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Philip Freeman.

The principles of divine service; an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church (Volume 1) online

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Judge will come anon." And after the ninth ode, " For Thee
all the Powers of heaven praise." Hymns of this kind are in-
deed of frequent occurrence. In the Typica, again, — a service
subjoined to that of the sixth or ninth hour, — we have : —

" The heavenly company praise Thee, and say. Holy, Holy,
Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth ; heaven and earth are full of Thy
glory :

" The company of the holy angels and archangels, with all the
powers of heaven, praise Thee, and say," Sec.

Again, in Compline : —

" The bodiless nature of the Cherubim Avith restless hymns
glorify Thee.

" The six-winged Seraphim with endless voices magnifj^ Thee.

" The whole army of the angels with Trisagion hymns wor-
ship Thee.

" For Thou art before all things — the self-existent Father.

"And hast Thy Son co-inoriginate with Thee.

"Also Thou hast the equally-honoured Spirit of life.

" All the choir of prophets and martyrs," &e.

Thus varied, and on the whole gradual, is the appearance of
this hvmn in the Greek Offices — nowhere put together, but dif-
fused everywhere. It is probable that further inquiry would
bring to light other portions of the Te Deum.

It may be added, that its very exordium is so peculiar as to
indicate some metrical necessity as the cause of it, — "Te Deum
laudamus ;" and on turning to the Greek hymns we see exactly
how this would originate. It is by no means uncommon for
them to begin thus ; as e. g. 2e t6 anopdrjTov Teix°s • • Ixerdoixeu.



NOTES. 407

And do I not doubt but that tbe Te Dcura is the translation, as
to its exordium, of a Greek hymn beginning, Se t6v Qeitv alvovfjLtv,
ofioXoyovfjitv a-e Kvpiov, or the like. It is verj' remarkable that
in the English Church a rudimentary or inchoate form of Te
Deum was appointed as the ordinary Antiphon to the Atha-
nasian Creed, (see Brev. Sai'. ad Prim. ; and Tr. Sar. Psalt.. p.
112,) " Te Deum Patrem ingcnitum, te Filium unigenitura, te
Spiritum Sanctum Paracletum, sanctara et individuam Trinita-
tem toto corde et ore confitemur." Compare the Compline
form as given above.

It is interesting to trace in like manner the manifest origin of
a more mediaeval composition, the " Stabat Mater," to Eastern
originals. Short hymns on the same theme are very common
in the East : and their language, metre, and rhyme have
manifestly suggested those of the western hymns. Thus on
ordinary Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year the
following is among the exaposteilaria (see p. 143) : —



Ev Tw Sravpw rrapfaToxxa
'H (Tf aanopoii TfKoiKra
Kal 6prjv(A>bo\j. . . S> Aoye e^aprafiivov : and the " pcrtransivit gladius," iu
tTiTpaxTO TTjv Kapdiav.

The following may serve as specimens of the collect-like
hymns of the East :

" Lord, who hast restored those who were cast out of
Paradise at the first by eating of the tree, by Thy Cross and
Passion, O God our Saviour, help us," &cc. Sunday of the ex-
pichion of Add m.

"O Lord, who at the third hour didst s(-nd down Thy all-
holy Spirit on the Apostles; that Holy Spirit take not from us,
but renew it in us who pray to Thee." Jl/onddi/ in the mine week
at LaudH. See AndrciccH JJeioliona, Fird J)(i>j-

"OThou, who by Thy Cross hast strengtiiened us to fulfil
the course of abstinence, of Thy good pleasure accomplish the
eame in us by sincere repentance, Lord of mercy."



40S NOTES.



Note E, on Chap. I. Sect. Y.- VIL

The following passages from Palmer's " Dissertations on the
Orthodox or Eastern Catholic Communion," which have come
under my notice since writing this chapter, will furnish an in-
teresting comment on the Services which ai-e the subject of it.

" When .... in the catacombs, under some great city, or in
the retired house of some brethren in the outskirts, the Hexa-
psalmus, or ' Six Psalms,' at the beginning of Matins, were
read with a devout and meditative voice by the superior, con-
taining the complaints and meditations of the Messiah, the per-
fect Man, under the sorrows and afflictions of His humanity, and
the assaults of id is enemies, all who w'ere present knew that this
voice was not only from the Messiah, the Head, but also from
the Church, His Body ; and each of them in particular found
his or her own spiritual application of the verses of those Psalms,
according to the personal troubles and necessities of each ; and
his own comfort and strength in that mixture of more cheerful
prayer and meditation with which one of these Psalms (ciii.)
tempers the others." — p. 285.

"And at Vespers, after the reading of a Psalm (civ.) fit for the
commencement of a day or a week, concerning creation and the
renewal of creation ; and after the singing of other Psalms (cxli.,
cxlii., cxxx., cxvii.), not unlike the Hexapsalinus of the Matins,
in which ' prayer was set furth as the incense, and the lifting up
of pure hands was an evening sacrifice ;' having come to the
setting sun, and seen the star of evening, and lighted the lights
of the church, the clergy coming out, and standing in a broad
curve eastwards, sang that glorious and most ancient hvmn
(' O cheerful Light,' &c.) to the eternal and consubstantial
Kff'ulgence of the Father, of whom the visible light is a symbol,
glorifying Him, together with the Father and the Huly Ghost,
one God; — a hymn full-orbed, mellow, calm, drep-toned, (as
expressing the depth of the mystery,) slow, (as being contempla-
tive.) rich with the splendour of vestments, accompanied by the
gospel, and by incense representing prayer and praise ; sung by
the elders, the first half standing without, the latter half, after
going up into the sanctuaiy ; as the doxology of the Holy Trinity,
begun in the Church on earth below, and to be finished and con-
tinued for ever in heaven." — p. 287.



NOTES. 409

"After the earliest and golden ages of the Church, during
which she was subject to persecution, and during which her
ritual worship, and the writings of her saints, like their lives,
were almost wholly spiritual and practical, there followed in the
fourth and fifth centuries another phase of character, in which
the divine depth and earnestness of the ancients, without ceasing
altogether to exist, is clothed in a garb of intellectual, rhetorical,
and poetical cultivation."

"In the greater Compline there is a manifest relic of those
primitive times when the Church was in the catacombs, under
Jewish and heathen persecutors." — lb., p. 289.



Note F, on Chap. II. Sect. I., p. 1G8.

On the earlier manifeslations of our Lord's Priesthood.

By one especial act of anticipative Priesthood, as it would
seem, was the whole of the sinless life of our Lord solemnly
presented and offered to the Father; viz. by His presentation
in the temple. Tet that very act, while it implied and involved
a priestly and sacrificial character as ap[)ertaining to the Life
of Christ from its very beginning, implied also an abeyance
of the actual priestly operation whereby it would be sanetilied
and rendered acceptable. For the presentation of first born
sons in the temple did not constitute or cons("ei;Ue them
priests, but was only an acknowledgment of their services
in that capacity being due to (iod, ever since the sanctific a-
tion of the first-born at the coming out of l'!gy))t. Our Loiil,
accordingl}', by J4is presentation, did in u in\ stery piifer His
claim to the Priesthood of tlie world as the " First-born among
many brethren." Yet not by this action did He enter upon
His priestly office, but only on a certain lower kind or dej^ree
of dedication to God, and one |)Ossessing u passive rather than
an active character. Passively, in a manner, il we m;iy say so
with reverence, lie partook of the virtue of His own prii>ily
operation yet to come. As the offering of the morning lamb
was held to be secondary to that of the evening lamb, — incense
being offered with the latter alone, — so was it here ; it was the



410 NOTES.

JkTornmg but not the Evening Sacrifice. The Priest was in
Person the same, but not as yet in virtue, and in the nature of
His action.

There is some appearance, again, of our Lord's receiving
a yet more especial designation to His Priesthood on the occa-
sion of His Baptism; for this event took place when "Jesus
began to be about thirty years old," — the priestly age : and
St. John the Baptist, after His baptism, points to Him as
" the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world."
And, doubtless, in entering on His prophetic office and ministry,
He did enter also upon a course of actions more immediately
pertaining to His Priesthood, and destined to be in due time
gathered up into it as actions of especial power for man's
salvation.



Note G, on Chap. IL Sect. I., H.

Subjoined are a few illustrations of the views contained
in these sections as to the Priesthood of Christ, and that of
Christians derived from it.

In the Old Testament we discern four great and recognised
historic types or foreshadowings of the destined work of Christ
towards man ; and in each case two stages seem to be distinctly
marked; the one of recovery or renewal, the other of priestly
and ritual oblation and dedication of that which is restored or
renewed. The four events — covering, with their antecedents,
the whole period of pre-evangelic history — are, the flood, the
call of Abraham, the bringing of Israel out of Egypt, the return
from the captivity. By these four events the world, so many
times lost and fallen away fi'om God, was marvellously reco-
vered, by the agency in each case of some single person, — Noah,
Abraham, Moses, Zerubbabel, — who thus become, and are in-
deed recognised, as signal types of Christ in the work of restora-
tion and recovery. But in each case presentation by means of
sacrifice follows closely upon the worlv of recovery. Noah, on
coming out of the Ark, makes his oblation and is accepted on
behalf of mankind. Abraham on reaching the promised land
does the same ; and is yet more signally accepted through the
ministry of Melchisedec, (see below, Part H., chap, on Theory
of Eucharistic Worship). Moses completes the typical regene-



NOTES. 411

ration of the Eed Sea by installing the subjects of it iu the
condition of "a kingdom of priests," and of full ritual ])resonta-
tion and acceptance through Aaronic ministration. The work
of Zerubbabel, lastly, in restoring the people to their own land,
is completed by Ezra and by Joshua the High-priest, through
the rebuilding of the temple and re-histalment of the nation
into its old ritual relations to God ; a state of things which con-
tinued until the coming of Christ.

By these types it was not obscurely intimated, that the work
of Christ would be twofold ; first regenerative, and then obla-
tionary. In the Apostolic Epistles the same view is fully main-
tained, and has influenced the structure of some of the most
remarkable of them. The Epistle to the Romans is well known
for the fulness of its declarations as to regeneration in baptism,
(ch. vi.) It is less frequently observed, though it is equally
clear, that the dedication and oblation by a subsequent and
separate, though life-long act, of the creature thus restored to the
Divine image, is most earnestly dwelt on as that in which the
whole economy terminates and is completed h). After St. Paul
has ended his great argument, chap. i. — xi., proving the admission
of all alike to saving membership in Christ, his exhortation is,
" I beseech you, that ye present your bodies a living sacrijice,
holy, acceptable, unto God, whicli is your reasonable service."
There is no more ground for dissociating this passage from the
Eucharist than there is for disconnecting the other with baptism
The Church has accordingly in all ages embodied these words
or the substance of them, in her Communion Offices. St. Paul
also, — after detailing the duties which go to make up this perfect
and full act of dedication, (ch. xii. — xv. 15,) — speaks of it as his
own crowning privilege to act as the ministering priest of this
ofTering: "That I should be the minister (Xfiroi)/>yoi') of Jesus
Christ to the Gentiles, ministering (Ifpou/jy.i/i'Ta) the Gospi'l of
God, that the oil'ering up (Trpof/(/>o/>(«, i. e. eitlier the offering up of
themselves, or of them by him,) of the Gentiles might be ac-
ceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost." In Ephesians,
renewal is first spoken of as an argument for Christian living,
(iv. 22j : "That ye put off the okl man, which after God is
created in righteousness;" then follows (v. U, '20,) the ritual
aspect of the Christian position : " Giving tiiaiiks {ti'^cfnar-
TovvTfs, offering Eucharistic praise,) to God and the Eather."
And again, the same order is observed in the next four
verses: "As Christ loved the Church, &c. . . tlial He might



413 NOTES.

sanctify and cleanse it with the icashing of icater by the
Word, that He might present it to Himself a glorious Church,
not having spot," &c. ; where, though the marriage idea is
perhaps the prevailing one, the sacrificial certainly enters in,
in virtue of Iva npoacfiepr}. In the twin Epistle to the Colossians
(iii. 10, 17.) the order is the same. Finally, in the Epistle to
the Hebrews, while the doctrine of baptism is laid down (vi.
1.) as among "the first principles of the doctrine of Christ''
(or " the word of the beginning of Christ," marg ), and the
danger (f falling away from that estate duly insisted upon;
something further and more mysterious is intimated, the full
apprehension and thorough embracing of which is, as compared
with the baptismal doctrine and position, a " going on unto per-
fection," (ibid.) What this higher and inner doctrine and po-
sition are, the rest of the Epistle declares : it is the Priesthood
of Christ, supervening upon and added to His Sonship ; and the
Eucharistic position and function of Christians, superadded in
a parallel manner to their regeneration and sonship. " Having
therefore boldness," is the sum of his exhortation, the point of
the whole Epistle, " to enter into the holiest by the blood
of Jesus , . through the veil, that is to say. His flesh," (into
which we are engrafted, and made mystical members,) " and hav-
ing an High-Priest over the house of God ; let us draw near, hav-
ing [had] our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our
bodies washed with pure water, [(ppavTianivoi, XfXovpeuoi,) let us
hold fast the confession of our faith," {opokoyiav : Johnson under-
stands it of the Eucharist, as Clemens Ptomanus seems to have
done,) " not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together," &:c,
(Heb, X. 19 — 25). Without insisting upon Johnson's inter-
pretation oi opoKoyia, it is Still difficult to conceive what else all
this can possibly refer to than Eucharistic approach to God.
The First Epistle of St. Peter furnishes a striking para lei to
those of St. Paul before quoted. In ch. ii. 1, the saints are first
addressed as " new-horn babes," who ought naturally " to desire
the sincere milk of the Word, that they may grow thei'eby ;"
and then reminded of their still higher position as "a spiritual
house, a holy priesthood," ordained " to offer up spii'itual saci-i-
fices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ."

It is further to be remarked, that almost every one of these
cases, Christian duties, and the same duties, are based on both
the stages or aspects of the Christian position ; only the Eucha-
ristic position is viewed as entailing a more intense respou-



NOTES. 413

sibility. Thus we have the Christian life sot forth to us bap-
tismally in Rom. vi.; eucharistically in Ilom. xii., etc. ; and so
of the rest.

The following citations from the Fathers will illustrate these
positions.



Christ, and fellowship in Christ's Actions, given in Baptism.

" Let no one then suppose that Baptism is merely the grace of
remission of sins, or furtlier, that of adoption. Nay, we know
full well, that as it purges our sins, and conveys to us the gift of
the Holy Ghost, so also it is the counterpart of Christ's sufftr-
ings. For for this cause, Paul, just now read, (Horn. vi. 3.) crit-s
aloud and says, ' Know ye not that as many of us as were bap-
tized unto Christ Jesus, were baptized, &:c. Therefore we are
buried," &cc.

"These words he spake unto them who had settled with them-
selves that Baptism ministers to xis the remission of sins, and
adoption, but not that, further, it has communion also, in repre-
sentation, with Christ's true sufferings." — St. Cyril, Catech.,
Lect. XX., Lib. of Fathers, vol. ii. part i. p. 265.

"Having been baptized unto Christ, and put on Christ, ye
have been made conformable to the Son of God ; for God hav-
ing predestinated us to the adoption of sons, made us share the
fashion of Christ's glorious Body. Being therefore made partakers
of Christ, ye are properly called christs, (anointed ones.) and
of you God said, ' Touch not My christs, or Anointed.' Now
ye were made christs by receiving the emblem of the Holy
Ghost, and all things were in a figure wrought in you, because
ye are figures of Christ." — lb., Lect. xxi. p. 2G7.



Baptism gices participation in Chrid's Priest hood.

" Ye shall receive proofs from the Old and New Testaments,
bow yc have been cleansed from your sins by tlu- Lord, u itli the
washing of water by the Word ; and how ly being priests ye have
become partakers of (!lirist's Name." — lb.. Led. xviii. p. 255.

"Tills is Jesus Clirist, who is come an High Priest of good
things to come, who out of the muiiilicence of Mis (iodhcad has
imparted to us His own title. For kings among men liiivc a
royal style which tliey keep to themselves; but Je^us Christ,



414 NOTES.

being the Son of God, has counted us worthy to be called Chris-
tians," (alluding to the meaning of Xpiaros, " anointed" as a
priest). — Lect. x. p. 106.

" And ' they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall
reign with Him 1,000 years,' is certainly not said of Bishops and
Presbyters only, who are now ^;ro^;er/y called priests in the
Church ; but as we call all ' Christians' on account of their
mystical anointins^, so do we call all priests, since they are mem-
bers of the One Priest.'" — St. Aug., Civ. Dei, xx. 10.



Participation of Christ by means of His Word, or Holy Scripture.

" When we ask for bread, we thereby understand all things.
There is a s^piritual food which the faithful know, when ye shall
receive it at the iiltar of God.

"Again, what I am handling before you now (i.e. the Scrip-
tures) is daily bread ; and the daily lesso7is which ye hear in
church are daily bread, and the hymns ye hear and repeat are
daily bread." — St. Aug., Serm. vii.. Lib. of Fathers, vol. xvi.
p. 85.

" Our daily food then in this earth is the Word of God, which
is dealt out abvays in the Churches. Again, if by this daily
bread thou understand what the faitliful receive, what ye then
receive after ye have been baptized, it is with good reason we
ask and say, ' Give us this day our daily bread,' that we may
live in such sort that we be not separated from the holy altar." —
Serm. vi., p. 74, same vol.



T/ie ChurcKs offering of herself an imitation of Chris fs.

" Christ is the Offerer and the Oblation, of which thing He
designed the sacrifice of the Church to be a Sacrament, (or
resemblance,) who, as being the Budy of Him that is the Head,
learns to offer herself hy Him ; of which one sacrifice the matsy
and various sacrifices of the ancient saints were but signs." —
St. Aug., ap. Johnson, U. S., ch. ii. p. 98.

" This is the sacrifice of Christians : in that oblation which
the Church offers, she herself is offered.'" — St. Aug., ibid.

Johnson adds : — "• The bread represents the Body of Christian
people, as well as the natural Bodv of Christ."



NOTES. 415



The Eucharistic Offering made hj all, not hy the minkieiing
Priesthood only.

St. Augustine, Sec, constantly dwell on this view : see Bing-
ham, XV. iii. 12, 34. It is perhaps most interesting to observe,
that the ancient Western Communion Office, including our own,
distinctly recognised it not only by the plui'al form of the con-
secrating prayers, (e.g. " supplices rogamus, ut accepta habeas
hfec dona, haec sacrificia, qua? tibi oflerimus,") but also by this
address of priest to people : " Orate fratres et sorores (sic Sarisb.)
pro me, ut meum pariterque vestrum (Id,), acceptum sit Domino
Deo sacrificium." Nor were the middle ages, even, altogether
forgetful of this gi-eat truth; e.g. Guerricus, a monk of Clair-
vaux, under St. Bernard : " Neque enim credere debetis, quod
soli sacerdoti supradictaj virtutes sunt necessarise, quasi solus
consecret et sacrificet Corpus Christi. Non solus sacrificat, non
solus consecrat, sed totus conventus Jidelium qui astat cum illo con-
secrat, cum illo sacrificat." — Serm. de Purif., inter Op. S. Ber-
nardi, tom. iv. p. 1896.

Of modern writers who have contended strongly for a uni-
versal Christian priesthood, while denying the existence of any
priesthood ministerial, Dr. Arnold and M. Bunsen may be named
as the chief: — the former in his Fragment on the Church ; the
latter in his " Church of the Future." See " Christian Kemem-
brancer," Xo. 59, Jan. 1848, Mr. Maurice, while denying the
atoning power of Christ's priesthood, and so leaving it without
a foundation, has some eloquent passages on the oblationary
personal priesthood of Christians. (" Doctrine of Sacrifice,"
sub fin.) See Moberly's " Sayings of the Forty Days," Disc.
iii. p. 118.

Note II.— p. 159,

" AiTER the composition of the first ' Canons,' (which arc sets
of nine * Odes,' to be sung with the nine projihetical and evan-
gelical hymns,) that is, after the time of St. Andrew of Crete
and St. Cosmas, we come to an imitative period ; ... in wliich,
for the sake of a certain uniformity or symmetry in the ritual,
vast numbers of canons and otlier singings were comi)()sed for
all the saints of the daily calendar tliroughoul the year, on the
model of the earlier compositions of the same sort; and the mo-



416 NOTES.

nastic ritual, calculated for communities wliicli should employ
one-third part of the twenty-four hours of the day and night in
the Services of the Church, was introduced more or less into
general use even in common churches. Daring this period,
which we may fix from the end of the eiglith to the end of the
twelfth century, we find a great deterioration in tlie quality of
the additions made to the ritual, and a vast growth of formalism
and unreality in their actual use.

" In ])lace of deep, warm, and just poetry, we have often cold,
empty, and hvperbolical rha])sodies. And the readings and
singings being felt to be too lung for a full and proper perform-
ance of them, men commonly fell into a perfunctory and merely
external performance of the ritual, or of many parts of it ; an
abuse which was in still later times brought to its climax by the
gradual corruption and change of the Hellenic language into the
modern Romaic; so that not only were the Psalter and Lesson
Offices, instead of being read devoutly, gabbled over with hea-
thenish rapidity ; and the canons, or streams of hymns, instead
of beiii"; suns', read or gabbled in the same manner ; but all this
was dune, and the rest of the service was performed, in a lan-
guage no longer familiar to the people, and only partly intelli-
gible to them, nor to them only, but even to the m jority of the
clerks and singers." — Pahner's Dissertations on the E.ist^n'U
Communion, p. 290.

" A stranger would notice, at least here at Athens, a too gene-
ral neglect of attendance at Divine Worship, and the ])riictice
of coming in only about the beginning of the Litur^^y, or a little
before, so as to assist neither at Vespers nor at Matins . . . and
numbers leaving the church almost as soon as the Consecration
is over, without even waiting for the Dismissal." — p. 292.

The same writer adds, that certain parts of the daily offices
are reverently performed : otiiers in the most slovenly and jiro-
fane manner.

" The above-mentioned defects and scandals, which would
strike a stranger, are often freely admitted by members of the
Eastern Church themselves, most conimonlv lightly, and as an
excuse for irreligiousness and general scepticism ; but some-
times with an appearance of serious desire that religion should



Online LibraryPhilip FreemanThe principles of divine service; an enquiry concerning the true manner of understanding and using the order for morning and evening prayer, and for the administration of the Holy Communion in the English Church (Volume 1) → online text (page 32 of 33)