (p. 401 seg.), as well as the above-
mentioned publication of K. Biicher ( Untersuchungen ubcr die
Lage des Handwerks in Deutschland), will be found most valu-
able. The work of O. Schwarz, Die Betricbsformen der moderncn
Grossindustric (in Zeitschrift fur Staatswisstnschaft, vol. xxv.,
P- 535); is interesting by its analysis of the respective ad-
vantages of both the great and the small industries, which
brings the author to formulate the following three factors in
favour of the former: (i) economy in the cost of motive
power ; (2) division of labour and its harmonic organisation ;
and (3) the advantages offered for the sale of the produce.
Of these three factors, the first is more and more eliminated



APPENDIX. 249

every year by the progress achieved in the transmission of
power; the second exists in small industries as well, and to
the same extent, as in the great ones (watchmakers, toymakers,
and so on) ; so that only the third remains in full force ;
but this factor as already mentioned in the text of this book,
is a social factor which entirely depends upon the degree of
development of the spirit of association amongst the pro-
ducers. As to Schwarz's figures relative to the higher pro-
ductivity of great spinning mills as compared with smaller
ones, it remains to be known whether the large mills which
he mentions are not more modern than the small ones, and
are not provided, therefore, with better machinery. One
conclusion of Schwarz is, however, absolutely correct: small
industries, unless they are engaged in the production of
artistic goods, as is the case at Paris, Lyons, Warsaw, Vienna,
and so on, can thrive only in connection with agriculture.



ALPHABETICAL INDEX.

Aberdeen, Gordon's College, 191 ; daily schools, 192.

Adulteration of manure and seeds, 67.

Agassiz, 204 note.

Agricultural Gazette, 97 note.

Agricultural labourers, numbers in Great Britain, 47 ; wages, in Russia,

74 note.

Agricultural machinery in Russia, 14 ; as a petty trade, 175.
Agriculture, 40 seq. ;' additional hands periodically required, 182; in

Belgium, 55-59, 87, 94 ; in the Channel Islands, 88-92 ; in China,

102; in France, 53-55, 72; in Great Britain, 43-53, 59; in Italy, 94;

in Japan, 102, 238 ; in the United States, 75-82 ; tropical (Semler's

work), 239 note.
Aldershot, 95.
Alenon, weaving, 145.
Alsace, spinning mills, 224.
American competition, 75.

Amiens, industries, 143 ; market-gardening, 108.
Anjou, province of, fruit culture, 107.
Annales agronomiques, 92 note.
Annuaire statistique de la Belgique, 56 note.
Ansted, The Channel Islands, 230, 232-234.
Applied science, a misleading name, 208.
Arithmetic, present waste of time in teaching it, 196.
Armstrong, Sir William, shipbuilding in Japan, 28, 42.
Art and handicraft, 210.
Atwood's machine, 197.
Augsburg, spinning mills, 224.
Australia, 34.

Austria, mining and textiles, 225.
Austria-Hungary, growth of industries, 22.

B., Mr., greenhouse, 235.

Backbarrow, 136.

Baden, spinning mills, 224.

Baines, Edward, Yorkshire, Past and Present, 135.

Ballet, Horticulture, etc., 82, 104, 109, no, 240; in the United States,

82.

Barfleur, 105.

Barral, Dictionary of Agriculture, 64, 93, 94.
Basel, silks, 36.

Bashford, Mr., greenhouses in Jersey, 113.
Baudrillart, on the agricultural populations of Anjou, 107; of Normandy,



252 INDEX.

Bavaria, butter, 73 note ; spinning mills, 225.

Bear, Mr. W. E., on Jersey greenhouses, 114, 118; works and papers

on Channel Islands, 230 ; The British Farmer and his Competitors.

73 note ; article on wheat growing in Quarterly Review, 73 note.
Beauclerck, Rural Italy, 229.
Beetroot, crops, 61.
Belgium, artisans, 172 note; greenhouses, grapes, 119; land, use made

of, 55; market-gardening, 242; petty trades, people employed in

172.

Berkley, Mr., address on iron trade in America, 29.
Bevan, Guide to English Industries, 136.
Birmingham, gun and rifle trade, 137.
Block, Prof. Maurice, 166.
Bobbins and reels made by hand, 139.
Bohemia, industries, 22.
Boitel, Herbages et Prairies natnrelles, 93.
Bombay, spinning mills, 224.
Booth, Charles, 138.

Boston, lettuce grown by electric light, 82; technical school, 191.
Bovio, industry in Italy, 23.
Brain work and manual work, 184 seq.
Bramwell, Sir Frederick, 187.
Brazil, growth of industries, 24.
Breeding of new cereals, 95 seq.
Bremen, cotton exchange, 19.
Brindley, 185.

British Iron Trade Association, 19, 20.
Buecher, Karl, Researches into the conditions of the artisans in Germany

162, 248.

Canada, efforts made to promote agriculture, 79, 80 note.

Capelle, experimental station, 99, 236, 239.

Carpenter, Edward, on Sheffield cutlery, 134.

Carter, breeding of new cereals, 99.

Caucasus, silk industry, 35 ; petty trades, 174.

Chambers of Commerce, 25 ; of St. Etienne, 243 ; of Lyons, 244 ; La

fabrique lyonnaise de soi fries, 245.
Champion, Mr., heavy crops of beet, 61.
Channel Islands, 88 seq., 230 seq.; work by Ansted, Latham and Nicolle,

230-234 (see Jersey and Guernsey).
Chapman, Vice-Consul, 24.
Chemistry, 207 note.

Cherbourg and neighbourhoods, market-gardening, 105.
Chicago, lettuce grown by electricity, 82; manual training school, 191.
Children, overwork, 216.
China, industries, 34, 38; rice culture, 239.
Clausius, his second law, 208.

Combinations of petty trades' workers, obstacles to, 167.
Comb making, 153.

Commission, Parliamentary, on depression of trade, 29.
Concentrical courses in schools, 194.

Conclusions, on intensive culture, 120; of the book, 213 seq.
Congo, 34.

Conrad's Sammlung, 248.
Co-operative basket making, 152; dairies, 153; Wholesale Co-operative

Society's Annual, 96 note.



INDEX. 253

Cornell University, 190.

Cornwall, potatoes, 89 note.

Cotton, Sir A., Lecture on Agriculture, 236 ; Rothamsted challenge, 236.

Cotton industry, its growth in different countries, 34.

Courtois-Gerard, Manuel de culture maraichere, 64 note, 65.

Crisis, industrial, of 1886-87, 2 9-

Daily Telegraph, correspondence on German competition, 18

Darwin, 204, 205.

Davy, Humphrey, mechanical theory of heat, 203.

Dellavos, methods of technical training, 190.

Derbyshire, petty trades, 136.

Dessprer, Fl., on planted wheat, 99, 100, 236.

Devon, South, 89 note.

Division of labour, i, 214.

Dodge, J. R., American competition, 76; Annual Report on Agriculture,

76; Farm and Factory, preface v., 76; industries of the United

States, 29.

Du Camp, Maxima, 160 note.
Dudley, chain makers, 136.
Dumazet, Ardouin, Voyage en France; agriculture, 105, 106, 108, 109;

petty trades in France, 144, 146-149, 151, 152, 158.
Dundee, jute trade, 26.
Dybowski, Prof., on French market-gardening, 64.

Economical Journal, 26.

Economist, 14 note, 26.

Education, integrated, 188.

Electricity, in the service of the petty trades, 154, 156 ; theory of, 208.

Engel, statistical researches, 216.

English Illustrated Magazine, 136 note.

Esmarck, 204 note.

Euvert, V., industries at St. Etienne, 243 note.

Exports from the United Kingdom, 32.

Factories and fields, 217.
Falle, Jersey, 232.

Fesca, Dr. M., work on Japanese agriculture, 239 note, 240.

Fitzroy, weather forecasts, 209.

Flanders, East, agriculture, 60, 87.

Flux, Mr., position of United Kingdom in international trade, 226.

Fodder plants, various crops of, 62 note.

Food, labour required t~ grow it, 217 seq.

Forum, preface vi.

Fougere*, domestic industries, 147.

France, chief imports, 221; growth of industries, 9 ; growth of popula-
tion and of wheat crop since 1789, 85 ; land, use made of, 53 ; petty
trades: basket making, 152; combined with small farming, 148;
cottons, 146; cutlery, 151; drills, 145; hardware and locks, 150;
iron goods, 150; lace making, 145 ; linen handkerchiefs, 146; marble
goods, 149; numbers of people employed in, 141; pottery, 151;
weaving in hand looms, 142, 145 ; wood work, 149, 150; in Brittany,
148; in Nievre and Haute Marne, 150; in Normandy, 144, 149; in
the Jura hills, 152-154; in the Lyons region, 155 seq., and appendix
O ; at Paris, 159, and appendix P.



254 INDEX.

Francke, Growth of Textile Industries in Germany, 18

Fream, Prof. W., Rothamsted Experiments, 44.

Fresnaye, 150.

Fruit exports, from Belgium, 109 ; from France, 107.

Fruit growing, in Anjou, 107 ; near Paris, 106 ; in the valley of the Rh6ne,

108.
Fulton, 207.

Gaewernitz, see Schulze Gsewernitr.

Galerie du Travail, 160.

Galileo, 184.

Gardener's Chronicle, 104, 240.

Garola, Prof., Les cereales, 87, 98, 229.

Geometry, discovery versus learning by heart, 195 ; methods of teaching

it, 190.
Germany, cotton industry, 224 ; do., compared with other countries,

224 ; " German competition," 20 ; growth of industries, 10, i r ;

machinery, 223 ; mining and iron industry, 222 ; petty trades,

162-171; literature of the same, appendix Q ; potato crops obtained,

93.

Gien, china buttons, 151.

Giffen, Mr., position of United Kingdom in international trade, 32, 226.
Girard, Prof. Aim6, on potato growing, 92.
Glacial period, 204 note.
Godwin, 83.
Goethe, quoted, an.
Goppart, M., crops of fodder plants, 61 ; Manual of Indian Corn Culture,

95-

Gordon's College, 191.

Grandeau, Prof., planted wheat, 99, 100, 236, 238; wheat crops, 86.
Great Britain, commercial supremacy of, 226 ; cultivable area, 43 ; growth

of industries, 6; market-gardening, 240; land, use made of, compared

with France and Belgium, 50-58 ; petty trades in, 133 ; vegetables,

imports to, 240.

Green, Vice-Consul, on Russian agricultural machinery, 14 note.
Greenhouse culture, 112 seq., 235.
Gressent, M., Potager moderne, 64 note.
Gros, M., crops of beet and carrots, 61.
Grove, 208.
Guernsey, agriculture and horticulture, 230 seq.; greenhouse culture, 115,

118.
Guyot, Alpine boulders, 204 note.

Hallett, Major, " pedigree cereals," 95 seq.

Ham, Ch. H., Manual Training, 191.

Handicraft, methods of teaching, 199.

Haute Marne, 150.

Hennebout, 148.

Holland, imports of vegetables from, to United Kingdom, 241.

Hope, Colonel, 95.

Horticulture, 104-120.

Hungary, industries, 22 ; mining, 225.

India, growth of industries, 24 ; progress of cotton manufacture, 227.
Vidian corn, high crops, 81.



INDEX. 255

Industries, growth of, in Austria-Hungary, 22 ; in Bohemia. 22 ; in Brazil,
24; in France, 9; in Germany, 10, 17; in India, 24; in Italy, 23;
in Japan, 27 ; in Mexico, 24 ; in Russia, 12 ; in Spain, 24 ; in the
United States, 28 ; scattering of, 183 ; industries and agriculture,
126 seq.

Integrated education, 188.

Integration of labour, 5, 212.

Invention, its distinctive features, 185, 209.

Iowa, methods of farming, 78 ; State's fair, 80.

Iron and Steel Institute, 19.

Irrigated meadows, in France, 93, 94; at Milan, 94, 229 ; Boitel's work,

93-

Issaieff, Prof., combinations of workers, 168; cutlery in Auvergne, 152;
petty trades in Germany, 162.

Italy, growth of industries, 23 ; irrigated meadows, 229 ; silks, 36 ; spin-
ning mills, 224.

Japan, growth of industries, 27, 28; rice culture, 238, 240; Dr. Fesca's

work, 239 note.
Jersey, 88 seq., 230 seq. ; Ansted's work, 230, 232 ; Bear's work and

papers on, 114, 230; climate, 230; Falle's work, 232; greenhouses,

113; "Groans of Inhabitants," 232 ; land laws and taxation, 232 ;

Latham's work, 230, 232 ; potato growing, 89 ; Quayle's work,

232 ; soil, 232 ; speed of planting, 240.
Joule, mechanical equivalent of heat, 208.
Journal d' Agriculture pratique, 93 note.
Journal de I 'Agriculture, 229.
Journal des Economistes, 92 note.
Journal of Horticulture^ on grape growing in England, 120 ; on potato

growing in Jersey, 89 note.
Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, 96 note, 230.

Kent, hop picking, 181.
Kerchove de Denterghen, 88 note.
Kindergartens, 193.
Knight, Mr., heavy potato crops, 91.

Lake District, petty trades, 136, 139.

Land laws in Jersey, 88, 232.

Latham, R. J., The Channel Islands, 230, 233-235.

Lawes, Sir J. B., on crops in United Kingdom, 43 ; yearly food, 44 note

challenge to Sir A. Cotton, 236 seq.
Lecouteux, Le ble, 76 note.
Lee, Mr. Henry, 25.
Leeds, cloth trade, 135.
Leibnitz, 184.
Leicester, 137.

Lettuce grown by electric light, 82.
Lille, 143.
Linnaeus, 184.
Liverpool and Bremen, 19.
Live stock, area required to keep it, 61.
Lodge farm, 95.

Lodging, work required to provide it, 214
Lodz (Poland), 16.



256 INDEX.

Lomonosoff, mechanical theory of heat, 203.
London, petty trades, 138.
Loudeac, 148.

Luxemburg, Grand Duchy of, iron industry, 222.
Lyell, 204 note.

Lyons, silks, 156 ; (? the) Lyons industrial region, 155 seq., appendix O,
242.

Malthus, his doctrine, 83.

Manchester and neighbouring towns, 179.

Manitoba, farming, 78.

Maralchers, 63 ; opinion on replanted wheat, 239.

Market-gardening, 60 seq. ; in Belgium, 242 ; in France, 104 ; in Great

Britain, 104, and appendix M ; at Roscoff, 105.
Mark Lane Express, costs of wheat growing, 73 note, 74.
Marx, Karl, on concentration of capital, 163 note.
Mathematics at Moscow technical school, 189.
Mayer, mechanical equivalent of heat, 208.
Mexico, growth of industries, 24.
Microbes, fertilisation of the soil by, 64 note.
Middlemen in England, 74, 241.
Milan, irrigated meadows, 94, 229.
Montreuil, peaches, 106.

Morand, Marius, Organisation ouvriere de lafabrique lyonnaise, 245 note.
Moscow, Satistical Committee, 173 ; technical school, 189.
Murdoch, 187.
Murray's Dictionary, 206.
Muslins, at Tarare, 157.

Naphtha as fuel in Russia, 15.

Nature, on American iron trade, 29 note.

Neufchatel, 150.

Newton, 184.

Nicolle, E. Toulmin, The Channel Islands, 230.

Nievre, 150.

Nineteenth Century, preface vi., 80 note, 96 note.

Nogent, cutlery, 151.

Norman customary law, 233.

Normandy, agriculture, 107 ; petty trades, 142 seq.

Northampton, 137.

Norwich and Ipswich, 137.

Nottingham, lace factories, 200.

Oetken, on American competition, 78.

Ogilvie, Dr., Gordon's College at Aberdeen, 191.

Orizaba, cotton mills, 24.

Orleans and neighbourhood, industries, 146.

Over-production, its meaning, 31.

Oyonnax, comb-making, 153.

Panissieres, silks, 157.

Paris, emporium of petty trades, 159 ; market-gardening, 62-67 ; petty

trades, appendix P, 247.
Pavlovo, cutlery village, 135, 178.



INDEX. 257

Petty trades, conclusions, 177 seq. ; precarious conditions 01 some of them,
131 ; transformation and struggles, 132 ; variety and division, 128 seq. ;
and great industries in Germany, 165 stq., 248; in Belgium, 171 ; in
France, 1405^,242; in Germany, 162-171; in Russia, 173-176; in
Switzerland, 171; at Paris, 247.

Philadelphia Exhibition-, 189.

Physics, methods of teaching it, 197.

Planted wheat, 95 seq., appendix K, 236.

Platt, Mr. James, 25.

Ponce, M., Culture maraichere, 64 note ; his orchard, 65.

Potato growing, by Girard, 92 ; by Mr. Knight, 91 ; in Germany, 92 ;
in Jersey, 89, 230.

Prison work, 149.

Puris, M., irrigation, 94 note.

Quayle, General View of the Agriculture and present State of the Islands

on the Coasts of Normandy, 232.
Quenvais (Jersey), 232.

Rathgen, Japan's Volkwirthschaft, etc., 28 note.

Redditch, needles, 136.

Rennes, 145.

Rennie, 185, 207.

Replanted wheat, 102, appendix L, 238.

Reuleaux, Theoretische Kinematik, 188.

Reybaud, Le Colon, 143, 144, 157.

Rhone, river, its banks, culture on, 156.

Rice culture in Japan and China, 238.

Risler, Physiologic et Culture du ble, 87 note

Rivers, Th., The Orchard Houses, etc., 112.

Roanne, great and small industries, 158.

Robinson, Prof., 185.

Rogers, Thorold, on economic interpretation of history, 138, 166, 205,

Ronna, Prof., Agriculture aux Etats Unis, 76 note ; Irrigations, 95 ; rice-
growing in Japan, 240.

Roscoe, 136 note.

Roscoff (Brittany), market-gardening, 105.

Rothamsted experiments, 44 ; challenge to Sir A. Cotton, 236 seq. ; size
of experimental plots, 237.

Roubaix, cotton weaving, 143.

Rouen, weaving, 144, 145.

Rumford, mechanical theory of heat, 203.

Russia, cost of wheat growing, 73 ; growth of industries, 12 seq., 221 ;
decrease of imports, 16 ; petty trades : committee on, 173 ; in-
quiries made by the zemstvos, 173 ; do., by the Moscow statistical
committee, 173 ; numbers of workers employed in, 173 ; relation to
agriculture, 175 ; returns, 174 ; variety of produce, 174 ; spinning
mills, 225.

Saflelare district, agriculture, 60, 87.

Sagnier, H., on irrigation, 94 note.

St. Chamond, 243.

St. Etienne, industries in, appendix O, 242.

St. Holier, harbour (J erse y). 8 9-

17



258 INDEX.

St. Petersburg, 182 ; university students of mathematics, 189.
St. Quentin, 143.
Sainte Claude, briar pipes, 154.
Sale, difficulty of, in petty trades, 167.
Saunders, W., breeding of new cereals, 99.
Sax, Em. Hans, petty trades in Germany, 162, 16^.
Saxony, spinning mills, 225.
Schaeffle, on American competition, 78.
Schmoller, Jahrbuch, 76 note, 248.
Schonberg, Volkwirthschaftslehre, 248.

Schulze Gaewernitz, on cotton industry in Germany, 25, 169.
Schwarz, O., Forms of Great Industries, 248.
Science, its powers, 219 ; applied science, 208.

Semler, on American competition, 78 ; Tropical Agriculture, 339 note.
Sheffield cutlery, 134.
Sheriff, Mr., breeding of new cereals, 99.
" Shoddy " factories, 156.
Silk trade, 35, appendix O, 242.

Simon Eugene, La cite chinoise, 239 ; replanted wheat, 239.
Small industries, 126 seq.
Smeaton, 185, 206.
Smiles, Mr., quoted, 207.
Smith, Adam, i, 167.

Soil, made and removed when quitting tenancy, 64.
South Staffordshire, 136.
Spain, growth of industries, 24.
Stanley, Mr., 34.

Statesman's Yearbook, 27 note, 33.
Station Agronomique de TEst, 99, too.
Stephenson, 185, 206.
Sunshine in Jersey and in England, 230.
Sussex, hop picking, 181.
Sweating system, 130.
Swiss watch makers, 131.

Switzerland, income from tourists, 30 ; petty trades, 171 ; spinning mills,
225.

Tarare, muslins, etc., 157.

Taxation of agriculture in Italy, 229 ; in Jersey, 232.

Telford, 207.

Textile Recorder, 27, 29, 227.

Thierry, Augustin, 205.

Thiers, cutlery, 151.

Thompson, D., on grape culture, 112.

Thun, A. M., petty trades in Germany, 162.

Times, 96.

Tisserand, growth of population and wheat crop in France, 86 note.

Tomblaine, experimental station, 102, 236.

Toubeau, M. Metric Repartition of Taxes, 62 note, 64 note, 239 note *,

planted wheat, 239.
Toynbee* Mr., Lectures, 138.
Transmission of motive power for petty trades, 168; in Jura hills, 154;

156 ; at Paris, 161.

Truck-farms in the United States, in.
Turkestan cotton, 13 note.



INDEX. 259

United Kingdom, agriculture, 43; cattle, 45; position occupied in cotton
industry, 34 ; position occupied in international trade, 32, 226 ; vege-
tables, imports of, 240 seq.; wheat crops, 43.

United States, agriculture, 76; efforts to promote it, 79; growth of in-
dustries, 28; imports of manure, 81 ; market-gardening, 81, no;
State fairs, 80; truck-farms, zzi.

Unwin, Prof. W., transmission of motive power for petty trades, 168, 180.

Venetz, 204 note.

Vera Cruz, cotton mills, 24.

Verviers, woollen mills and clothiers, 132.

Vienna, petty trades, 160.

Vienne, Isire, shoddy factories, 156.

Vilmorin, breeding of new cereals, 99.

Vineries, in Jersey, 114; in Belgium, appendix N, 242.

Voigt, Paul, petty trades in Germany, 162.

Vorsma, cutlery village, 135, 176.

Vosges, spinning mills, 225.

Wages of agricultural labourers in Russia, 74 note.

Walsall and neighbourhoods, 137.

Warsaw, petty trades, 160.

Waste of time in the schools, 193.

Watch makers, in French Jura, 153 ; in Switzerland, 153.

Waterfalls, motive power of, 154.

Watt, James, 185, 187, 206.

Wheat, cost of growing, 71, 73 note, 74; planted, 95, appendix K, 236.


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