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PHILADELPHIA

IN THE WORLD WAR
1914-1919




© Rau Art Studios, Inc.



Philadelphia

in the

World War



1914-1919




'Published for
Th e Ph 1 ladelphiaWar History Committee

Wynkoop HallenbeckCrawford Co.

"Trinting Tfeadquarters "

Troducers of Warnistories

80 Lafayette Street

C^wYork^

1922



JD570



Publisher's Note: We cannot let this opportunity pass
without taking occasion to express our thanks and the very
great appreciation that we have for the fine spirit of co-
operation which Mr. John Frederick Lewis, Chairman of
the Philadelphia War History Committee, has shown in
the preparation and publication of this volume, which is one
of such historical interest and value as to be handed down
through posterity. In this expression of our appreciation we
wish to include also Mr. J. Jarden Guenther, Secretary, and
the other members of the Committee, whose whole-hearted
cooperation and sustained effort have made the book possible.

Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co.



Copyright 1922, by
Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co.



FOREWORD

Philadelphia's patriotism and unswerving loyalty to the
Nation were never more plainly manifested than during
the World War. Her people gave without stint, of their
time and their means; many were wounded, and some,
alas, made the supreme sacrifice at their Country's call.
It is appropriate that a record of their work shall be pre-
served in permanent form for widespread circulation.
Interest and sentiment alike suggest that all information
concerning the activities of Philadelphians, whether in
military, naval, civil, industrial or financial circles during
the war, shall be preserved for historical reasons, and as
an inspiration to future generations.

The Philadelphia War History Committee, which was
appointed September 22, 1919, by the Honorable Thomas
B. Smith, then Mayor of Philadelphia, and continued in
office during my administration, has been steadily at work
since its appointment, gathering material for a compre-
hensive history, and while it has not been possible to bring
within the compass of a single volume all the details of the
work of our people, it is hoped that this volume will be
welcomed by every Philadelphian as a worthy memorial of
the services of our fellow citizens during one of the most
vital chapters in the history of the United States.

J. HAMPTON MOORE,

Mayor



877015



CONTENTS

PAGE

Philadelphia's War Chronology 15

Mayor Smith's War Committees 46

Philadelphia Home Defense Reserve 55

Philadelphia School Mobilization Committee 60

Joint Councilmanic Committee 65

Student Military Training Camps . 78

Philadelphia Military Training Corps 81

Military Training in Local Schools and Colleges 83

U. of P.; Drexel; Hahnemann; Jefferson; St. Joseph's; Temple

Pennsylvania Women's Division for National Preparedness 90

Local Belgian Relief Committee 93

History of the 28th Division 94

Work of the Draft Boards 126

History of the 79th Division 134

History of Other Philadelphia Units 154

American Field Service; 414th Telegraph Battalion; 19th Engineers;
Airmen of Philadelphia; American Foreign Legion; 16th Infantry;
Women in the Service; Tank Corps; 406th Telegraph Battalion; State
Fencibles; Pioneer Infantry Regiments; First Troop, P. C. C; U. S.
A. A. S. ; Military Intelligence; Colored Units; Baldwin's Siberian
Contingent.

Base Hospital Units 201

No. 10; No. 20; No. 34; No. 38; Hospital Unit A; Red Cross General
Hospital No. 1.

Frankford and Schuylkill Arsenals 231

Army Casualty List 249

Fourth Naval District Report and 258

Philadelphians in the Navy; Recruiting for U. S. N. R. F.; Naval
Intelligence; Naval Militia of Pennsylvania; Camouflage Painting;
Naval Base No. 5; U. S. Naval Commissary Schools.



CONTENTS— Continued

PAGE

Naval Casualty List 331

History of Philadelphia Marines 333

Marine Casualty List 342

Pennsylvania and Philadelphia Councils of National Defense .... 343

The Port of Philadelphia 357

Work of U. S. Shipping Board and Local Ship Yards 361

Cramps; Merchant Shipbuilding Corp.; N. Y. Shipbuilding Corp.;

Sun Shipbuilding Co.; Traylor.

Manning the Merchant Marine 399

Philadelphia Ordnance District 403

Some Wartime Industries of Philadelphia 410

Alexander Brothers; Alteneder; American Metal Works; American
Pulley Co.; Baldwin; Bethlehem Steel Co.; Blaisdell Pencil Co.;
J. G. Brill Co.; E. G. Budd; Ford Motor Co.; Abram Cox; Day and
Zimmermann, Inc.; Heller and Brightly; Janney, Steinmetz & Co.;
Lupton; John Lucas & Co.; Fayette R. Plumb, Inc.; Jacob Reed's
Sons ; Shoemaker and Busch ; Smith, Kline and French Co. ; Summerill
Tubing Co. ; J. S. Thorn Co. ; John Wood Mfg. Co. ; Tacony Steel Co. ;
A. H. Fox; Taylor- Wharton ; Hale and Kilburn; du Ponts; Hercules
Powder Co.; Midvale Steel Co.; Niles-Bement-Pond.

Bell Telephone Co. of Penna 457

Board of Trade .462

Chamber of Commerce 465

Commercial Museums 466

War Industries Board . 469

Some Federal Agencies 474

Federal Reserve Bank; War Savings Division; Liberty Loans; Foreign
Language Division; Four-Minute Men; Fuel, Food and Railroad
(including B. & 0. R. R.; P. R. R.; P. & R. Ry.) Administrations;
Employment Service; American Railway Express.

The Newspapers' Part in the War 515

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and Local Artists . . . 517
American Red Cross 523



CONTENTS— Continued

PAGE

Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania d54

Relief Activities

American Friends Service Committee; National League for Woman's
Service; Navy League; P. R. R. Women's Division for War Relief;
Pennsylvania Society, Colonial Dames of America; Women's Land
Army; Women's Permanent Emergency Association of Germantown.

k *• •*• ... 620

Religious Activities

Protestant Churches and Organizations.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese.

Jewish Congregations and Organizations.

War Time Recreational Work

A. L. A.; Free Library; Community Singing; Historical Hikes; J. W. B.;
K. of C; Benedict Service Club; Salvation Army; United Service
Club; W. C. C. S.; War Emergency Unit; Historical Society of Penn-
sylvania; Y. M. C. A.; Y. W. C. A.; War Welfare Council.

Women's Clubs

Civic; New Century; Philomusian.

694
Men's Clubs

Aero; Art; Engineers; Markham; Mercantile; Penn; Philadelphia;
Philadelphia Country; Racquet; Rotary; University; Union League;

Franklin Institute.

711
University of Pennsylvania

"i ^
Bureau of Municipal Research

North American Civic League for Immigrants ....••

^,. , r. • ^16

Boy and Girl Scouts

719
British and Canadian Recruiting Mission ■ - •

725
The Return of Troops

™ . . .745

Vocational Training

War Department's Work for Demobilized Troops

.756
The American Legion

Military Order of Foreign Wars

759
Military Order of the World War

National American War Mothers

_ . — . 762

Philadelphia s Service Flag ; • • •



INTRODUCTION

PHILADELPHIA is probably the most native American of all the large
cities in the United States, and is certainly second to none in patriotism.
Her loyalty has been shown upon every battlefield which has marked the
Nation's history — in Mexico, in the Philippines, in Cuba, and alas, in France —
and none the less by those who, kept at home, spared neither time nor treasure
for those who went away. It is well to record such loyalty and to publish the same,
so that the present, as well as the future, may know what was done and may
again be done by a united people.

This book is such a record. It aims to be a comprehensive history of the part
Philadelphia played in the World War. To publish everything her people did is
manifestly impossible. Neither Municipal, State nor Federal archives have
yet been completed, but it is hoped that in the following pages no important
work has gone without mention, and that at least some credit has been given to
all the different activities in which her people were engaged. Nearly 100,000 of
her young men and women were in the Army or Navy, or in some branch of the
Federal service directly connected therewith, and few indeed of her 400,000 homes
but witnessed some effort towards winning the war.

Philadelphia was the most congested war material producing district in the
United States, and the total amount of her output and its varied character are
extraordinary. Her ships, her locomotives and her trucks, her guns, rifles and
shells, her medicines and chemicals, and her military and naval supplies of all
kinds, were produced in enormous quantities, with amazing speed, and promptly
sent wherever needed.

From the day Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, June 28,
1914, the work of the municipality and her citizens began, preparedness merely,
but none the less earnest work against possible eventualities. The War Chronology
prepared by Mr. Clark and published herewith will give at a glance the gradual
sequence with which the road to war was marked.

On March 20, 1917, the Mayor appointed a Home Defense Committee,
and from that time until February 4, 1921, when the last of 122 ships were deliv-
ered by the American International Shipbuilding Corporation from the plant at
Hog Island, the city's activities never ceased. When President Wilson, on April
6, 1917, declared a state of war with Germany to exist, instant support was offered
the Government. While the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee was still
in session, the Mayor wired the President pledging the ungrudging support of
all the men and women of Philadelphia and all the City's resources to maintain
the honor and dignity of the Nation and to protect the lives and property of
Americans on land and sea, and this pledge was carried out to the letter.

The work of the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee was afterwards
largely taken over by the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety when a Phila-
delphia Branch was appointed for the Council of National Defense, and after
the termination of hostilities, when the work of the Philadelphia Council was
completed, its Chairman, Judge Martin, suggested that the historical research



which it had conducted should be continued by the appointment of a Philadelphia
War History Committee. The Council had collected a large number of photo-
graphs showing the war-time activities in Philadelphia, and had commenced
the work of securing the war records of Philadelphia men and women in service.
A house to house canvass had been made by the Police Department, and some
55 000 records obtained, but much remained to be done. The suggestion of Judge
Martin was accepted and a Committee appointed which organized as follows:
John Frederick Lewis, Chairman; J. Jarden Guenther, Secretary; Mrs. J. Willis
Martin, Mrs. Barclay H. Warburton, Franz Ehrlich, Jr., James E. Lennon, Dr.
Edward B. Gleason, John V. Loughney and Howard Wayne Smith. This Com-
mittee received a small balance of an appropriation which had been made by
City Councils to the Philadelphia Council of National Defense, subsequently
followed by a small appropriation for clerical and stenographic service, and with
these funds and the assistance of the Women's Committee of the Pennsylvania
Council of National Defense, all the material in this book has been gotten together

for publication. ,

To J. Jarden Guenther, the Secretary of the Committee, acknowledgment
is made for faithful and skilful service, but the printing and publication of the
book are due entirely to the public spirit and enterprise of the Wynkoop Hallenbeck
Crawford Company of New York, which has made an enviable record issuing war

histories. _•'"'„ T

John Frederick Lewis.




PHILADELPHIA'S WAR CHRONOLOGY



By William Bell Clark




PHILADELPHIA'S varied part in the World War from
June, 1914, to the beginning of 1921, is here arranged in
chronological order. The dates of the great national or
international events of the same period are shown in italics
and form a basis of correlation with the local happenings.
• In no sense is this a complete chronology of the city
in the war. To attempt to tell everything that happened,
even through the medium of a sentence apiece, would re-
quire more space than this entire volume. Hence, only
the more important events are set forth. For illustration:
the histories of the national guard units or the drafted men are not attempted
after the departure from the city. Those desirous of following them can do so
elsewhere in this volume.

In arranging the chronology, the files of the local newspapers were used and
the compiler sought to refrain from interpolating anything which, censured during
the war period, has been made public since. For this reason there will be found
little regarding what happened at the Navy Yard after April, 1916. The work of
the Yard remained a closed book to the public until the war ended.

Questions of space made it imperative not to attempt to recount every draft
call from the city; every launching at the numerous shipyards; every meeting or
rally of the loan and other campaigns, etc. The principal dates are given through-
out in the cases of the loans — opening, closing, subscriptions — and one or two
important incidents.

The war period, particularly the year 1918, was filled with propaganda. At
times it required a nice distinction to ascertain just what was news and what
represented press agenting of war activities. This was particularly true in the
recruiting campaigns and the many activities under the Food and Fuel Adminis-
trations and various branches of the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety
and Council of National Defense.

Undoubtedly there will be many who may feel that their own activities
have been slighted or overlooked. To them it can only be said that space
was at a premium and all that could be crowded into that space appears in
the chronology.

15



1914
June 28 — Archduke Francis Ferdinand, of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, assassinated in

Serajevo.
July 6 — Pennsylvania Naval Militia (Philadelphia Battalion), sails for two weeks' practise

cruise on U. S. S. Rhode Island.
July 9 — First annual German Day, held at Lemon Hill, by German-American societies of

the city.
July 20 — U. S. Destroyer O'Brien launched at Cramps.
July . ZS-B-Aristria-Hungarian ultimatum delivered to Serbia.

, V • )+*wn&a S. S. Prinz Adalbert sails with Philadelphia passenger, Dr. Maximilian
tt ( , , Roedmann; ship subsequently put into Falmouth, England, and is seized as prize.
#1$Y : 25- — Aiufi o- Hungary receives and rejects Serbia's reply to the ultimatum.
July 26 — Austria-Hungary and Russia begin mobilization.
July 28 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia.

Paris Bourse closed.
July 29 — Russia completes mobilization in districts of Odessa, Kiev, Moscow and Kazan.

Austro-Hungarian Consulate at 8th and Spruce streets besieged by reservists
awaiting call to arms.
July 30 — Russia orders complete mobilization in all districts.

Philadelphia Stock Market feels first effects of war alarms.
July 31 — Germany sends Russia ultimatum to stop every war measure within twelve hours.
London Stock Exchange closed.
Philadelphia Stock Exchange closed.

Cancelation of sailing orders for German liner Imperator temporarily maroons a
number of Philadelphians in Hamburg, including Morris L. Clothier, Mr. and
Mrs. George W. Kendrick, 3d, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert J. Tily.
Aug. 1 — France orders mobilization.

Germany declares war against Russia.

Austro-Hungarian Consulate receives Imperial order calling home every Austrian

and Hungarian, between 21 and 33.
American liner Merion sails from Philadelphia with 150 passengers.
Thirty million in gold transferred from local U. S. Mint to Sub-Treasury, New York.
Aug. 2 — Germany demands free passage for her troops across Belgium.
Aug. 3 — Germany declares war against France.

Germany serves ultimatum on Belgium and violates teller's border.

France declares war on Germany.

Philadelphia Clearing House decides to issue certificates to protect gold supply

from depletion by European demands.
Newspapers begin to list hundreds of local tourists caught in the war zone.
Aug. 4 — Great Britain serves ultimatum on Germany regarding violation of Belgian neutrality.
German armies begin attack on Liege forts.
Germany declares war on Belgium.
President Wilson issues Neutrality Proclamation.

North German Lloyd liner Kronprincessin Cecilie, after vainly trying to make
German port with $10,600,000 in gold, runs into Bar Harbor, Me., the local pas-
sengers on board including Morris L. Cooke, Dr. Francis X. Dercum, Robert
Glendinning, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph B. McCall, Joseph B. McCall, Jr., and Miss
Leonore McCall.
British Consulate instructed to inform British ships not to enter German ports.
Fifty French reservists leave local consulate for New York.
Aug. 5 — Great Britain declares war against Germany.

North German Lloyd liner Bradenburg reaches port after pursuit off Delaware;

left Bremen, July 23d with 387 passengers.
Hamburg-American liner Prinz Oskar arrives in Delaware.
Aug. 6 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Russia.
Serbia declares war against Germany.
Philadelphia Sub-Treasury accepts deposits for Americans marooned abroad.

16



Aug. 6 — Mauretania reaches Halifax with the Philadelphians who had been delayed in Ham-
burg when Imperator failed to sail.
Aug. 7 — Italian liner Ancona arrives at Philadelphia.

First Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania, leaves for two weeks' training at
Mt. Gretna.
Aug. 8 — Montenegro declares war against Austria-Hungary.
Aug. 9 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Montenegro.

Montenegro declares war against Germany.
Aug. 10 — German warships "Goeben' and "Breslau" enter the Dardanelles.

American liner Haverford arrives from Liverpool with 555 passengers who had been

kept in ignorance of war declarations.
Italian liner Ancona sails with 800 passengers, mostly reservists.
Aug. 13 — France and Great Britain declare war against Austria-Hungary.
Aug. 14 — First British Expeditionary Force begins to arrive in France.
Aug. 15 — Haverford sails for Liverpool with seventy-three passengers.
Aug. 17 — Last Liege forts fall.
Aug. 18 — Charles J. Hexamer, president of National German Alliance, issues appeal to keep

Japan out of the war and save the Pacific from Japanese domination.
Aug. 19 — U. S. Destroyer Nicholson launched at Cramps.

Aug. 22 — North German Lloyd liner Bradenburg sails with heavy cargo of coal. (Note:
The Bradenburg eluded the Allied blockade, coaled a German raider, and reached
Norway in safety.)
Aug. 23 — Japan declares war against Germany.
Belgian forts at Namur fall.

Serbia defeats Auslro-Hungarian invaders at Jadar.
Aug. 24 — British forced back at Mons.
Aug. 26 — British defeated at La Cateau.
Aug. 27 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Japan.

Paul Hagemans, Belgian Consul-General, denounces bombing of defenseless cities
by Zeppelins.
Aug. 28 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Belgium.

British light cruisers defeat Germans at Helgoland Bight.
Aug. 30 — Bussian army annihilated at Tannenburg.

Sept. 1 — American liner Merion reaches Philadelphia with 408 passengers.
Sept. 3 — Twelve Philadelphia nurses, headed by Miss Margaret Lehman, leave for Bed

Cross work in Europe.
Sept. 5 — The Battle of the Marne opens.

Merion sails for Liverpool with forty-eight passengers.
Sept. 9 — German armies retreat toward the Aisne.
Sept. 11 — German and Austro-Hungarian Consuls devise plan to give Central Empire war

news jointly.
Sept. 13 — Battle of the A isne opens.
Sept. 14 — Italian liner Ancona arrives at Philadelphia with 111 passengers.

Haverford, American Line, arrives at Philadelphia with 458 passengers.
Sept. 19 — Knights Templar of First (Pennsylvania) Division, at fourteenth Annual Field Day

on Belmont Plateau, pray for restoration of peace in Europe.
Sept. 20 — First Belgian Mission to the United States, headed by M. H. Carton de Wiart.

Minister of Justice, visits Philadelphia.
Sept. 21 — Secretary of the Navy Daniels present at Philadelphia Navy Yard, for opening

of work on new $200,000 shipway.
Sept. 22 — British cruisers "Aboukir" "Hogue" and "Cressy" torpedoed and sunk by U-9.
Sept. 30 — Battle of the Aisne ends in a draw.
Oct. 5 — American liner Merion arrives at Philadelphia with 418 passengers.

Citizens' Permanent Belief Committee, Mayor Blankenburg, Chairman, issues
appeal for money for war sufferers to be expended by Bed Cross.
Oct. 9 — Antwerp falls to the Germans.

17



Oct. 12 — Mrs. Edward S. Sayres organizes Local Belgian Relief Committee.

Oct. 14 — Belgian Consul General Hagemans makes appeal in connection with the visit

of Mme. Emile Van der Velde, wife of the Belgian Minister of State.
Oct. 19 — American liner Haverford arrives at Philadelphia with 428 passengers.
Oct. 20 — Committee of Mercy, forerunner of Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania, formed at

meeting at home of Mrs. Eli Kirk Price, 1709 Walnut Street.
Oct. 22 — Child Federation opens booth in City Hall courtyard for Christmas gifts for

orphaned little ones of Europe.
Oct. 28 — Germans open attack on Ypres front in race for Channel ports.
Oct. 30 — Emergency Aid Committee of Pennsylvania formed, and headquarters opened at

1428 Walnut Street.
Nov. 1 — Cradock's British fleet dispersed and partly destroyed by Von Spee's German Squadron

off Coronet, Chili.
Nov. 3 — Russia declares war against Turkey.

Great Britain declares the North Sea a "military area" and restricts neutral shipping
Martin G. Brumbaugh elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
Nov. 4 — Emergency Aid Committee sends first consignment of 16 cases for European relief.
Nov. 5 — Great Britain and France declare war against Turkey.
Nov. 7 — Japan captures German Chinese concession at Tsintau.

John Wanamaker charters Norwegian S. S. Thelma, as Belgian food ship, and Com-
mittee of Publishers is formed to raise money to stock same.
Nov. 9 — German commerce destroyer "Emden" sunk by Australian cruiser "Sydney" off

South Keeling Island.
Nov. 12 — German attack on Ypres front ends.

Belgian relief ship Thelma sails with 1,700 tons of food.
Nov. 23 — Turkey declares war against the Entente.

Nov. 25 — Second foodship, the Orn, sails for Beligum with 2,000 tons of food.
Nov. 27 — British super-dreadnaught "Audacious" sunk by mine off north coast of Ireland.
Foodship Thelma reaches Falmouth, England.




Mayor Blankenburg and Committee speeding the Relief Ship "Orn"

18



Nov. 28 — Emergency Aid Committee takes over basement of Lincoln Building for five depart-

- ments.
Nov. 29 — Food ship Thelma leaves Falmouth.
Dec. 2 — Serbia declares war against Turkey.

$198,891.06 and $60,000 worth of food raised in Philadelphia and surrounding

towns for Thelma and Orn, according to report of Publishers' Committee.
Dec. 5 — Foodship Thelma reaches Rotterdam.

British S. S. Batiscan, with 6,700 tons of wheat and grain, sails from Philadelphia

under auspices of American Commission for Relief in Belgium.
Dec. 8 — Von Spee's German Squadron destroyed by Slurdee's British fleet off Falkland Islands.
Dec. 10 — Councils appropriate $50,000 for relief of the city's destitute; fund administered

jointly with Emergency Aid.
Dec. 14 — Emergency Aid's three day "Made in America Bazaar," opens in Horticultural Hall,

Broad Street, below Locust Street.
Dec. 19 — Food ship Orn arrives at Rotterdam.
Dec. 25 — British S. S. Ferrona, with 256,005 bushel* of wheat, sails from Philadelphia under

auspices of American Commission for Relief of Belgium.
Dec. 26 — American Government protests against Great Britain's "military area" order and

irregularities of such a blockade.
Dec. 30— British S. S. Industry, with 5,000 tons of foodstuffs, including $57,000 worth pur-
chased by Philadelphia Belgian Relief Committee, sails from Philadelphia under

auspices of American Commission for Relief of Belgium.
1915
Jan. 7 — Great Britain's reply to American protest declares that increased American trade with

neutrals implies additional contraband goods destined for Germany.
Hebrews at meeting in Mercantile Hall inaugurate $100,000 campaign for relief

of starving Jews in war zone.
Jan. 8 — Battle of Soissons opens.

Jan. 11 — "Made in America Bazaar" profits announced as $50,301.10.
Jan. 15 — Battle of Soissons ends.
Jan. 19 — Governor Brumbaugh inaugurated.

Jan. 24 — German cruiser "Biucher" sunk in sea-fight on Dogger Bank.
Feb. 4 — Germany proclaims a "war zone" around the British Isles.



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