Copyright
Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

. (page 1 of 45)
Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 1 of 45)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


UC-NRLF





OF THE

UNIVERSITY

OF




EARTH

SCIENCE*
LIBRARY



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS,

252



TEE



MOLLUSKS



OF



WESTERN NORTH AMERICA.




EARTH



BY
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., PH.D.



EMBRACING THE SECOND REPORT MADE TO THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION

ON THIS SUBJECT, WITH OTHER PAPERS ; REPRINTED BY

PERMISSION, WITH A GENERAL INDEX.




WASHINGTON:
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

DECEMBER, 1872.

SgSssw OF cALim



fitLf!



DWTni nriV




JAN 24 1952
' I-



SCIENCES
U&RAKf



ADVERTISEMENT



THE opportunity afforded by Mr. Carpenter's visit in 1859-60
to the United States, was embraced to secure his services in
naming and arranging the shells collected by the United States
Exploring Expedition and other parties on the Pacific Coast of
North America. Mr. Carpenter, having previously presented to
the British Association a report on the state of knowledge in
regard to the mollusks of the west coast of North America,
embodied the additional information which he obtained, chiefly
through the Smithsonian Institution, in a second report to the
same Association ; and now, in order to facilitate the study of
this class of animals by the American student, this work is re-
published with supplementary papers, from stereotype copies of
the original pages.

JOSEPH HENRY,

Secretary S. I.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,
WASHINGTON, November, 1872.



PHILADELPHIA:
COLLINS, PRINTER



QU4/7

C afr"



UBWW ~



EARTH

SCIENCES

LIBRARY



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Advertisement ...

Introduction ....

LIST OF PAPERS REPRINTED IN THIS VOLUME

" " NOT REPRINTED I2f THIS VOLUME

ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF SPECIES



PAGE

ii



13



INTRODUCTION.



AFTER the publication of my first "Report on the present state
of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast
of North America," undertaken at the request of the British
Association for the Advancement of Science, and printed in their
Report for 1856, I visited America in order to arrange the first
duplicate series of the great Reigeu Collection of Mazatlan Shells
which I had presented to the New York State Museum at
Albany. It was one of the special objects of my visit to ex-
amine the types of previously described species in the United
States, that I might compare them with those known in England.
Having visited Washington to examine the types of the United
States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes'), I was requested to spend
the winter of 1859-60 in unpacking and arranging the shells
belonging to the National Museum under its charge; and after
my return to England I received from time to time the various
collections sent to the Institution from the West Coast as they
arrived ; all of these were duly compared with the types in the
Cumingiaii and other British collections.

Being thus in a position to correct a large number of unavoid-
able errors in my first Report,- and to add a great deal of fresh
information from American sources (chiefly obtained through the
Smithsonian Institution), I was requested by the British Asso-
ciation to embody the material in a " Supplementary Report" on
the same subject as the first. Knowing how difficult it is for
American students to obtain access to serial publications, I ob-
tained permission, in behalf of the Institution, to stereotype this
second report, and the papers connected with it, which appeared
in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society," the "Annals and
Magazine of Natural History," and the "Journal de Conchy-
liologie."

(O



VI INTRODUCTION.

The present volume consists, therefore, of a reprint from these
stereotype plates, with the original paging at the top, and the
Smithsonian paging at the bottom ; and of a general index of
species.

The index was prepared (at the expense of the Smithsonian
Institution) by Mr. E. Taylor, Student at McGill College. It
includes not only the present volume but all my previous English
publications on the subject, of which the principal are the First
British Association Report and the British Museum Mazatlan
Catalogue. All references to these works not reprinted have
the page-number prefixed by a Roman Capital (0 to X), by
which they can be at once distinguished from the simple num-
bers which refer to the foot-page in this volume. Students who
want an index to the First Report will fix the eye on the initial
O ; to the Mazatlan Catalogue on P.

In an accompanying list will be found an enumeration of all
my papers published in European journals relative to American
conchology, and for the most part reprinted in the present col-
lection. In this, however, is not included any of the contribu-
tions to American serials, as the Journal of the Academy of
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Proceedings of the Cali-
fornia Academy, or the American Journal of Conchology.

My principal object in the preparation of these works has been
to make out and compare the writings of previous naturalists, so
that it might be possible for succeeding students to begin where
I left off, without being obliged to waste so large an amount of
time as I have been compelled to do in analyzing the (often inac-
curate) work of their predecessors.

As the work of previous writers, whether satisfactory or other-
wise, is duly tabulated in my Reports, so that others may judge
of its value as well as I, it is not fair (as is often done) to quote
from these Reports as on my authority. I was simply the his-
torian, not the original writer. In the First Report I was a
novice in the scientific world, and rarely ventured on criticisms ;
in the second, I allowed myself with more confidence to state
my own conclusions, because I found that others had not enjoyed
the remarkable facilities of comparing types which fell to my lot,
and which fin many instances) cannot be renewed. Since that
time, Nuttall, Gould, Rich, Judge Cooper, and especially Hugh
Cuming, have been called to another world ; their collections



INTRODUCTION. Vli

have changed hands, and fresh causes of error have crept in. The
present condition of the Cumingian Collection has been faithfully
described by Dr. Gray in the Proceedings of the Zoological So-
ciety ; and those who will take the trouble to compare his review
of the Calyptrdeidae, after the destruction of original labels conse-
quent on Reeve's Monograph, with that which I gave in the
Mazatlan Catalogue, while these labels were still fixed to the
shells, will appreciate the advantages which I formerly enjoyed.

Readers who may discover any unconnected errors in this
volume, or in any of my other works, are urgently requested
to apprise me of them (Box 193J P. 0., Montreal, C. E.), in
order that they may be corrected in the Report of the Mollusca
which Prof. Whitney has requested me to prepare for the Cali-
fornia Geological Survey.

PHILIP P. CARPENTER.

MONTREAL, July 17, 1872.



LIST OF PAPERS

Otf

AMERICAN MOLLTJSOA

PUBLISHED IN EUROPEAN WORKS BY

P. P. CARPENTER.



REPRINTED.

A.

Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge
with Regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North
America. Page I. 1

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of
Science, for 1863, pp. 517686. Published in August, 1864.
Extra copies, with title-page, dated 1864.

B.

Review of Prof. C. B. Adams' "Catalogue of the Shells of Pan-
ama," from the Type Specimens. Page 173.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, June 23,
1863, pp. 339369,

C.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Moll asks collected at Cape St. Lucas,
Lower California. By Mr. J. Xantus. Page 207.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series,
Vol. XIII., pp. 311315, April, 1864. Ibid. (Nos. 1536) pp.
474479, June, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XIV. (Nos. 3752), pp. 45
49, July, 1864.

D.

Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoridse. Page 223.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 596
603, November 22, 1864.

1 The references are to the bottom paging.

(ix)



X LIST OF PAPERS.

E.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver
trict. Page 233.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series,
Vol. XIV. (Nos. 537), pp. 423429, December, 1864. Ibid.
Vol. XV. (Nos. 3756), pp. 2832, January, 1865.

F.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver Dis-
trict. Page 247.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 201
204, February 14, 1865.

G

Diagnoses of New Species and a New Genus of Mollusks, from
the Reigen Mazatlan Collection ; with an Account of Addi-
tional Specimens presented to the British Museum. Page 253.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp.
268273, March 14, 1865.

H.

Descriptions of New Species and Varieties of Chitonidae and
Acmaeidse, from the Panama Collection of the late Prof. C. B.
Adams. Page 263.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp.
274277, March 14, 1865

I.

Diagnoses of New Species of Mollusks, from the West Tropical
Region of North America, principally collected by the Rev. J.
Rowell, of San Francisco. Page 269.

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp.
278282, March 14, 1865.

K.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollnsca, from the West coast of
North America, first collected by Col. E. Jewett. Page 27 7.
From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series,
Vol. XV., pp. 177182 (Nos. 373386), March, 1865. Ibid,
pp. 394399 (Mangelia variegata to end), May, 1865.



LIST OP PAPERS. Xi

L.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca, collected by Col. E. Jewett,
on the West Tropical shores of North America. Page 291.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series
Vol. XV., pp. 399400, May, 1865.

M.

Diagnoses des Mollusques nouveaux provenant de Californie et
faisant partie du Musee de PInstitution Smithsonienne. Page
297.

From the Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. XII. (Third Series, Vol.
V.) pp. 129149, April, 1865.

N.

On the Pleistocene Fossils collected by Col. E. Jewett, at Santa
Barbara, California; with Descriptions of New Species. Page
319.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Third Series,
Vol. XVII., pp. 274278, April, 1866.



NOT REPRINTED.

o.

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with Regard to
the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America.

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of
Science, for 1856, pp. 159 3C8. Published in 1857. Extra copies
with title-page, list of plates with references to figures (4 pages),
dated 1857. Not reprinted, but referred to under "0" in the
general index.

P.

Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca in the
British Museum.

Each sheet dated: July, 1855 June, 1857. The Bryozoa, by G.
Busk, Esq. Printed by order of the Trustees at the Oberlin
Press, Warrington. 552 pp. First Edition, with Preface as
arranged by Dr. J. E. Gray, on sale at the British Museum, price
8s. Second Edition, with Author's Preface, accompanying dupli-
cate collections of the shells, published simultaneously.



Xll LIST OF PAPERS.

NOT REPRINTED (continued}.

Q.

Descriptions of (supposed) New Species and Varieties of Shells,
from the Californian and West Mexican Coasts, principally in
the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq.

Proceedings Zoological Society, Part xxiii, 1855, pp. 228235.

ft.

Notes on the Species of Hipponyx inhabiting the American
Coasts, with Descriptions of New Species.
Ditto, Part xxiv, 1856, pp. 35.

s.

Description of New Species of Shells collected by Mr. T.
Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its vicinity, in the Collec-
tion of Hugli Cuming, Esq.
Ditto, pp. 159166.

T.

Description of New Species and Varieties of Calyptr aides, Tro-
chidce and Pyramidellidce, principally in the Collection of Hugh
Cuming, Esq. [From American and other seas.]
Ditto, pp. 166171.

u.

Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of California, and the Pa-
cific Coasts of Mexico and California. Part II. By A. A.
Gould, M.D., and Philip P. Carpenter.
Ditto, pp. 198208.

V.

Monograph of the Shells collected by T. Nuttall, Esq., on the
Californian Coast, in the years 1834-5.
Ditto, pp. 209229.

w.

First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent Species of Petalo-
conchus, a genus of Vermetidce.

Ditto, pp. 313317. (With wood-cuts.)

X.

First Steps towards a Monograph of the C&cidce, a Family of the
Rostriferous Gasteropoda." [Chiefly from the American seas.]
Ditto, Part xxvi, 1858, pp. 413444.



A.



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE



WITH REGARD TO



THE MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA.



BY
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., PH.D.



From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
for 1863, pp. 517686. Published in August, 1864. Extra copies, with
title-page, dated 1864.



(i)



Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with
regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. By
PHILIP P. CAEPENTEE, B.A., Ph.D*

THE object of the present Report is (1) to correct the errors which have been
observed in the first Report ("Report &c." 1856, pp. 159-368) ; and (2) to
point out the fresh sources of information which have been rendered avail-
able since that period. For convenience of comparison, the paragraph num-
bers refer to those of the first Report in the corrections, and are continued
from them in the addenda. In the bibliographical portion, the criticisms by
the writer of this Report are inserted in [ ] ; a distinction not always attended
to in the former volume, in consequence of which erroneous names and local-
ities have been attributed to the reviewer, instead of to the authors quoted.
. 22. Introduction. (Line 4 from bottom.) The river Willamette flows
northwards (Gld.).

23. Early Writers. The only Californian shell described by Linnaeus is
Turbo sanguineuS)=T. coccineus, Desh. ; v. Hani. Ips. Linn. Conch, p. 334.
The types are too much worn to decide whether they came from the North
Pacific or (as is more probable) from the Mediterranean. In Gmelin's edition
of Linnaeus, Lipsise, 1788-1790, which is, in great measure, a translation
from a German work published a few years in advance [teste Hanley], the
following species are assigned to the " West Coast of America," probably on
the authority of Martyn : page 3529, Murex foliatus : 3702, Patella pecten :
3712, Patella catyptra. The last two seem exotic.

Many West-coast species had found their way into English collections
during the last century, at a much earlier date than was expected at the time
of the first Report. They were mainly derived from the voyages of Capt.
Cook and other circumnavigators. Capt. Cook was accompanied by Solander,
as naturalist, at the instance of Sir Joseph Banks. His shells passed into
the hands of Mr. Humphrey, the dealer, at whose death the remainder, a
thousand boxes, became the property of the elder Sowerby, and (in part) of
Mawe [teste Hanley]. They took their chance of being figured or described
by the early conchologists. The localities are (as might be expected) often
interchanged, but have been quoted by later authors, who have not thought
fit to avail themselves of more correct sources of information.

The first accurate delineations are by Thomas Martyn, in his ' Universal
Conchologist/ London, 1784. Those who only know this book from Chenu's
reprint, Paris, 1845, can form but a poor idea of the exquisite beauty of the
original work. Of this, very few copies are accessible ; but it may be consulted
at the British Museum, the Royal Society, and the Royal College of Surgeons.

No. Plate. Fig.

16 5 3. Patella tramoserica, Mart. N. W. C. America, very rare. [N. Zealand.]
18 6 1. Patella calyptra, Mart. N.W. Coast of America, very rare. [Not
identified : resembles Crep. adunca, without deck. Hani, con-
siders it a Hipponyx, like austraUsA

31 8 4. Trochus invequalis, Mart. Friendly Isles, common. [Does not

closely resemble the Japan and Vancouver species,=Pachypoma
ffibberosum, Chemn.]

32 10 1. Trochus canaliculatus, Mart. N. Zealand, rare.

33 10 2. Trochus annulatus, Mart. N. Zealand, very rare.

34 10 3. Trochus costatus, Mart. St. George's Sound, rare. [=Calliostoma

filosum, castaneum, ligatum. and modestum.]

* In consequence of the expected arrival of fresh materials, this report has been
corrected and continued up to the period of going to press.
Warrington Free Museum and Library, Aug. 1st, -1864.

3



.

518 REPORT 1863.

No. Plate. Fig.

43 13,14 1. Buccinum liratum, Mart. St. George's Sound, most rare. [=-F. de-

cemcostutm (Say), Midd., =MidckndorJfii, Cooper.]

44 13 2. Buccinum plicatum, Mart. [nonLinn.] St. George's Sound, common.

[=crispatum, 4- compositurn, Chemn., =lactuca, c., Esch.l

46 15 1. Buccinum lima, Mart. St. George's Sound, rare. [Probably P. decem-

costata, Midd. ; the variety with numerous ribs and flattened spire.]

47 15 2. Buccinum saturum, Mart. St. George's Sound, most rare. [Like

Chr. liratus, with keels evanescent.]
62 20 2. Haliotis pulcherrima, Mart. St. George's Sound, most rare. [Pacific

Is.]

66 24 1. Purpura foliata, Mart. North-west Coast of N. America, rare.
76 26 4. Trochus pulligo, Mart. Sfc. George's Sound, common.
80 28 2. Pectunculus corbis, Mart. Pulo-Condore, most rare. [=Cimft'm JVwtf-

fo/&Y, Conr., teste Desh. Cum. The figure is not so accurate as most

of the others ; but the colouring is characteristic.]
153 53 1. Pecten ruUdus, Mart, [non Hds.] Newfoundland, rare. [=P. Islan~

dicus, Mull.]

Many of the figures of Martyn were reproduced by Chemnitz, in his com-
prehensive continuation of Martini's ' Conchylien Cabinet,' 1780-1705. Un-
happily, though often quoted for generic and specific names, he did not adopt
the binomial nomenclature (except in vol. xi.), but described each shell in
two or more words, as it happened. For this reason he appears to have had
no scruple in altering previous designations, as follows :

1538, 1539. Murex Purpura alata, " Mart. Conch. Un. vol. ii. f. 66, Leaved Purpura
foliata from N.W. coast of America."

1634 . . Murex Glomus cereus, seu Cereus conglomcratus, " Mart. vol. ii. f. 43,
Ridged Buccinum liratum from King George's Sound."

Yign. 21, f. A, B. Buccinum compositum, " Mart. Un. Couch, vol. ii. f. 44 ; Plaited
Buccinum from King George's Sound."

Vign. 23, f. A, B. Trochus gibberosus Nov& Zelandics. "Forster's Cat. no. 1374; La
Raboteuse de la nouvelle Zelande. Mart. Un. Conch, vol. i. f. 31 ;
Rugged Trochus inesqualis from Friendly Is."

1579, 1580. Trochus doliarius, " Mart. vol. i. f. 32, Fluted Trochus canaliculatus from
N. Zealand."

1581, 1582. Trochus virgineus, "Favanne, Conch, pi. 79. f. 1. vol. ii. p. 342 ; id. Cat.
Rais. no. 1352, p. 269; Le Sabot Magellanique. Mart. Un. Conch,
vol. i. f. 33; Ringed Trochus annulatus from N. Zealand. Cab. Mus.
Portl. no. 1240; the Purpled-edged Trochm; item, no. 1970, a large
and fine specimen of the Purple-edged Trochus from the N.W. coast
of America; rare." [= T. ccelatm, var. /3. Gmel., teste Dillw. vol. ii.
p. 800.]

1802,1803. Buccinum crispatum. "The furbelowed Whelk." [=j&. pticatum,
Mart., non Ln.]

1841, 1842. Murex amplustrf. N.W. coast of America. [This erroneous locality
is copied from the Portland Cat.. The species is quoted from Buc-
cinum (Latirus) aplustre, Mart., no. 3. pi. 1. f. 3, where it is rightly
assigned to the Friendly Is. =M. araus. var. y. Gniel., teste Dillw.
vol. ii. p. 735.]

The assignment of West American species to New Zealand, begun by
Martyn, has continued a source of error to the present time. It occurs in
Dr. Gould's 'Exploring Expedition Mollusca,' in the Cumingian Collection,
and in the British Museum.

In the l Travels in New Zealand,' by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D.. London,
1843, vol. i. pp. 228-264, is given a " Catalogue of the Species of MolluBca
and their Shells, whi<-h have hi>horto been recorded as found at New Zealand,"
&c., by J. E. Gray. Ihe author -jjrwnisea that some oi' the species [marked *]

4



ON MOLLTT?CA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 519

assigned by the older writers may be found erroneously placed. The follow-
ing- are probably from the West coast of North America, with the synonymy
as understood by Dr. Gray :

Page. No.

229 8. Murex foliatm, Gmel. 3329. = M. purpura data, Chemn. x. pi. 169. f. 1538-
9; Wood's Cat. f. 13. Purpura foliata, Mart. U. C. ii. 66. Hub. N.
Zealand, Humphreys. King George's Sound, Martyn. ["=3f. triptervs,
Kien. : non M tripterus, Bora et auct. =trialatus, Kien." teste Hani.]
229 9. Murex lyratus, G nel. 3531.=3f. glomus cereus, Chem. x. pi. 169. f. 1634.
Buccinum lyratum, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 43. Hob. N. Zealand, King
George's Bay, Martyn.

233 43. Purpura lamellosa,= Buccinum I, Gmel., Wood's Cat. f. 6Q.=Btic. pli-
calwn, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 41. =Buc. compositum, Chemn. x. 179, vign.
21. f. A, ft. = Buc. crispatum, Chemn. xi. 84, pi. 187. f. 1802-3. Murex
cr., Lam. 174. Hob. N. Zealand, King George's Sound, Chemn., Mar-
tyn. Coast of Columbia.

237 *71. Ziziphinus canaliculatus. Troclius c.. Martyn, U. C. pi. 32,= Tr. doliarius,
Chemn. x. f. 1579-80 ; Wood's Cat. f. 96. Hab. N. Zealand, Martyn.
California, Capt. Belcher, R.N.

*72. ZizipJnnus annulatus. Trochus a., Martyn, U. C. pi. 33. = T. virgineus,
Chemn. x. f. 1581-2 j Wood's Cat. f. 98. = Tr. ccelatus, ., Gmel. Hab.
N. Zealand, Martyn. California, Capt. Belcher.
243 113. Bulla Quoyii, Gray, n. s.=J?. striata, Q. & G., Voy. Astr. ii. 354, pi. 26.

f. 8, 9, non Lam. Hab. N. Zealand, Quoy, Stanger.

But the first authentic information on the molluscs of the North-western
coast is given in the ' Voyage Round the World, but more particularly to the
N.W. Coast of America,' by Capt. George Dixon, London, 1789: to which is
added a Natural History Appendix.
Page 355, fig. 2. Solen patulus *. Cook's River. [= Machara Nuttalli, Conr.]

In the ' Conchology, or Natural History of Shells/ by George Perry, Lon-
don, 1811, a work of no little pretension, yet singularly inaccurate, are figured
the following species, but without authorities for the assigned localities :

* As this extract is probably the first description on record of molluscs from the Pacific
shores of N. America, by the original collector, and as the book is rarely to be met with,
it may be interesting to quote the passage :

" At the mouth of Cook's River [lat. 59-61] are many species of shell-fish, most of
them, I presume, nondescript ; and of all which I should have endeavoured to have got
specimens, had business permitted. Among the bivalves we noticed some of a large spe-
cies, of the Cardium or cockle-genus \_Cardium corbis, Mart.], half-a-dozen of which would
have afforded a good supper for one person ; but, for a repast of that kind, our men pre-
ferred a large species of the Solen genus, which they got in quantity, and were easily dis-
covered by their spouting up the water as the men walked over the sands where they in-
habited : as I suppose it to be a new kind, I have given a figure of it in the annexed plate
[Solen patulus ; accurate external and internal views, size of life]. 'Tis a thin brittle shell,
smooth within and without : one valve is furnished with two front and two lateral teeth
[the ' laterals ' are the nymphse for the ligament] ; the other has one front and one side
tooth, which slip in between the others in the opposite valve : from the teeth, in each valve,
proceeds a strong rib, which extends to above halfway across the shell, and gradually loses
itself towards the edge, which is smooth and sharp. The colour of the outside is white,
circularly, but faintly, zoned with violet, and is covered with a smooth yellowish-brown
epidermis, which appears darkest where the zones are : the inside is white, slightly zoned,
and tinted with violet and pink. The animal, as in all species of this genus, protrudes
beyond the ends of the shell very much, and is exceeding good food. A fine specimen of
this kind is in the Collection of John Swainson, Esq., of the Custom House, London. We
saw also, on this coast, a kind of muscle, in colour and shape much like the common eat-
able muscle of Europe, but differed in being circularly wrinkled, and a great deal larger
\_Mytilus Californianus, Conr.]. One valve I saw at Queen Charlotte's Islands measured
above nine inches and a half in length. With pieces of these muscles, sharpened to an ex-
quisite edge and point, the Indians head their harpoons and other instruments for fishing
They fasten them on with a kind of resinous substance." Dixon s 'Voyage.'

5



520 REPORT 18C3.



Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 1 of 45)