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gena) vittata, Fer.
(Vol.4. 402. = Orthalicus M., Cpr.)

143. Bulimus zebra, Mull.* Mexico. &c . = Zebra Miilleri, Chem.
= lJulimus undatus, Brug. * = Orthalicus livens, Beck*,
4- B. princeps, Brod. + -Z>. melanocheilus, Val.
231. Bulimus (Cochlogena) melania, Fer. California. =Melania

striata, Perry = B. borinus, Brug.

Vol. ill. 1853. 127. Helix Pandora, Fbs. St. Juan del Fuaco.
(Vol.4. 347. =//. Damascenus, Gld.)

415. Bulimus Humboldti, Rve. = B. Mexicanus, Val. [? non Lam.]

Mexico.

422. Bulimus Californicus, Rve. California.
Vol. IV. 1859. 89. Helix Mazatlanica, Pfr., n. s. (Mai. Blatt, Apr. 1856, p. 43.)

Mazatlan.

268. Helix exarata, Pfr., n. s. California.
270. Helix reticulata, Pfr. (Mai. Blatt. May 1857, p. 87). Cal.
276. Helix Monnotmm, Pfr. Mormon Island, California.
347. Helix cultellata, Thomson. Contra Costa Co., California.
350. Helix arrosa, Gld. Hab.? [ California.] -4- eera^'no^ a, Gld.
420. Bulimus chordatus, Pfr. (Mai. Blatt., April 1856, p. 46.)

Mazatlan.

472. Bulimus Ziegleri, Pfr. (Mai. Blatt., Dec. 1856, p. 232.)
Mexico. 'Orthalicus Z., Cpr.

* These appear as three cli-Hnct species in Vol. IV. p. 588-9, with the addition of B.
longus, Pfr. (= Orthalicus L, ALaL Blatt., Oct. 1856, p. 187.)

59



574 REPORT 1863.

In the 'Honographia Pneumonopomorum Yiventium, <fcc., Cassellis, 1851V
by the same learned author, the following is the only species which occurs :
Suppl. 1858, Vol. II. p. 7. Truncatella Californica, Pfr. San Diego.

In Wiegmann's ( Archives fur Nat./ 1837, vol. i. p. 285, occurs the fol-
lowing species, also without authority :

Perna quadrata, Anton. California.

In Troschel's ' Archives fur Natur ' are quoted the following :

1843. Vol. II. p. 140. Fasciolaria sidcata, Less. Acapulco.
1849. p. 99. Terebratula Californica, Linsley.

In the 'Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer oder wenig gekanntor
Conchylien, herausgegeben von Dr. R. A. Philippi,' Cassel, 1845-51, are
figured the following, which must be quoted as being original descriptions, or
for the synonymy:

Page. PL Fig.

Feb. 1846. 4. 1. 9. Cyrma solida, Phil. California, &c.

Aug. 1846. 24.4. 7. Tettina pisiformis, Ln. Mazatlan, &C.L. pulchella, Ad.
? = Cardium rliscors, Mont.

Oct. 1844. 4 Cytherea Dunlin. Phil. W. C. Mexico. = C. Pacifca,

Mus. Berol., non Dillw.

Apr. 1847. 33. 7. 1. Cytherea (Artemis) gigantea, Sby. California. ?= Ar-
temis ponderosa, Gray.

Jan. 1845. 1. 1. 1. Murex nigritus, Phil. " ? W. C. Mexico.

April 1847. 11. 7,8. 1. Haliotis fulgens, Phil. ? California, = H. splendens, Rve.

Oct. 1846. 5. 2.1,10. Turbo Fokkesii, Jonas. Gulf of California.

8. 2. 9. Trochus strigilatus, Ant. California. = T. peHtf-serpentis,

Wood.

July 1844. 7. 2. 5. Patella (Acnuea) discors, Phil. Mexico.
April 1850. 9. 2. 8. Lucina obliqua, Phil. ? W. C. America.

9. 2. 9. Lucina pisum, Phil. Mazatlan.

2. 1. 3. Pecten tunica, Phil. "Sandwich Islands*. E. B.
Philippic Jan. 1844. [_=P- latiauritus, Conr., teste
Hani. S. Diego, &c.]

5. 1. 5. Pecten Fabricii, Phil. Greenland. [ = P. Islandieus,
jun. Non P. Fabricii, Gld., = P. Hindsii, jun.]

11. 6. 9. Litorina aberrans, Phil., P. Z. S. 1845, p. 142. Pa-
nama, on rocks. [ = Tall var. of Z. conqpersa.]

In Dr. L. Pferffer's ' Novitates Conchologicae,' Series II., Marine Shells, by
Dr. W. Dunker, Cassel, 1858, occur the following species from Sitka :

Page. PI. Fig.

1. 1. 3, 4. Tritonium carinatum, Dkr. Sitka. [Should be pi. 2. f. 3, 4.]
[= T. angulosum, Morch, on plate.]

' '.i... 'TI/T - ..-!' _ TM ci*xi-_



2. 1. 1, 2. Tritonium Morchianum, Dkr. Sitka.

3. 2. 5, 6. Tritonitim rutilum, Morch.

4. 1. 5, 6. Tritonium Rombergi, Dkr.
2. 2. 3, 4. Neptunea harpa, Morch. n
7. 2. 1, 2. Neptunea castanea, Morch.



"Should be pi. 2. f. 1, S.j
"Should be pi. 1. f. 5, 6.1
'ShouM be pi. 2. f. 5, 6.1
'ShouM'be pi. 1. f. 3, <1 H
"Should be pi. 1. f. i, 2.]



[ = JV. badia, on plate.]
35. 10. 6, 7. Murex (Hemifusus) Belcheri,Rds., var. ? [= Cfcorw* 1?., L. Cal.]
39. 12. 7-9. Cytherea ( Tivela) arguta, Rom. Isthmus of Panama. Resembles

C. (Trigond) mactroidcs, Born. [Probably Caribbean.]

66. British Museum Collection. " Lunatia ravida, Souleyet, Panama,"

* A large number of Califormaii shells have been assigned to the, Sandwich Is., in con-
sequence of the abundant trade between the two localities. They may often have beer
obtained at Honolulu by naturalists, who had no reason to doubt their having lived ther*
All that is known of the genuine Hawaian fauna will shortly be published by Mr. Sow-
erby, for W. H. Pease, Esq.., of Honolulu.

60



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 5/O

is given without authority; and the locality is probably erroneous. Various
other shells are scattered in the national collection, assigned either generally
to the West Coast or to special localities, which it has not been considered
needful to tabulate without confirmation.

68. ' Various sources. Under this head may be arranged gleanings from
European authors not consulted in preparing the first Report.

In the < Histoire Naturelle des Coquilles,' by L. A. G. Bosc, Paris, 1830,
the following species, not previously quoted, are assigned to the West Coast,
but without authority :

Vol. Page.

III. 44. Venus pfij)liia. W. America.

280. Nerita fu'gurans, Bosc. W. C. America.
290. Natica rvyosa, Chem.

IV. 60. Helix pereyrina. Island on

152. Trochus solans. &c.

156. Trochus radiatus. ,, &c.

219. Murex lima. W. C. N. America.

In Lesson's ' Illustrations de Zoologie,' Paris, 1831-2, appear

Plate.

2. Calypceopsis tubifera, Less. \_= Crucibulum spinosum\.

41. (1832.) Trichotropm So'werUensis, Lesson. Seas of New World. = Trichotropm

bicarinata, Br. & Sby. = Turbo bicarinatus, Sby.

48. Terebra flammea, Less. [?=T. striyosa~], Antilles; Isth. Panama.

51. Tegula ekyans, Less. \_=T. pellis-serpentis]. Isth. Panama.

The following West Coast shells are named and figured by Dr. Gray in
' Griffith's Edition of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom,' London, 1834. In some
instances there are also a few words of description :

Plate. Fig.

1. 3. Litorina pulchra.
41. 5. Turbenella ceratus [? Turbinellus\.
4] . 6. Columbella suturalis [Kiener figures this shell for Anachis fluctuata, Sby.,

1832. The original might stand for many species].
36. 2. Nassa Northice \_=Northia serrata, Kien.1.

36. 3. Turbinella tubercular? s [ = Latirus tuberculatus ( = ceratus, C. B. Ad.)].
23. 5. Terebra Africana. [The Gulf Cal. shell, = varicyata.~]

25. 2. Triton (Pusio^) elegans \_ = Pisania insignis, Rve v 1846J.

37. 2. Columbella harpaformis \ L = harpiformis, Sby.].

37. 6. Clavatula Griffithii. [Probably = PL fiuiiculata. The shells in this plato
are reversed, but are repeated correctly in pi. 37 *.]

19. 1. Cytherea Dronea, var. [ = C. semilamellosa, Gaud. ; perhaps intended frr
C. dione, var.].

In Woodward's most valuable ' Manual of the Mollusca,' London, 1851-6,
the following species are quoted as from " California " :

Page. PL Fig.

108. 5. 5. Cancellaria reticulata, Dillw. [?W. Indies.]
171. Physa Maugera. [? Ecuador.]

329. 23. 22. Parapholas bisulcata, Conr. [y. Eep. p. 265. Not known from tho
Californian or W. Mexican coasts. Resembles P. caha~\.

In the very valuable handbook of bivalves, ' Recent Shells, by S. Hanley,
London, 1842-56,' will be found either quoted or original diagnoses of all
West Coast species known to the learned, patient, and minutely exact com-
piler. As the locality-marks are simply transcripts, they are not here repeated,
especially as " California " is used for both the temperate and the tropical
faunas. The following synonyms will be serviceable to the student :

Page.

!<>.. Solen snbteres, Conr v ? = Dombei, ? -f Cahfornianus. Upper Cal.
28. Littraria lineata. Say ; = (Cryptodon) Nuttallii [teste Hani., non] Conr,

61



076 REPOBT- 18-7*.

Page.

72. Tellina incompicua, Br. and Sby., r = Sanguinolaria [ Calif orniana } Conr., nonl
fusca, Conr. [=the Eastern species].

In the Appendix are the following species, of which small figures are given
to correspond with those in Wood's Ind. Test :

Papc. PL Fie.

339. 13. 50. Periploma obtusa, Hani. W. America.

341. 12. 5. Amphidesma proximum, C. B. Ad., = -4. corrugatum, Ad. Mexico.

373. 18. 51. ^4m* Reeveana, D'Orb. W. America. = A. squamosa, var., D'Orb.

= ^4. Ilelbinyii, Rve.

388. 24. 40. Meleagrina Mazatlanica, Hani. Mazatlan [ M. fonbriata, Dkr.].
The following are extracted from the * Journal de Conchy liologie/ Paris,
1850 :

Page. PL Fig.

No. 1. Feb. 1850. 57. 3. 4. Columbella Haneti, Petit. ? Mazatlan.

4. Dec. 1850. 410. Observations on Nerita scabricosta, Lain., by

Petit. West Coast of N. America.
Vol. 3. 1852. 57. 2. 11. Mitra Haneti, Petit. Mazatlan.

4. 1853. 53. 2. 11,12. Natica Taslei, Reel. Mazatlan.

4. 1853.84,166.6. 13-15. Gnathodon trigonum, Petit. Mazatlan \_ M.

mendica, Old., 1851],

4. 1853. 119. 5. 12. Recluzia Rollandiana, Reel. [Genus de-

scribed.] Mazatlan.

4. 1853. 154. 5. 9,10. Natica Moquiniana, Reel. PWest Coast of

America.

Series II.

Vol.2. Oct. 1857. 171. AdeorUs Verrauxii, Fischer. ) p.vi..

285. 6. Skenea Verrauxii, Fischer. ( L

292. Review of the Brit. Assoc. Report and Brit.

Mus. Reigen Catalogue, by Fischer.
Vol. 9. 209. Review of the Smithsonian Check Lists, by

Fischer.

The following species are figured in Chenu's ' Illustrations Conchyliolo-
giques ' ; but no authority is given for the localities, nor etymology for the
remarkable names :

Page. PL Fig.

8. 2. 19, 20. Oli>:a sebuia, Duel. Acapulco.

13. 7. 3, 4, 21, 22. Oliva caldania, Duel. California.
13. 7. 5, 9, 23, 24. Oliva razamola, Duel. California.

17. lie i' o ir 11 > Olivia azemula, Duel. California.
| lo. 1, J, 1U, 11. \

19. 16. 7, 8. Oliva mantichora, Duel. California.

19. | J7* 7% I Oliva pindarina, Duel. California.

28. 27. 9, 10. Oliva todosina, Duel. California.

An excellent commentary on the above species, and on the difficult genus
to which they belong, is supplied in the * Revue Critique du genre Oliva,' by
M. Ducros de St. Germain, Clermont, 1857. It was written, not from the
well-known London collections, but from a very large series containing all
the types figured by Duclos. The following is the author's arrangement of
the West Coast forms, excluding citations of well-known species.

No. Page.

25. 49. Oliva angulata does not include azemula, Duel., as Rve. says; that being

a var. of ponderosa-\-eri/throstoma.
20. 50. Oliva Maria, n.s., pi. 2. f. 26, a, b ; intermediate between Julirtta and an-

ffulata. California, teste Duclos. [Appears to be one of the vars. of

Cumingti. ]
28. 52. Oliva reticHlaris. To the typical W. Indian shells are united tho^e from

California, Panama, Madagascar, Japan, N. Holland, N. Zealand, &c.

62



ON MOULUSCA OP THE WEST COASf OP NORTH AMERICA. 577

bo. Fage.

The synonymy includes venulata-\-araneosa-\-Cumin()ii-{'Wiola (Duel.

non I Jam.)' + pindarina + fusiformi> + timoria -\- obesina -f tisiphona -f

memnonia-\-aldinia -}-oni*ka-{- caldania -f- harpularia -\- Candida -\- ustulata.
C3. 83. Oliva ftberiee, Rve. Mazatlan, J?d. Verreaiuc. = [testacetf, var.]
G/. -8c>. (X'u 3 Dcsliayesiana, n. s. Atlas, pi. 3. f. 67, , 5 : intermediate between

Bra-iliensis and auricularia* California, teste Duclos. [Certainly not

from the West Coast.]

63, 87. Oliva volutetta, Lam.-t-razamola, Duel.
71. 89. Oliva undatella, Ifam^nedulina, Duel. ; but not ozodona, Duel., as Rve.

says.
73. 89. Oliva lineolata. Gray in Wood's Ind. Test. =purpurata, Swain s.=dama,

Duel. [i. e. dama, Goodall in Wood, = lineolata, Gray MS. in B. M.,

Zool. Beech. Voy.J
75. 91. Oliva selasia, Duel. Acapulco j teste Duel. " We know nothing of this

remarkable shell but the specimen figured by the author."
85. 96. Oliva mutica, Say -\-ntJifasciata, Rye. [assigned by error to the- California!!

O. bcetica, va,r.^-\-Jimbriaia, Rve.

In the most recent and among the most valuable of the contributions to
our knowledge of local faunas, ' Mollusques de 1'ile de la Reunion, par M.
G. P. Deshayes,' Paris, 1863, occur very unexpectedly the following species
connected with the West Coast, either by name or by identity. The list of
530 species from this little island, which the researches of M. Maillard has
brought to light, contains several West Indian forms and a large number
known in the Central Pacific and even the Sandwich Islands.

No. Page.

38. 16. Chama imbricata, Brod.

47. 19. Lucina tujerina, Ln. " Common on sands, with Capsa deflorata, as at

the Antilles."

65. 23. Modiola cinnamomea, Chem. [Botula, Morch, teste A. Ad.]
110. 40. Chiton sangmnem, Desh. pi. 6. f. 4-7. [Non Ch. sanyumeus, Rve. As

the West Coast shell = Ischnochiton limaciformis, Sby., the Bourbon

species may retain its name, especially if, as is probable, it belongs to

another genus.]

197. 68. Solarium [Torinia] varieyatum, Lam.
216. 74. Turbo phasianellus, Desh. Minute edition of T. petholatus ; nacreous.

[Not congeneric with T. phasianella (Phil.), C. B. Ad., Panama sheila,

no. 282.]
233. 79. Natica Marocchimsis, Lam., Q. and G. Astr. pi. 66. f. 16-19. [? = ma-

roccana, Chem.]
307. 95. Cerithium wncinatum, Gmel. Thes. Conch, pi. 180. f. 78, 79. [?= C. un-

cinatum (Gmel.), Sby.]
393. 114. Purpura patula, Lam. fl^inn.].
403. 115. Purpura^ ochrostoma (Bl.), Rve. [Sistrum\.
405. 115. Purpura (Coralliophila) madreporarum,Sl>j. [? Rhizocheilus. =s.Lepto-

conchm monodonta, Quoy, teste Gld. Otia, p. 215.]
446. 132. Terebra luctnosa, Hds.
560. 140. Cerithium Gallapac/inis (A. Ad.), Sby. Thes. [Sby.'s species = inter-

ruptum, Mke., non C. B. Ad., no. 198, rough var.] *

93. Smithsonian Institution. At the time of the first Report, the tempe-
rate fauna of the West Coast was only known through sources liable to error,
the collectors having visited other regions besides Oregon and California, and
the species described by American authors being but imperfectly understood
in this country. The large accession to the number of authentic species, the
important elimination of synonyms, and the assignment of ascertained loca-

* The review of the remainder of the first Report, nos. 69-92, will be postponed till after
the production of the new materials, which are almost entirely from American sources.

63



578 REPORT- 1863.

litics, which are placed on record in this Report, are due almost entirely to
the stimulus afforded to science in general, and to this branch especially, by
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. The fund bequeathed by
Mr. Smithson, " for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men/'
having been declined by the Universities to which it was offered in the Old
World, is held (in trust only) by the U. S. Government *. It is administered
by a permanent body of Regents, according to a constitution drawn-out at
their instance by the Secretary, Prof. J. Henry, LL.D. It may be safely
stated that to his unswerving consistency, cautious judgment, and catholic
impartiality it is mainly owing that, during various political and social
changes, the Institution has not only steered clear of all party bias in the
United States, but has distributed its advantages with equal hand on both
sides of the Atlantic. The Natural History department is under the special
superintendence of the Assistant- Secretary, Prof. Spencer Baird, M.D., whose
indefatigable zeal, fertility of resource, and thorough knowledge of the re-
quirements of the science have enabled the Institution, by a comparatively
small outlay, not only to amass in a few years an enormous store of accurate
materials, but also to eliminate from them a series of publications on various
important branches of American zoology. The contributions of the Smith-
sonian Institution to our knowledge of the West Coast fauna may be consi-
dered under [A] its collections and [B] its publications.

[A] Smithsonian Collections. According to the present law, all collections
made in expeditions fitted out by the Government become the property of the
Smiths. Inst., with liberty to exchange duplicates. Its museum, therefore,
is rich in types ; and its liberal policy allows of all duplicates being trans-
mitted to public collections, to schools of science, or to individuals engaged
in special departments of study. Not being forced into an unalterable plan
of operations, like many leading museums of the Old World, permission was
given to send nearly the vwhole of the molluscs to this country, that they
might be compared with the Cumingian, the Brit. Mus., and other leading
collections t. The importance of thus establishing a harmony of nomencla-
ture for species on both sides of the Atlantic can scarcely be over-estimated.
The previous want of it can be abundantly seen by comparing paragraphs
39, 43, 54, &c., in the first and in this Report. The West Coast collections
belonging to the Smiths. Inst. are mainly from the following sources :

a. The United States Exploring Expedition, under Capt. (afterwards Admiral)

Wilkes, 1837-1840, v. par. 43.

b. The North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Capt. Rogers, 1853-1855.

Collector, Dr. Stimpson.

e. The Pacific Railroad Expedition, 49th parallel, under Governor J. J.
Stevens, 1853-54. Collections made in Puget Sound by Dr. Suckley,
and at Columbia River by Dr. J. G. Cooper. Dr. Suckley also collected
at Panama.

* The war has but to a limited extent curtailed the funds and interfered with the
operations of the Institution.

t The Cunard Steamship Company have most liberally conveyed these stores across
the Atlantic, free of cost. The British and American Governments have allowed special
facilities for passing the Custom Houses without derangement. Similar acts of liberality
and courtesy are continually afforded to the Smiths. Inst. The materials for this Keport
have been placed unreservedly in the hands of the writer, although he went to Washing-
ton as a complete stranger, and with no other introduction than his published writings.

64



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 579

d. The Pacific Ilailroad Survey, under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, 1853.

Collector, Dr. A. L. lieermann.

e. The Pacific Railroad Survey, under Lieutenant R. S. Williamson, 185-5.

Collector, Dr. J. S. Newberry.
/. United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, under Major W. H. Emory,

1852. Collector, Arthur Schott.
g. Colorado Expedition, under Lieutenant J. C. Ives. Collector, Dr. J. S.

Newberry.

h. The United States North- West Boundary Survey, under Com. A. Camp-
bell. Collectors, Dr. Kennerley and Mr. George Gibbs.
Besides the above official explorations on the American side, during a
period in which the British Government only fitted out a single expedition
coordinate with A, the Smiths. List, has received a large number of pri-
vate collections from their correspondents, of which the" following are the
principal :
*'. Mr. Jas. G. Swan, from Port Townsend, Cape Flattery, Neeah Bay, and the

neighbouring shores of Vancouver ; at intervals, during many years.
j. Dr. J. G. Cooper, early private collections from Shoalwater Bay and various
stations in California and from Panama ; and lately the dredged collections
of the California State Geological Survey, of which a portion were sent
in advance by Dr. Palmer.
Jc. California Academy of Natural Sciences, duplicates of their collection,

with the privilege of inspecting unique specimens.
I. Dr. E. Vollum, U.S.A., from Fort Umpqua.

m. Lieutenant W. P. Trowbridge, from coast of Oregon and California.
n. Dr. J. A. Yeatch, from the peninsula of Lower California, and especially

from Cerros Island.
o. Mr. A. S. Taylor, from Monterey.
jp. Mr. Andrew Cassidy, from S. Diego.
q. Rev. J. Rowell, now of San Francisco, from various stations in both faunas,

and especially from Sta. Crux, and the Farallones Is.

r. Mr. John Xantus, of the U. S. Coast Survey, from Cape St. Lucas. Speci-
mens were received through him from Socorro Island (one of the Revilla-
gigedo group), Tres Marias and Margarita Island.
s. Captain C. P. Stone, from Guaymas and the northern part of the Gulf of

California.

t. Captain C. M. Dow, from the coast of Central America.
u. Dr. J. H. Sternberg, from Panama.

v. Dr. J. H. Frick, Mr. James Hepburn, and others, from San Francisco.
.u. Mr. C. N. Riotte, U. S. Minister to Costa Rica, from Pimtas Arenas.
{v. Mr. W. H. Pease, of Honolulu, collections made by his agents at various

stations on the coast, particularly at Margarita Bay.

Collections have also been received from various expeditions already tabu-
lated in the first Report ; and from stray quarters not here included because
their accuracy may admit of doubt. The species received from the most im-
portant of these sources will be enumerated in their order ; of the remainder,
exact lists may be consulted by the student in the Smithsonian Catalogues,
and the combined results will be found tabulated as ' Pacific Railroad Expe-
ditions ' or ' Smithsonian Collections.'

[B] Smithsonian Publications. These may be classed under three heads..
(1.) Works published by the U. S. Government, with more or less of assist-
ance derived from and through the Smiths. Inst. (2.) The 'Smithsonian
Contributions to Knowledge,' printed in 4to, and answering to the 'Trans-
5 65



>80 REPORT 18C3.

actions' of English learned societies; and (3.) The 'Miscellaneous Collec-
tions,' in 8vo, answering to the * Proceedings ' of the societies :

(1.) The series of ten 4to volumes, called ' Pacific Railroad Reports,' con-
tains a complete resume of the natural history of the western slope of North
America. The Recent and Tertiary Fossil Mollusca will be analyzed in the
following pages. Accounts have also been published of the natural history
of other expeditions. The annual volumes of ' Reports of the Regents of the
Smithsonian Institution,' published by the U. S. Government, contain exact
accounts of the assistance rendered to the expeditions by the Smiths. Inst.,
as well as lectures and articles on special subjects. In these will be found
full particulars of the principles which regulate the natural-history workings
of the Institution*.

(2.) The only paper bearing on our present inquiry as yet published in
the ' Contributions ' is on the " Invertebrata of the Grand Manan," by Dr. "W.
Stimpson, which should be consulted by all who desire to institute a compa-
rison between the sub-boreal faunas on the two sides of the Atlantic.

(3.) The ' Miscellaneous Collections ' are all stereotyped, and very freely
circulated. Among them will be found " Directions " for collecting specimens
of natural history, with special instructions concerning the desiderata on the
Pacific coasts. These have been widely distributed among the various go-
vernment officials, the employes of the U. S. Coast Survey, and the variously
ramified circulating media at the command of the Smiths. Inst. ; and have
already borne a fair share of important results, although the war has
greatly impeded the expected prosecution of natural-history labours. " Check
Lists " have been published " of the Shells of North America, by I. Lea,
P. P. Carpenter, W. Stimpson, W. G. Binney, and T. Prime," June 1860. No.
1 contains the Marine Shells of the " Oregonian and Californian Province,"
and No. 2 of the " Mexican and Panamic Province." They are chiefly com-
piled from the first British Association Report, with such elimination of sy-
nonyms and doubtful species, and addition of fresh materials, as had become
available up to the date of publication. They were not intended to be quoted
as authorities ; and so rapid has been the accumulation of fresh information
that no. 1 is already out of date. In the " Terrestrial Gasteropoda," by W.
G. Binney, list no. 1 contains the " species of the Pacific coast, from the ex-
treme north to Mazatlan," to which many additions have since been made.
In the list of " Fluviatile Gasteropoda," also by W. G. Binney, " the letter W
distinguishes those confined to the Pacific coast, WE is affixed to those
found in both sections of the continent, and M designates the Mexican
species. From the starting-point of this list considerable progress has
already been made. In the brief list of " Cyclades, by Temple Prime," the
Mexican and Central American species are similarly designated; but the
western species and those common to the Pacific and Atlantic United States
are not distinguished. In the list of " Unionida3," by Dr. I. Lea, whose life-
long devotion to the elucidation of that family is everywhere gratefully



Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 10 of 45)