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deprecate the charging of the power of taxation upon the Board of
School Directors of the several school districts.

If there is any possible economic advantage to be gained by the
subdivision of labor, so that each man may do that work for which by
nature or education he is best adapted, then the Philadelphia Board
of Trade can imagine no more absurd infraction of this generally ac-
cepted economic law than the creation of a system that would turn
the man who was fitted for a school director into the business of
assessing taxes.

The proposed scheme of taxation is at war not only with natural
economic law, but with the very groundwork of our Government, in
that it is a removal of the taxing power from the direct representa-
tives of the people.



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42 SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,

It would be, moreover, destructive of due procedure of law. If
there are to be two taxing powers in the community, which tax shall
have the precedence of lien?

The proposed law further seems to intend the invention of a new tax
(Sec. 511 and following) which is called an occupation tax, but which
might be more explicitly described as a male head tax, by which each
male member of the community is to be taxed $1 per annum for use
of the schools. But apart from any invidious distinction between the
sexes, if it is intended to hunt up the employing head of the occupation
in which any male over twenty-one years may be engaged and extract
the $1 tax from the wages of the employee by pressure upon the
employer, it will be difficult to conceive any plan better suited to render
the cause of education distasteful to the community.

This occupation tax will be almost impossible to collect except from
those who have property ; and to add $1 to each tax bill on the general
assessment can hardly fail to be looked upon as a form of petty annoy-
ance.

The Board is aware that a system of multiple tax collection prevails
throughout the country townships of the State, but submits that it is
by reason only of the loose aggregation of the social units that the
business of collection after this method can be safely handled in those
communities, and it would suggest that it would be better to cut out the
city as a distinct school district free from the action of this law, rather
than to impose upon it conditions that are workable only under the
forms of a rural community.

If the necessary municipal expenses of the city of Philadelphia re-
quire an increase in the rate of taxation, the Legislature may be sure
that the citizens would prefer to meet the issue squarely on its merits,
by consideration of an advance of the established rates, rather than
to have the confusion and annoyance of a duplication of bills and
payments of liens, and of expenses of searching the titles of real estate.

At the meeting in May the committee reported that the
Educational Code Bill, which passed both branches of the
Legislature, had been vetoed by the Governor.

The committee in so reporting commented upon the veto
as follows : —

So high is our respect for the gentlemen who compose the School
Commission, and so valuable were many of the reforms proposed by
the School Code, that your committee cannot avoid a feeling of regret
that it should have been necessary to veto it.



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PHILADELPHIA BOARD OF TRADE. 43

Naturally, the Governor could not do otherwise than withhold his
signature from a bill that was brought before him in a form different
from that in which it passed the House. Beside that to which the
Governor refers there were other errors of construction, grammar
and orthography which testified to the pressure under which the Code
was forced in the effort to get it passed.

After the most that was possible had been said it still remained
true that the machinery for a double taxing system in Philadelphia
was crude and unsatisfactory to an extreme degree, and the elision
of this danger is the chief mitigation of regret for loss of the bill.

It is to be hoped that in the new light of this legislative experience
the Commission may review its work and have it ready for early
presentation at the next session, as it is said that the schools of some
of the interior counties are fearfully neglected



J3.— A MUNICIPAL COURT.



The Board took a deep interest in the eflfort made in the
last Legislature to secure the establishment of what was
termed a Municipal Court, following in general outline a
system which had been in operation in the cicy of Chicago
for two years.

The following is a description of the proposed court, which
is quoted from a statement issued during the consideration
of subject: —

It is to be observed that these courts are not an improved system
of Magistrates' Courts; the plan, on the contrary, contemplates the
abolition of the office of magistrate and constable in Philadelphia, and
provides for the creation of a system of courts having all the jurisdiC'
lion and powers now vested in the magistrates of Philadelphia, and
such additional jurisdiction in civil, criminal and miscellaneous cases
as may from time to time be provided by law, and expressly authorizes
the Legislature to transfer to the Municipal Court cases pending in
Common Pleas and the Criminal Courts in Philadelphia, and to confer



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44 SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,

upon it and upon its judges any of the duties, powers or jurisdiction
now vested in the civil or Criminal Courts. The judges of this court
are to try either civil or criminal cases, without a jury, except where
a demand for a jury is made, under such regulations, not involving a
substantial denial of a jury trial, as may be prescribed by the General
Assembly.

The court appoints and removes its own bailiffs, oflScers or em-
ployees, and its bailiffs, in addition to their other powers, are to have
the powers now vested in constables in Philadelphia.

While this pressed plan was before the State Legislature
several measures were introduced for the purpose of afford-
ing instant relief from the congested conditions of the courts
which might have been enacted at that session.

The Municipal Court could only have been secured after
necessary amendments to the State Constitution, taking prob-
ably from four to six years.

In view of the conditions existing, the Board, at its meet-
ing held in April, passed the following: —

Whereas, The Philadelphia Board of Trade has carefully considered
the measures now before the State Legislature, having for their object
an improvement in the court system for the cities of the State, more
particularly the Municipal Court Act and the County Court Act, there-
fore

Resolved, That the Philadelphia Board of Trade respectfully rec-
ommends and advocates that the State Legislature shall by appropriate
legislation authorize the Governor to appoint a commission to con-
sider and formulate such remedial legislation as may be needed to
provide a more speedy and efficient system for the disposition of police
and minor causes in the cities of this Commonwealth.

There was no Commission appointed to consider these
bills, owing to the fact of Governor Stuart's well-known op-
position to the appointment of Commissions.

He advocated the appointment of Commissions outside of
the Legislature to frame such acts and present same to the
Legislature.



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PHILADELPHIA BOARD OF TRADE. 45;

J4-— LEQISLATIVe COMMISSSION ON STATE CORPORA-^
TION AND REVENUE LAWS.



The Board has, by resolution, instructed its Committee on
National and State Revenue and Taxation to co-operate with
the Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Representar
tives of Pennsylvania appointed to consider and report upoa
a revision of the corporation and revenue laws of the Com-
monwealth.

The active part taken by, the Board in the Pennsylvania
Tax Conference some years ago and the study then made of
these laws equip the committee to be of service to the State-
Commission.



J5-— NATIONAL IRRIQATION CONGRESS.



The Board was not able to send a representative to the-
National Irrigation Congress, held in Spokane, August 9,
1909, but the Secretary was authorized to respond to various
inquiries made by the chairman of the Congress as follows :

That we do "realize the importance of irrigation, drainage, forestry,
commercial waterways, good roads and home building to the progress
of our country."

That we think we "realize the wcmderful development possible in
the West through irrigation."

That we "appreciate the economic importance to the entire country
of that development"

And that we are deeply interested in every proposition before Con-
gress that promises a development of the resources of our country;
by which the whole nation may be benefited.

In confirmation of which we point to the many declarations of the
Philadelphia Board of Trade to the conventions of the National Board
of Trade, to the various Congresses that have met to promote these-
objects, and to its petitions to our National Legislature on these
subjects.



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46 SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,

j6.— LAKE MOHONK CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL
ARBITRATION.



The delegate representing the Board of Trade at the Lake
Mohonk Conference on IntematicMial Arbitration, held May
i8, 19 and 20, 1909, made his report as follows: —

That he attended the conference and was present at its sessions.

Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University, pre-
sided.

Fifty-eight business organizations sent delegates to the meeting.

As at previous conferences, there was organized a Business Men's
Meeting, Mr. Mahlon N. Kline being selected as chairman, and Hon.
F. H. Jackson, of Providence, R. I., acting as secretary.

As a result of this meeting the following resolution was adopted and
-submitted to the conference, which in turn indorsed same : —

"Resolved, That the representatives of the organized business inter-
ests of the country, assembled at the fifteenth' annual meeting of the
Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration, desire to again
express their hearty indorsement of the broad and beneficent purposes
of the conference, as embodied in its many utterances favoring inter-
national arbitration in the settlement of disputes between nations, to
die end that war, with all its horrors, may be avoided, and conunerce
may be protected from its blighting effect

The rivalry among civilized nations for incr^sed armament is
greatly to be deprecated.

We believe the time has come in which nations should depend upon
justice.

Therefore we advise that nations trust to arbitration rather than
force, to courts rather than arms, for the adjustment of international
•disputes.

We urge upon the President of the United States to take the initia-
tive in leading the nations to a concurrent limitation or reduction in
the armies and navies of the world,"

During the three days' sessions addresses were made by some of the
most distinguished men, including foreign diplomats, eminent edu-
cators, officers of the army and navy, members of Congress and the
English Parliament, well-known clergymen, prominent editors and
representative business men.

On the closing day the conference adopted a platform urging upon
the United States Government prompt action toward perfecting the
important measures inaugurated at The Hague.



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PHILADELPHIA BOARD OF TRADE. 47

The platform expressed a hope that the United States would take
an early initiative in the establishment of the international court of
arbitral justice, urged the negotiation of a general treaty of arbitration
and expressed the opinion that the time has arrived for carrying into
eflfect the strongly expressed desire of the two peace conferences that
the government "examine the possibility of an agreement as to the
limitation of armed forces by land and sea and of war budgets/'

"The great armaments of the nations whose intolerable burdens
prompted the call to the first Hague conference have so portentously
increased during the decade," says the platform, "as to have now
become, as recently declared by the British Foreign Secretary, a satire
upon civilization."

On motion the report was accepted.



37.— ATLANTIC DEEPER WATERWAYS ASSOCIATION.



The delegates to the Convention of the Atlantic Waterways
Association submitted a report as follows : —

The second annual meeting of this association was held in Norfolk,
Va., November 17 to 20, 1909.

The Board was represented by the delegates appointed by the Presi-
dent pursuant to a resolution adopted by the Executive Council.

Morning and afternoon sessions were held on Wednesday, November
17th, the latter session being presided over by Mr. Frank D. La Lanne,
one of your delegates.

The evening of that day was devoted to an informal reception by the
Norfolk General Committee and a lantern slide talk by Mr. Addison
B. Burk, secretary and treasurer of the association. The lantern slides
were views taken of inside waterways along the Atlantic coast

The second day was taken up by two sessions, one in the morning
and one in the afternoon, and in the evening the delegates attended a
theatre party arranged by the Norfolk committee.

The tiiird day, November 19th, known as the President's Day, was
devoted to the reception and entertainment of Hon. William H. Taft,
President. He made an address from the grand stand on Commercial
Place after reviewing a military and naval parade.



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48 SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,

In the afternoon the delegates attended an oyster roast at Cape
Henry, at which the President also made an informal address.

On Saturday, November 20th, an inspection of Norfolk harbor and
its approaches occupied the time of the delegates.

After reciting in a preamble the association's friendliness to the
principle that the creation and extension of waterways within the
United States wherever these can contribute to the requirements of
American internal commerce are of great importance and demand the
immediate and earnest attention of the people and the Federal and
State Governments; pledging itself to support all desirable and prac-
tical projects for improving the waterways of the Mississippi valley,
the proposed waterways connecting the Atlantic and the Gulf and all
meritorious and comprehensive projects upon the Great Lakes and
Pacific coast and the Gulf; commending to the consideration and sup-
port of all patriotic Americans in the Mississippi valley and the entire
country the grave needs of their fellow citizens of the Atlantic coast
m the matter of interior coastwise water transportation ; offering argu-
ments as to the economic carriage of goods by water transportation
and urging the strategic advantage of an inland waterway between
the North and South for use by the war vessels of the United States,
resolutions were adopted as follows: —

We ask that Congress shall immediately provide for the purchase
of the existing Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and improve and
enlarge the same in accordance with the report made to Congress.

That construction shall be inaugurated from Beaufort to the Cape
Fear River and thence to Florida.

That the extension north from the Delaware River to New York
Bay and Long Island Sound and thence to Boston is justified by the
large existing commerce demanding water transport.

That the Hudson River be improved as far as Troy and in time to
conform to the depth of the proposed Erie Canal now under construc-
tion, and that the Hudson be connected with Long Island Sound
through the Harlem River and Ship Canal and Bronx kills in order
to avoid the dangerous navigation through Hell Gate.

That, so far as may be, without prejudice to the full accomplishment
of the broad purpose of this association, consideration should be given
to existing channels of trade.

Furthermore, we urge Congress to enact such legislation as will
prevent ownership or control by railroads engaged in interstate com-
merce, of coastwise shipping, on routes in competition with such rail
routes.

The attendance at the meeting was large and in every way repre-
sentative of the different localities along the Atlantic coast.



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PHILADELPHIA BOARD OF TRADE. 49



The papers read and addresses made proved interesting and instruc-
tive, inviting and securing the earnest attention of the delegates.

At the election of officers, Hon. J. Hampton Moore was re-elected
president for the ensuing year and the present representatives on the
Board of Management, Mr. Charles Heber Clark as vice-president
and Mr. Edward F. Henson, of your Executive Council, as delegate,
were again chosen by the Pennsylvania delegation.



j8.— NATIONAL RIVERS AND HARBORS CONGRESS.



The Board of Trade sent delegates to the National Rivers
and Harbors Congress, held in Washington, D. C, Decem-
ber 8, 9 and lo, 1909.

The congress was attended by the largest number in the
history of the movement, there being three thousand one
hundred and fifty (3,150) accredited delegates.

At the opening session a most interesting address was
made by President Taft, in which he placed himself upon a
broad platform in advocacy of the improvement of the rivers
and harbors of the country, and urged upon the delegates
the wisdom of securing an expression on part of Congress
in the shape of a declaration by resolution or statute that
certain improvements should be commenced and carried to
an early completion, payment of same to be made from the
current revenues of the Government so far as they were suf-
ficient for the purpose, and the balance to be provided for
by the issuance of bonds. He did not favor, however, the
issuing of these bonds prior to the adoption of a plan by
Congress for the initiation of the work under an approved
project. He spoke in the highest terms of the ability and
integrity of the army engineers and expressed entire faith in
their ability to carry to a successful conclusion the projects
for the improvements now awaiting Congressional sanction
and appropriation.



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so SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,

Sessions were held on the three days named above both
in the morning and afternoon. At the closing session a
series of resolutions were presented and adopted.

They asked that Congress, as early as possible in the pres-
ent session, shall aiq)ropriate at least $50,000,000 for carry-
ing forward the work on the improvement of rivers and har-
bors; advocated placing all projects approved by the Gov-
ernment Engineers and adopted by Congress under continu-
ing contracts, and recommended the establishment of a De-
partment of Public Works with a Cabinet Officer at its head.

The resolutions also favored the increase of the United
States Corps of Engineers.



J9.— THIRTY-FIVE FOOT CHANNEL DELAWARE RIVER

SURVEY.



At the meeting in April the representatives of the Board
in the Joint Committee on the Improvement of the Harbor
of Philadelphia and Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers submit-
ted a report which, being of much interest, is quoted : —

That on March 30, 1909, a meeting of the Joint Executive Committee
was held at the Board of Trade rooms, at which W. R. Tucker, the
Secretary, presented for the consideration of the members a form of
letter addressed to Major Herbert Deakyne in reply to one written
by him asking the views of those interested in securing under the
authority of an Act of Congress, a survey of the Delaware River
from Allegheny avenue to the sea. The letter as presented was
adopted and duly transmitted.

It offered strong arguments supported by facts presented, favoring
such a survey.

The following extracts from the letter are quoted : —

Tn view of the continued effort of this committee and others who
have been urging upon Congress the necessity for such a survey for
nearly six years, with all the arguments presented from time to time.



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PHILADELPHIA BOARD OF TRADE. Si



in memorials and petitions and through the personal appearance of
our representatives before the Rivers and Harbors Committee at
Washington, it would seem that no further indorsement should be
now needed to convince the War Department of the practically unani-
mous demand on the part of the commercial interests at the port of
Philadelphia for such a survey.

*The condition of the channel, as described by you to the Rivers
and Harbors Committee at Washington, January 26, 1909, offers an
unanswerable argument as to this necessity. You stated a fact well
known to those closely connected with the navigation of the river in
referring to this work originally done under the project for securing
a thirty-foot channel that "The lowest part is Duck Creek Flat,
which was dredged out and finished, I tfiink, about 1904 to thirty
feet, and up to this year it had shoaled to a depth of twenty-two to
twenty-eight feet"

'You referred also to the shoaling at two other places, viz., Dan
Baker Shoal and the Cherry Island Flats. You also stated that it
would require approximately $200,000 annually to maintain the depth
of thirty feet in the channel secured under the present project for
dredging.

*The foregoing statement itself justifies, in the opinion of this com-
mittee, a resurvey and a thorough study of the river with the view
of presenting a new project based upon the additional data to be
secured and the experience gained under the present plan of improve-
ment.

*The commercial necessity for a further deepening of the channel
approach from the sea to Philadelphia rests in the proposition that this
city has rightfully secured a position of great prominence among the
seaports along the Atlantic Coast as a competitive port for the incom-
ing and outgoing commerce of the country. The whole nation is
vitally interested in securing and maintaining these great Atlantic
seaports, for no one oi them can successfully and economically take
care of all the growing commerce. Philadelphia cannot take advantage
of its unexcelled facilities unless given a depth of water sufficient not
only to bring the deepest draft vessels to its wharves, but to do so
under normal conditions without the delays attending the movement
of such vessels when confronted by the necessity of awaiting high
water in order to pass over the shoal areas which now restrict the
capacity of the stream.'

A reference was made to the deeper draft vessels sailing from the
ports named, as follows: —



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52 SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT,



'There were during the year 1904 44 vessels drawing 26 feet and
over coming into and going out of tiie Delaware River. Of these
vessels 39 drew 26 feet and less than 27 feet, and 5 vessels drew
from 27 feet to 28 feet.

'During 1908 there were 32 vessels which drew over 27 feet (being
the draft assumed for that year). Of these, 21 drew 27 feet and less
than 28 feet, and 10 drew 28 feet and less than 29 feet, while i drew
over 29 feet (29 feet 5 inches).

These figures seem to prove that the practical capacity of the stream
as estimated by the steamship owners is for vessels not over 28 feet
in depth. This necessarily prevents quite a number of vessels of
deeper draft engaging in the carrying trade of the Delaware and to
this extent limits the opportunities of the port

'It may be useful in studying the situation to invite your attention
to the capabilities of other ports in safely accommodating the largest
vessels.

'In the year 1904 New York had 14 vessels drawing over 30 feet,
for which there was ample water. Of these, 6 drew over 31 feet and
I over 32 feet (32 feet 6 inches).

'Baltimore in that year had i vessel drawing over 30 feet (30 feet
8 inches) and 5 drawing 30 feet.

'Boston had none of a draft over 29 feet

'In 1905 New York had 28 vessels drawing over 30 feet. Of these,
10 drew over 31 feet and less than 32 feet, while 6 drew over 32 feet,
the deepest draft being 32 feet 6 inches. Boston in that year (1905)
had I vessel drawing over 30 feet— the "Ivemia** — ^with a draft of 31
feet, while there were three which carried a draft of just 30 feet

'Into and out of New York there were in 1906 33 vessels drawing
30 feet and over, the draft being as follows: 30 feet (even), 3; be-
tween 30 and 31 feet, 13; between 31 and 32 feet, 12; 32 feet and over
(greatest depth 32 feet S inches), 2; to this add vessels piloted by
New Jersey pilots, draft not given, but over 30 feet, 3.

'The latest records of the committee as to the draft of the vessels
at the ports of New York, Boston and Baltimore are for the year


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