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Philip Freeman.

The principles of divine service; an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church (Volume 1) online

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THE

PRINCIPLES OF DIYINE SEPiVICE.



THE

PRINCIPLES OF DIVINE SERVICE.

AN ENQITIEY CONCEEMNG

THE TRUE MANNER OF UNDERSTANDING AND USING
THE ORDER FOR

MORNING AND EVENING PRAYER,

AND FOE

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE HOLY COMMUNION

IX THE

ENGLISH CHURCH.



PHILIP FKEEMAN, M.A.

VICAI! OF TIIORVERTON, CANON AND ARCHDEACON OF EXETER, AND EXAMINING
CHAPLAIN TO THE LATE LOUD BISHOP OF EXETER.



VOL. L— MORNING AND EVENING PRAYER.



stare super antiquas vias.
2ndpTav $\axfs' rai/rav itSfffifi.



CHEAPER RE -ISSUE,

Oxfortr anti iLoution ;
JAMES PARKER AND Co.

CAMBRIDGE : MACMILLANS.

1871.



printcb bn |amcs |)arl;cr anb cTo.. Crodiu-uurb C^tfoib.



I/' /

TO THE

CLERGY AND LAITY

OF THE

ENGLISH CHURCH,

AND OF

THE CHURCHES IN COMMUNION WITH HEI?,

THIS ATTEMPT

TO ELUCIDATE HER

OFFICES OF PUI5LIC WORSHIP

IS WITH ALL HUMILITY

INSCRIBED,

HV THEIR AFFECTIONATE BROTHER IN CI I HIST,

THli AUTHOJl.



2067103



NOTICE TO THE CHEAPER RE-ISSUE.



THE present edition of this work will, it is hoped,
by the reduction made in the cost of the volumes,
place it within reach of a larger number of students
of our Church's Ritual.

The writer desires to acknowledge, with the most
humble gratitude to Almigpity God, the degree of
favour and acceptance which his humble labours have
met with at the hands of the English Church. He
has also the happiness of knowing that in one diocese,
at least, of the Sister Church of America, unanimity
on some important points has been brought about by
an appeal to the transcript here attempted of the mind
and usages of the Primitive Church.



Thk Closk, Exeter,
Nov. 14, 1870.



PREFACE.



The end for which all things exist, and especially
such as are rational and spiritual, is, by universal
confession, that they may serve to the glory of
Almighty God by duty and praise. In knowledge
of Him, moreover, and in union to Him, stands the
life of Christian men, and the means of their per-
fection. And in their seeking Him, once more, by
ways of His appointing, lies the condition of their
finding Him, and in Him all that they need. To
maintain these relations, and carry on these great
transactions, between Heaven and earth, is one pur-
pose for which the Church was founded. Nor can
any study be much more interesting than that of the
mode in which she has been used to do this in time
past, or in other j)arts of the world ; any more im-
portant to us than that of the forms of such service
existing at the present hour in the Church to which
we belong.

It has not ph'ased God to reveal to us in all par-
ticulars, but only in large and general outlines, hoio
He will be served. It has therefore from time to
time been found necessary to expound, and in par-



Mil PREFACE.

ticular instances to vindicate, the ways in which, in
the Churches of God, this duty of Divine Service
has with more or less of variety been discharged.
Nor lias such at any time been deemed an unfitting
employment for those who have received a charge to
care for the discipline, as well as the doctrine, of
Christ's Church.

In putting forth a treatise on these momentous
subjects, designed to educe the general principles of
Divine Service, or Christian Ritual, with an especial
view to the interpretation of our own, I desire to
adopt with all humility the words of a thoughtful
divine on a similar occasion : — " The only ends at
which my desires did aim in this work, Avere first
and principally the Glory of God, which is the
supreme cause of all causes, the main end of all
aims, intended by good men or angels. The second,
subordinate to this, was to give satisfaction to my
longing desires of discharging my duty to the Church
my mother, by doing her such service as I was able,
in setting forth the true worship of God, and in
maintaining the faith professed by her. The third
was to give an account that I had not altogether
spent my best days in waking dreams, or wandering
projects, or private ends ''."

I can hardly hope that in a work embracing, with
somewhat of detail, two subjects of such proverbial
difficulty and perplexity as the Israelitish sacrificial
system, and the ritual of the Christian Church, I
have altogether avoided errors, whether in matters of

» Dr. Thomas Jackson, Dedication of liis work on tlie Creed, book ix.,
to Charles II.



PREFACE. IX

fact, or in deductions from them. But I trust that
in no case are they such as to invalidate the leading
conclusions at which I have arrived as the result of
these investigations : viz., 1, that, amid much of
practical depravation and short-coming, an essential
harmony and oneness of principle has pervaded the
Service of God's Church in all times and lands ; and,
2, that the Church of this country, through her Ser-
vices, is in full accord with this universal mind of the
Church; and more especially, as in her doctrine, so
also in her ritual, when rightly conceived and acted
up to, is not furthest removed from the mind and
method of Apostolic days.

LSLE OF Cum BRAE,

Whitsuntide, 1855.



CONTENTS

OE VOL. I.



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.

The Services of the English Church imperfectly understood. Causes of this.
No rationale of them put forth at the revision of 1549. (p. 1 — 4.) The
want not fully suppUed by Hooker, (4 — 7) ; or Sparrow, Comber, &c., from
their neglecting the old Offices, (7 — 11) ; or by Palmer, who does not fully
investigate their eflect on our present forms, (11 — 18). Objections to
having recourse to the older Offices for explanation, answered, (18 — 27).
Plan of the work, and resume of points in the Morning and Evening Ser-
vices illustrated in this volume, (27 — 33).



PAllT I.
CHAPTEll I.

ON THE EARLY AND PRIMITIVE FORM OF DAILY SERVICE.

Sect. I. — This inquiry mainly historical. Paramount claims of the historical
method. Cautions in applying it. (34—36.) Occasional change a universal
law of the Church's Ritual, (36 — 39). Two great epochs of change, three
great eras, of English Ritual, (39, 40). The Daily Offices brought hither
by St. Augustine, not the Roman, (41). Prevailing erroneous notions
as to the primitive times, viz. 1. that they had no other service than the
Eucharist ; 2. that they had the Eucharist daily. Causes of these miscon-
ceptions. (42—46.)

Sect. II.— The present Ordinary Offices of East and West derived from the
same primitive source, (46—48.) Tiie Offices, in their earliest known
phafle, chiefly nocturnal. Yet not derived from the Eucharistic, but co-
existent with it from the first, (48—51.) Direct notices of it in early
writers, why scanty. Iteferencc to Ignatius, Philo, .Justin Martyr, Tertul-
lian, Hippolytus, Origcn, Cyprian, Arnobius, Basil, Clirysostom, Cassiiui.
(51-59.)



XH CONTENTS.

SkCT. 111. — I'riiuitivo forms of Ordinary Worship likely to be derived from
those of the Temple and Synagogue, (5'J — 62). General resemblance, ac-
cordingly, of the service described by St. Basil, 4th cent., to the Temple
service, (62, 63). The existing Eastern Daily Offices, again, correspond in
a genend way with St. Basil's account, (64) ; and also, in details, with
the services, 1, of the Synagogue, (64 — 67) ; and, 2, of the Temple, (67 —
69). Minor correspondences. Eastern Daily Offices, like the Jewish,
devoid of lessons from Scriptui-e. Saturday, or the Sabbath, a festival in
the East. (69 — 72.) Illustrations of the Western Offices from the fore-
going. Penitential introduction to the primitive Eastern Office a warrant
for that of the English Church : analogy for it in the West also. (72—75.)
The Venite, in some form, universal in East and West ; with what diffijr-
cnces, (72 — 78).

Sect. IV.. — The probable contents of the primitive Daily Offices further
examined. Two sources of information: 1. Apostolic Constitutions, —
a second error of Bingham's, in deferring too much to them. 2. The
existing Eastern Offices. Grounds for assigning an early date to their
main contents ; viz. that the later Western schemes of service (in fifth
and sixth centuries) were derived thence. (78 — 81.) Brief sketch of
these schemes. Proofs of their Eastern derivation. (81 — 86.)

Sect. V. — Eastern Daily Offices, why neglected, as a means of illustration, by
AVestern ritualists. How much of the Eastern Offices of primitive or very
early date. Primitive scheme : — Two Offices : 1. Noetumo-matutinal ;
2. Evening. (87—99.) Table of Nocturns Office. (90.) Reasons for
thinking it primitive. Midnight character. (Hymn of the Bridegroom's
coming.) Accordance with Christ's precept, (St. Mark xiii. 35) ; with
St. Basil's account of night-service in the fourth century. Psalms used
as Lessons. (91 — 94.) " Songs of degrees," as used in this Office ; and
elsewhere in East and West. (94—96.) Western Offices, in what points
indebted to Eastern Nocturns. Name and number of " Nocturns." Creed ;
Lord's Prayer ; both probably of primitive daily use in the East. (96
— 100.) Hymns; their antiquity; responsory character. Te Deum;
origin of it. Confession and Absolution. Litany. (100 — 106.) Table,
comparing this office with our Matins. (106.) Remarks : — Doxology
to the Lord's Prayer, peculiar to us among Western Churches. Eastern
form of it. Our General Thanksgiving.

Sect. VI. — The ancient Nocturnal and Morning Offices followed each other
without any interval : so TertuUian, St. Basil, and present Eastern Offices,
(109—113). Table of contents of the Eastern Morning Office, (112).
Benediction before the Psalmody. Origin and meaning of " Jube Domine,
benedicere," before lessons in the West, (112 — 115) ; of " Lord, open
Thou," &c., (115 — 117). Six Psalms at the early Morning Office, in East
and West; half penitential, half jubilant, (118—120). The Western
Antiphon, its origin and purpose ; how far a loss in our present Offices,
(120 — 123). Eastern Psalm and Canticle scheme, in this Office, the origin
of the Western Matins scheme of Psalms, Lessons, and Canticles, (123—
129). The Lauds Psalms, &c., (130). Beauty of the Eastern Morning
Office : indications of its date. (130 — 133.)



CONTENTS. xm

Sect. VII. — Table of contents of Eastern Vespers, (133). Resembles Noc-
turns and Matins conjoined. Hymn of " Joyful ligbt," &c., (134 — 136).
The Western Vespers follows this model as to, 1, general structure ;
2, number of Psalms; 3, the Capituhim. Origin and intention of this,
(136 — 141) ; and of the Western Collect, viz. from Eastern prayer-like
hymns adnpted to the Gospels. Derivations of Collect. (141 — 147.) Date
of Eastern Vespers. Ceremony of entrance of the Gospels, with hymn
following, the prototype of Western daily reading of Scripture. (147, 148.)

Remarks on the foregoing : — 1. Primitive existence of other services than
Eucharistic J 2. Two, or at most three, such services daily; 3. Ancient ideal
of Church Service as a whole, — weekly Eucharist, daily prayer, (148 — 152) ;
4. Later Western Ritual derived from Eastern ; mistakes of Western
Ritualists from not acknowledging this ; 5. Elements of primitive Service,
— Praise, Meditation, Prayer, Confession ; these preserved in our own,
(152 — 157) ; 6. Our Services compared with those of the " Evangelical
Church;" with that practically used in the Roman, (157 — 161).



CHAPTER II.
ON THE THEORY OF THE CHURCH'S ORDINARY WORSHIP.

Sect. I. — Various theories respecting it, (162 — 166). Deeper inquiry
necessary. The Incarnation and priesthood of Christ. Twofold aspect of
His actions, according as His Priesthood is taken fully into the account or
not. (167 — 171.) Correspondent twofold aspect of the Christian estate :
viz. 1. Renewal; 2. Oblation in, participation of, Christ : — imparted in
Baptism and the Eucharist respectively, (171 — 178).

Sect. II. — The two Sacraments dilTcr not in degree only, but in kind.
Hence the greater solemnity of the Eucharist, from its peculiar relation to
the Sacrifice of Christ. (179—184.) Infant Communion unnatural, (185).
This solemnity points to less of frequency, and to necessity for a lower
kind of service. Sunday and festival celebration the ancient rule accord-
ingly. (185 — 192.) Daily Communion of later introduction; synchronized
with decay in general discipline, (193).

Sect. III. — The Christian life; posfcsses two aspects: 1. As a state of
renewal in Christ; 2. Of priesthood in Ilim ; — these being the develop-
ment of the position given by the two Sacraments, (194 — 199). Public
Worship an exercise more especially of our pricsthcod in Clirist, (199).
Results of this view. Harmonious operation of Eiicbaristic and Ordinary
Service. Argument for retention of Daily Service ; for restoration of
Weekly Communion, (199—206). True view of priesthood, lay and
clerical. Both truths must be firmly held, as of old. (207—211.) Con-
tents of Ordinary Offices in part Baptismal, but In a still greater degrre
Kucharistic, (211—215).



xiv CONTENTS.



CHAPTER III.

ON THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS OF THE ANCIENT
ENGLISH OFFICES.

Sect. I. — Retrospect. The Eastern Offices, why so much dwelt on in
ch. I., (p. 216 — 221). The survey of them resumed. Prime : its late
origin; contents. Western Prime founded on it. Origin of our third
IMorning Collect. Third hour. Sixth. Ninth. Compline. The invention
of it wrongly ascribed to St. Benedict. Its contents. Western Compline
a mere abridgment of it. (222 — 228.) Origin of " Lighten our dark-
ness." These Offices originally private. Expediency of adopting them
entire, as public Offices, considered. Their doctrinal aspect. (228 — 233.)

Sect. II. — Obscurity of early Western ordinary Ritual. Probability that it
was mainly identical with Eastern. Opinion of Grancolas to that effect.
Sketch of its probable contents in this country and elsewhere. (234 — 241.)
Later Western schemes, — French, Spanish, Milanese, Roman, English,
By whom originated ? Not by Pope Damasus ; or St. Benedict. Probably
by Cassia^-, chiefly. (241 — 245.) The English and Roman Ordinary
Offices quite distinct, though closelj' akin. Proofs of this. (245 — 249.)
Cassian's qualifications for originating both rites. Hence Cassian and
St. Leo probably co-originators of the Roman rite ; — Cassian alone of
tlie JEnglish; — both on the old Western basis. Cassian's rite brought
to England by St. Augustine. (249 — 254). Resvme. Western ordinary
Ritual universally indebted to Eastern. The great Western Revision
in fifth and sixth centuries a precedent for the English in the sixteenth
and seventeenth. (254 — 259.)

Sect. III. — Spirit of the old English Offices, (see tables below, pp. 288, 289).
Not appreciated by ritualists generally, (259 — 262). Character of Matins ;
of Lauds ; of Prime. Review of spirit of these three Offices. (262 — 269.)
Spirit of Tierce, Sext, Nones; of Vespers; of Compline. Geuius of East
and West compared. (270—274.)



CHAPTER IV.

ON THE STRUCTURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ORDER
FOR MORNING AND EVENTNG PRAYER.

Sect. I.— The present English Offices, the only fonn in which the ancient
ritual really survives. (275—281.] Threefold aspect of them : 1. Eucba-
ristic; 2. Structural. (281 — 287.) Tables, exhibiting the structural
connection of the present with the old Offices. (288, 289.) Plan of evo-



CONTENTS. XV

lution of our Morning Office. The old ideas and spirit, as well as the old
order, preserved, lllustratiou of this from the revision made of the
Primer. Suggestion in case of further revision. (290 — 299.) Evening
Office similarly evolved. (299 — 303.) 3. Representative aspect of the
Offices. Compensates for their brevity. Musical mode of service. (303 —
307.)

Sect. II. — General view of our present Offices. The old Confession and
Absolution first placed before Matins by Quignon. Our Absolution founded
on the latter. (307 — 313.) But cast in a different mould, after an existing
reformed Service. Was an adaptation of the old private form of Abso-
lution. (313 — 318.) Doctrine of Absolution. Eastern illustration. Our
Confessions based on old private forms in use in the English Church.
Large citation in it from Rom. vii. (318 — 322.) Sentences and Exhorta-
tion borrowed from the old English Lenten Capitula and Homilies. In
what light to be viewed and used. (322 — 327.)

Sect. III. — Rationale of the Lord's Prayer, as a summary of the Office.
The opening Versicles, &c. The Venite. Its twofold aspect. Substitution
of anthems on Easter-day. (328 — 331.) The Psalms, an instrument, 1. Of
praise; but also, 2. Of knowledge. Spirit of the old Offices, how preserved
in them. Antiphons; how far the principle of them practically survives
with us. Our Psalm-cycle more free and varied than the old. Eucha-
ristic aspect of the Psalms. (331 — 337.)

Sect. IV. — The Lessons, primarily, supply topics of praise. The reading of
Scripture at large vindicated on this ground. The old system compared
with ours. (337 — 341.) Long Scripture-lessons a primitive usage, (311 —
344). Ethical and spiritual effects of them, (344—347). The Sunday
and Festival Lesson -cycle. Loss of the ancient Benedictions. Eucha-
ristic aspect of the Lessons. (347 — 350.)

The Canticles; their design. The Te Deum, how based on Scripture.
Analysis of it. (350—355.) The other Canticles, (355—360).

Sect. V. — The Creed. Its position; its design twofold, as summing up
of doctrine, and basis of prayer. "'I'he Lord be with you," &c. Short
Litany. Lord's Prayer ; its diffirent design here and at tlie beginning of
the (Office. (360— 3G1.) The Petitions; their origin: how related to the
Collects following. The First Collect ; its deep Ilucharistic connection.
The Second : its design explained from the old Offices. The Tliird, traced
to the East, and thence explained. (304 — 371.) The Intercessory Prayers;
their counterpart found in the old Offices. Structure of Western Prayers.
Pleading of Christ's merits peculiar, now, to the West. Tlie invocation.^,
an act of praise. Uelerencc to the Holy Trinity. (371 — 371.) Longer
prayers used in the East than West. Defence of this kind of prayer. Prayer
for the (iueen's Majesty ; its grandeur : earthly titles in jjrayer ancient
and commendable. Eastern parallel. Eiicharistic aspect of Colh ets and
Prayers. (374 — 378.) Design of the General Tlianksgiving. Litany; how
to be used. Prayer of St. Chrysostom ; origin and significance. Tiio
Benediction, an old English Sunday feature; Apostolic; Eueliaristic.



XVi CONTENTS.



CONCLIJSIOX.



Rk-a WAKENED energies of the English Church. After doctrinal principlep,
ritual to be considered. Proportion to be observed between Eueharistic
and Ordinary Worship. Apostolic ideal, anciently realized. Later de-
parture Crom this. Grievous inequalities of privilege for different classes.
(381 — 38t.) The English Church urged to strive for the recovery of
the Apostolic standard. Her facilities for it. Such an aim not unworthy;
nor visionary. Methods for bringing back weekly Communion. Non-
communicating attendance contrary to primitive usage. (384 — 389.) In-
creased efficiency of our Ordinary Worship universally desired. Real
condition of this question. Revision, — if any, — what direction the pre-
vious inquiry would suggest that it should take. Reasons for conserva-
tism drawn from the same source. (389 — 392.) Projects of revision : —
viz. 1. Rectification. The small amount aimed at not be set against the
risk. The Proper Lessons. 2. Retrenchment. No necessity for this;
but only for resolving, in practice, the present Offices. 3. Additional
Offices. Real existing facilities. (392—396.) The present no adequate
crisis for change. Due knowledge and use of the old Services the thing
really needed. Causes of present desuetude of them as a whole. Want
of due training of the clergy. Two reasons for restored continual
services peculiarly pressing on the English Church. (396 — 398.)



THE PEINCIPLES OF DIVINE SERVICE.

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.



" Enqmre, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the
search of their fathers. . . Shall not they teach thee, and tell thee, and
utter words out of their heart ?"



The work which is now very humbly tendered for
the acceptance of the English Church, has been written
under the earnest conviction, that the real nature of
her existing Offices of Public Worship has been but
very imperfectly investigated hitherto ; and that they
are in consequence neither correctly understood at
the present day, nor used in their full and proper
meaning.

This assertion is not made lightly. And that there
is no such antecedent improbability in it as might at
first sight appear, the following considerations may
serve to shew.

It must be borne in mind, that when these Services
first received, in the sixteenth century, the shape in
which for the most part we still possess them, no ex-
planation was put forth of the design of the several
parts, or of the relation which they bear to each
other ; nor any statement made of the great principles
upon which the use of such Services is based, and
their structure regulated. Tiie Revisers of the Offices
doubtless took it for granted that these things were
understood, and needed not to be recapitulated by

B



'^ THE PRINCIPLES OP DIVINE SERVICE.

them ; more especially as the old Services would stand
that generation in the stead of exponents, to a great
degree, of the revised ritual. All that they did, there-
fore, was to prefix a very brief and general account
of the grounds there were for a Revision, and of the
objects chiefly aimed at in it*.

It is indeed probable that they had themselves but
an imperfect perception of the entire nature of the
forms which, after thus revising them to the best of
their power, they handed down. While they neces-
sarily trusted in a measure to their own instinctive
perceptions of what was fitting in the matter of Divine
Worship, they also in a great degree yielded them-
selves up, in the exercise of a wise humility, to such
provisions and arrangements as they found existing
and long established, where no strong reason appeared
for departing from them. And it is doubtless owing
to their having thus joined to an eminently practical
tone and temper, a high degree of deference to the
judgment of the Church in past ages, that the Ser-
vices, as revised by them, have retained their hold on
the English mind ever since ; — a period of three hun-
dred years. For they have within them that which
answers, on the one hand, to the practical desire, no-
where more strongly felt than in this nation, for in-
telligible as well as devout and worthy forms of wor-
ship ; and, on the other, to its no less characteristic
reverence for that which is fixed, time-honoured, and
venerable.

But it is obvious that it would have conduced
much, even at "the time, to the full appreciation of the

' Preface to the " Book of Common Prayer," &c., of 1549 : now
placed after the Preface of 1662, and entitled "Concerning the Service
of the Church."



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 3

Services, had some competent interpreter taken in
hand, first, to explain and place on record the nature
of the old Services, with a view to perpetuating just
conceptions of so much of them as was retained un-
altered; and, secondly, to unfold the principles on
which the revised forms had been abridged or deve-
loped out of the old. For want of such a contempo-
raneous and quasi-authoritative exposition of facts and
principles, the Church might very conceivably, in the
lapse of time, drift away from a correct apprehension
of the Services she had inherited.

But, it may be asked, though the Revisers them-
selves have not performed this part of interpreter
towards their own work, have not others, at various
times, supplied the deficiency?

Now in the first place, as regards the old Services,
they were (as will be pointed out more fully here-
after^) in reality very imperfectly understood at the
time of the revision, even by professed Ritualists.
The Church of the West, including that of this
country, had possessed them for at least a thousand
years ; but the works in which they were expounded
missed of apprehending their true nature and inten-
tion, and that, too, in many most important respects.
Add to which, that on the ancient Oiiiccs of the Eng-
lish branch of the Church in particular, — which dif-



Online LibraryPhilip FreemanThe principles of divine service; an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 33)