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bays at Sir F. Drake's ; 1. w., sand." Smiths. Cat. 1842.]

169. Venus (Mercenaria) Stimpsoni. Gld. j like the Atlantic forma.

Hakodadi, 6 fm., W. S.

170. Mysia (Felania) usta, Gld. j like an Astarte. Hakodadi, 8 fin.,

I sandy mud, W. S.

173. Apr. Montacata divaricata, Gld. Hakodadi, on Spatangtts-spmes,W. S.

175. ,. Nucida (Acila) insignis, Gld. ; like mirabilis : [identical, teste

A. Ad.] E. Japan, lat. 37, and Hakodadi, W. S. [ 20 fin.

black coarse sand." Smiths. Cat. 1628.]

177. Mytilus coruscus, Gld.* Hakodadi ; common on rocks between

tide-marks, W. S. [?=M. sphndens., no. 1956.]

177. Pecten Itetus, Gld. ; resembles generally P. senatorius, is still more
like P. [Amusiwn] caurinm. Hakodadi, shelly mud, 10 fm.,
W. S. [Non P. Icctus, Gld., in U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells,
Otia, p. 95, = P. Diffenbachii, Gray, teste Cuming.]

95. The United States Expedition to Japan, under Commodore M. C. Perry,
1852-4, was not undertaken for scientific purposes ; and no special provision
was made either for collecting or describing objects of natural history. A
large number of shells, however, were obtained, and identified by Dr. Jay of
New York. In Vol. II. of the < Narrative of the Expedition, <fec.' (Washing-
ton, 1856, pp. 289-297) is given a list of Japanese shells, with descriptions and
figures of the (supposed) new species. The following are related to the mol-
luscs of the "West Coast f. Specimens of the most important may be seen
in the Cumingian Collection.

* The M. mutabilis, described on the same page from Kagosima, is a Septifer; it is pre-
sumed that the learned author did not open a specimen.

t The student should also consult, for related forms, the ' Mollusca Japonica' by Dr.
W. Dunker, Stuttgart, 1861 ; like all the other works of the same author, most valuable
for the patient care, accurate judgment, and enlarged experience displayed; but relating
chieflj to the subtropical poUioii oi' the fauna,

73



5S3 REPORT 1863.

Page. PL Fig.

202. I. 7,10. Mi/a Japonica, n. s. Volcano Bay, Is. Yedo. Closely related
to M. arenaria : [identical, teste A. Ad.].

292. 1. 8,9. Psammobia olivacea, n. s. Bay of Yedo. [Nearly allied to
Hiatula Nuttalli.~]

OQQ (4. 1,2. I Pectcn Yessoensis, n. 8. Hakodadi. [Resembles Amwittm

^ 6 ' )3. 3,4. f caurinum, Gld.]

295. 5. 16,17. Purjmra scptentrionalis, Rve. [ = -? crispata, var.] PJapni:.

295. 5. 13,15. ?ullia Perryi,n. s. Bay of Yedo, one sp. dredged. [_= I'oliJ-

harpa ampullacea, Midd.l

296. Venerupis Nuttalli, Conr. \_Saxidomus]. Japan.
296. Tellina secta, Conr. Japan.

296. Tapes decussata, Ln. [Probably T. Petitii, var. or Adamsii.

Japan.]

296. Ostrea borealis, Ln. Japan.

296. lanthina communis, Lam. Japan.

296. lanthina prolongata, Blainv. Japan.

96. At the time that Dr. Gould was describing Dr. Stimpson's Japanese
shells in the Boston Proc. Ac. 'N. S., Mr. A. Adams, R.N., one of the leained
authors of the ' Genera of Recent Mollusca,' was making extensive and accu-
rate dredgings in the same seas. The new genera and species have been and
are being published, in a series of papers, in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, and
in the Proc. Zool. Soc., preparatory to an intended complete work on the
mollusc-fauna of the Eastern North Pacific. The collections of Mr. Adams
have already displayed the Japanese existence of several species, as Siplionalia
Kellettii, Solen sicarius, Homalopoma sanguineum, &c., before supposed to be
peculiar to the West coast. Unfortunately for our present purpose, while
the comparison of specimens was going on, Mr. Adams was unexpectedly
called to service on board H.M.S. ' Majestic,' and was obliged to pack up his
collections. Enough has been ascertained, however, to prove that it will be
unsafe henceforth to describe species from either coast without comparison
with those of the opposite shores.

97. Pacific Railroad Reports. As it is necessary, in studying any fauna,
to make comparisons far round in space, so it is essential to travel far back
in time. The fullest account of the fossils of the West Coast of America is
to be found in the l Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean,' which form ten thick quarto volumes,
copiously illustrated with plates, and published by the U.S. Senate, Wash-
ington, 1856 *. The natural-history department was conducted under the
superintendence and with the aid of the Smithsonian Institution ; and science
is under special obligations to Prof. Spencer S. Baird, the Assistant Secre-
tary, for his Reports on the Vertebrate Animals. It would hardly be ex-
pected in Europe that the best resume of the zoology, the botany, and the
geology of the vast region between the Great American desert and the Pacific
should be found in a railroad survey. Unfortunately, it has not been the
custom to advertize and sell the valuable documents printed at the expense
of the U. S. Government, in the ordinary channels of trade. They often become
the perquisites of the members of Congress, and through them of the various
employes, by whom they are transferred to the booksellers' shelves. The
fifth volume of the series is devoted to the explorations of Lieut. Williamson ;
the second Part contains the Report by W. P. Blake, geologist and minero-
logist of the expedition. In the Appendix, Art. II., are found " Descrip-
tions of the Fossil Shells," by T. A. Conrad. They were first published in the

* This extremely costly and valuable assemblage of documents was selling in Washing-
,on, in 1860, at 5 sterling the set.



ON MOLLTJSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 589

'Appendix to the Preliminary Geological Report,' 8vo, Washington, 1855.
They are divided into, I. " Eocene," and II. " Miocene and Recent Forma-
tions."



I. Eocene (all from Canada de las TJvas *).



Plate. Fig. No.

II. I. 1. Cardium linteum, Conr., n.s. Allied to C. Nicolkti, Conr.

2. 2. Dosinia alta, Conr., n.s.

3. 3. Meretrix Ucasana, Conr., n.s.

4. 4. Meretrix Californiana, Conr., n.s. Allied to M. Poulsoni, Conr.

5. 5. Crassatella Ucasana, Conr., n.s.

6. Crassatdla ol'ft, Conr., n.s. In small fragments, but abundant,
as at Claiborne, Al.

10. 7. Mi/iilus humeni->, Conr., n.s.

6. 8. Cardita planic'ntit, Lam., = Venericardia ascia, Rogers. First
discoA-ered in Maryland in 1829, by Conr. ; occurs abundantly
in Md., Va., AL, and is quite as characteristic of the Ameri-
can as of the European Eocene period.

7. 9. Natica?cetites, Conr., 1833.

7. 10. Natica?gibbosa, Lea, 1833, or N. semilunata, Lea; also found ft
Claiborne, Al.

8. 11. Natica alveata, Conr., n.s.

;; 12. 12. Turritelia Ucasana, Conr., n. s. Allied to T. obnrfa, CoBT.,= 7'.
lineata, Lea, from Claiborne, Al.

n 9. 13. Volutatithes [? Volutilithes] Californiana, Conr., n.s. Resembles
V. Say ana, Conr.

13. 14. ? Busy can H?akei, Conr., n.s.

11. 15. Clavatula Cali^ornica, Conr., n.s. Allied to C. pronda, Conr., of
Claiborne Eocene.

II. Miocene and Recent Formations (from various localities).

III. 15. 16. Cardium mo'lestum, Conr., n.s. San Diego. [May be Hemicar-

dimn bianyidatum, jun.]

19. 17. Nucida decisa, Conr., n.s. Resembles N. divaricata of the Ore-
gon Miocene. [Closely allied to N. castrensis, &c., but too im-
perfect to determine.] San Diego.

III. 16. 18. Corbida Diegoana, Conr., n.s. San Diego.
20. 19. Meretrix umomeris, Conr., n.s. Monterey Co.
27. 20. Meretrix decisa, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.

22. 21. Meretrix Tularena, Conr., n.s., [in list, "Tularana" in text].
From a boulder in Tulare Valley. [Comp. Tapes gracilis, Gld.]
28. 22. Tettina Diegoana, Conr., n.s., San Diego.

14 18 I I Tellina congesta. Conr., n.s. [Appears a Heterodonax, allied to
&' 21 1 ^' ) bimacidata, Lam.] Abundant at Monterey, Carmellb, and San

( Diego.
17. 24. Tellina Pedroana, Conr., n.s. [?= T. gemma, Gld.] Recent

formation. San Pedro.

29. 25. Area microdonta, Conr., n.s. Resembles A. arata, Say, of the
Maryland Miocene. Miocene, ? Tulare Valley.

* The existence of Eocene strata on the Pacific slope is ascertained by a single boulder
of very hard sandstone, which, though very small, furnished fifteen species. Of these,
three correspond with forms from Claiborne, Alabama ; and the " finger-post of the
Eocene" appears in its usual abundance. Mr. Conrad characterizes the specimens as
" beautifully perfect ;" which would not have been supposed from his descriptions and
figures. They " seem to indicate a connexion of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during
the Eocene period ;" and the author expects that " when the rock shall have been disco-
vered and investigated in situ, fresh forms will be obtained, with which we are already
familiar in eastern localities."

75



590 REPORT 1863.

Plate Fig. No

IV. 31. 20. Tapes diversum, Sby. \_= Tapes stanwica, Conr., var. Peiiiii,
(III. in text). Desh.] Recent formation. San Pedro.

III. 25. 27. Saxicava abrupta, Conr., n.s. [Probably the shortened form of

Petricola carditoides, Conr.] Recent formation. San Pedro.
n 24. 28. Petricola Pedroana, Conr., n.s. [Allied to P. ventricosa, Desh.]
Recent formation San Pedro.

IV. 33. 29. Schizothcerm Nuttalli,Com.,"n.s"=Tresus cajwx, Gld. Recent

formation. San Pedro.

III. 23. 30. ?Lutraria Traskei, Conr., n.s. [Not improbably = Stundomtts
Nttttallii, Conr., jun.] PMioceue. Camiello.

V. 45. 31. Mactra Diegoana, Conr., n.s. Like M. albaria, of the Oregon

Miocene. [Resembles Mulinia angulata, Gray.] ? Miocene.
San Diego.

35. 32. Modiolac(mtracta,ConT.,-n.s. [Very like M. recta, Conr.] ? Mio-
cene. Monterey Co. Recent formation.

40. V 33. Mytilus Pedroanus, Conr., n.s. [Probably M. edulis, jun.]
Recent formation. San Pedro.

,, 41. 34. Pecten Deserti, Conr., n.s. [Resembles P. circularis.~] Mio-
cene. Carrizo Creek, Colorado Desert.

34. 35. Anomia sttbcostata, Conr., n.s. \? = Placunanomia macroschisma.~]
Miocene. Colorado Desert. Allied to A. Ruffini.

n 36-38. 33. Ostrea vespertina, Conr., n.s. [Resembles O. lurida, var.] Mio-
cene. Colorado Desert. Like O. subfalcata, Conr.
37. Ostrea Heermanni, Conr., n.s. Colorado Desert.

43. 38. Penitella spelcea, Conr., n.s.* Recent formation. San Pedro.

,, 44. 39. Fissurella crenulata, Sby. [=Lucapina c.~] Recent formation.

San Pedro.

VI. 52. 40. Crepidula princeps, Conr., n.s. [= C. grandis, Midd.] Recent
formation. Santa Barbara.

V. 39. 41. Narica Diegoana, Conr., n.s. ? Miocene. San Diego.

42. 42. Trochita Diegoana, Conr., n.s. [Like T. ventricosa j but may be
Galerus contortusJ] PMiocene. San Diego.

46. 43. Crucibulum spinosum, Conr., n.s.t Recent formation. San Diego.
VI. 49. 44. Nassa interstriata, Conr., n.s. [=JVi mendica, Gld.]. Recent
fonnation. San Pedro.

48. 45. Nasta Pedroana, Conr., n.s. [Comp. Amycla gausapata and its
congeners.] J Recent formation. San Pedro.

51. 46. Strephona Pedroana, Conr., n.s. [Comp. Olivetta baticaJ] Recent

formation. San Pedro.

. 50. 47. Litorina Pedroana, Conr., n.s. \_=L. plena, Gld.] Recent forma-
tion. San Pedro.

n 47. 48. Stramonita petrosa, Conr., n.s. [Is perhaps Monoceros lugubre.~\
?. Tulare Valley.

* Mr. Conrad regards the " coriaceous cup as characteristic of the genus." It appear
a subgenus of Pholadidea, differing in the form of the plate. Mr. Try on, " Mon. Pho
lad.," p. 66, restricts it to the Penitella penita, which (according to his diagnosis) ha;
one central and two anterior dorsal plates. The closely related P. ovoidea he leaves u
the original genus, as having "two dorsal accessory valves," although lie allows that "its
position cannot be accurately determined on account of the loss of its dorsal valves."
Conrad's fossil has the shape of P. ovoidea ; but although he says that it is " widely dis-
tinct" from P.penita, I am unable to separate it from the ovoid form of that species,
which will be found in the Smithsonian series.

t This is certainly Sowerby's species, to which Conrad gives a doubting reference. In
the text he gives it as " spinosum, Conr.," in his table marking it as " nov. sp."

J Conrad compares N. interstriata to N. trivittata, Say, and N.Pedroana toN. lunatd,
Say, and states that the two Atlantic species are "associated with each other both in the sea
and in the Miocene deposits of Virginia and Maryland." As the two correlative species
8^*0 found together, living and fossil, on the Pacific side, there is presumptive evidence for
their having descended from a common stock.

76



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 591

VI. 54. 49. tGratelupia mactropsis, Conr., n.s. [? = Donax punctatostriatus.'}
? Miocene. Isthmus of Darien. Resembles G. Hydeana, Conr.
Eocene.
w 55. 50. Meretrix Dariena, Conr., n.s. [Comp. Cyclina subquadrata.'}

PMiocene. Isthmus of Darien.

53. 51. Tellina Dariena, Conr., n.s. PMiocene. Isthmus of Darien.
VII 57. 52. Natica Ocoyana, Conr., rr.s. [Marked 51 on plate : err.] Oeoya

or Pose Creek.
67. 53. Natica geniculata, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. Resembles N.

alveata.

62. 54. Bullajugnlaris, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.
69. 55. Pleurotoma transmontana, Conr., n.s. [Marked 60 on plate : err.

Closely resembles Chrysodomus dims, Rye.] Ocoya Creek.
56. Pleurotoma Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. [Omitted in the text.] Ocoya Cr.
72. 57. Syctopus [Ficula.] Ocoyanus, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.
VIII. 73. 58. Turritetta Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.
76. 5. Coins arctatus, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.
75. 60. Tellina Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek.

77. 61. Pecten Nevadanus, Conr., n.s. Very like N. Humphreysii, Mary-
land, Miocene. Ocoya Creek.

TX. S3. 62. Pecten calilliformis, Conr., n.s. Very like P. Madisonius } Say,
Virginia, Miocene. Ocoya Creek.

The following species are not described in the text, but quoted in the list.
Vide p. 320 :

VIII. ?78. 63. Cardium, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek.

64. Area, sp, ind. Ocoya Creek.

,. ?80. 65. Solen, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek.

,. rc^l. 66. Dosinia, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek.

,', ?79. 67. Venus, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek.

68. Cytherea ?decisa, Conr. Ocoya Creek.

69. Ostrea, sp. ind. San Fernando.

70. Pecten, sp. ind. San Fernando.

71. Turritetta biseriata, Cour., ?n.s. San Fernando.
VII. ?58. 72. Trochus, sp. ind. Benicia.

P59. 73. Turritella, sp. ind. Benicia.

?71. 74. Buccinum ? inter striatum. San Pedro

* 75. Anodonta Calif orniensis, Lea. Colorado Desert.

Mr. Conrad, than whom there is no higher authority for American Tertiary
fossils, considers the age of the Eocene boulder ascertained; and that "the
deposits of Santa Barbara and San Pedro represent a recent formation, in
which (teste Blake) the remains of the Mammoth occur : and the shells indi-
cate little, if any, change of temperature since their deposition." But he
acknowledges that the intermediate beds are of uncertain age. Those on
Carrizo Creek he refers to the Miocene, some characteristic species being
either identical with the Eastern Miocene or of closely related forms. In
addition to the species tabulated in this Report, he quotes, as having been
collected in California by Dr. Heermann, " Mercenaries perlaminosa, Conr.,
scarcely differing from M. Ducatelii, Conr. ; and a Cemoria, Pandora, and
Cardita of extinct species, closely analogous to Miocene forms." The casts
from Ocoya Creek were too friable to be preserved, and are figured and de-
scribed from Mr. Blake's drawings ; these also are regarded as Miocene. The
San Diegan specimens are too imperfect for identification ; they are referred
to the Miocene by Conrad, but may perhaps be found to belong to a later

* Several fossils are figured in plates vii. and viii., to which no reference is made in the
toxt. It is unsafe to conjecture the genus to which many of them belong, but it is pre-
nuraed that they relate to the indeterminate species here quoted.

77



593 REPORT 18G3.

age. The typos of these species in the Smithsonian Museum a A A r a* too -rn-
perfect to determine specifically with any confidence ; and by no means ii*
suitable condition to allow of important conclusions being drawn from them.
98. The third article in the Appendix to the same volume of Reports
contains a " Catalogue of the Recent Shells, with Descriptions of the New
Species," by Dr. A. A. Gould. The specimens were (apparently) in the hands
of Dr. Gould for examination when he prepared the MS. for the first Report;
and some of them were included in the " Mexican War Collections," B. A.
Report, pp. 227, 228. " The freshwater shells were collected in the Colorado
desert and other localities ; the land and marine shells between San Francisco
and San Diego." The following is the list of species as determined by Dr.
Gould, pp. 330-336. The specimens belong to the Smithsonian Institution,
where a large portion of them were fortunately discovered and verified.
They were collected by W. P. Blake, Esq., and Dr. T. H. Webb.

Plate. Fig. No.

1. Ostrea, sp. ind. Parasitic on twigs ; thin, radiately lineated witli

brown. [=O. conchavhila, Cpr.] Another species, elongated,
solid, allied to Virginica [var. ruf aides]. San Diego.

2. Pecten monotimeris, Conr. San Diego.

3. Pecten ventrtcosus, Sloy.,+tumidus, Sby. [Dead valves, of tha

form <equisulcatus.~] San Diego.

4. Mytilm ?edulis \_ = M. trossttlus, Gld., antea]. San Francisco.

5. Modiola capax, Conr. San Diego.

0. Venus Nuttattii, Conr. [= V. succincta, Val.] San Pedro.

7. Venus Jluctifraga, Sby. San Diego.

8. Tapes grata, Say,= T. discors, Sby., il =straminea, Conr."* San

Pedro.

XL 10,20. 9. Tapes gracilis, Gld.,n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [Quite distinct from
every other Tapes known from the coast. It is supposed by
Dr. Cooper to be the young of Saxidomus aratu^ which in
shape and pattern exactly accord with the figure and diagnosis.
But the " Tapes" is figured without sculpture. The shell was
not found at the Smiths. Inst.] San Pedro, Slake.
10. Cyclas, sp. ind. Colorado Desert.

XT 21,22. 11. Cardium o-uentatum, Gld., n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [P. Z. S. 1850,
p. 201, = C. substriatum, Conr.] San Diego. [San Pedro,
Blake, in text.]

12. Lucina orbella, Gld. [ = Mysia (Sphcerella) tumida," Conr.] S&E

Pedro.

13. Lucina Nuttallii, Conr. San Pedro.

14. Metodesma ?mbrutincta, Sby.f San Pedro.

15. Tellina vtcifia, C. B. Ad. [Dead specimens of = Heterodonax

(" PsammoUa" var.) Pacifica, Com 1 .] San Diego.

16. Tilliita sccta, Conr. San Pedro.

17. S )h(enia \_Cry 'ntomyal Calif 'ornica, Conr. San Diego.

18. Petricola carditwdes, C<mr.\ = cylindracea, Desh. Monterey; San

Pedro.

19. Sokaafim Calif ornicnsis, Conr. San Diego.

20. Gnathodon Lecontii, Conr.,= G. trigonum, Petit. Colorado Desert.

\_Lecontei is probably the large Texan species : trigonu8*etntM/
dicus is a very distinct shell from Mazatlan.]

* Neither Dr. Gould, nor Conrad himself, in his later geological writings, appears to
liave called to mind the true T. staminea, to which the Smithsonian shells belong. It is
the northern representative of T. grata, but quite distinct : v. synonymy under Venu*
Petitii riffida, pars.

f No " Mesodesma " was found among the shells returned to the Smithsonian Institu-
tion, nor has any been heard-ot from the coast. Dr. Gould's shell may have been Semele
i>a!ckra, which was in the collection.

78



OX MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 5 3

Plate. Fig. No.

21. Lottia scabra, Gld. [non Nutt, Rve. : = spectrum, Nutt., Rve. ] San

Francisco.

22. Lottia patina, Esch. San Pedro.

23. Scurria pallida. Gray, = Lottia mitra, Brod. [= Scurria mitra,

Esch., = Z. conica, Old., anteaJ\ San Pedro.

24. Calyptreea hispida, Brod. [= Crucibulum spinosum, Sby.] San

Pedro j San Diego.

25. Orepidula incurra, Brod.* San Pedro.

26. JM/0 nebulosa, Old. San Diego.

27. Bulla (Haminea) rirescens, Sbv. San Diego.

XI. 29. 28. Sulla (Haminea) vesicula, Gl<, n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [P. Z. S.

1856, p. 203.] San Diego, Slake.
XL 27,28. 29. Bulla (Tornatina) incuUa,G\d.,u.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. S.Diego.

[P. Z. S. 1856, p. 203. Appears to be a Utriculi<s.~]
30. Trochus mosstus, J onas [ = Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad., = mar-

ffinatum, Nutt. Jonas' s species is S. American.] San Diego.
XI. 25,26. 31. Phasianella compta, Old., n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [P. Z. S. 1856,

p. 204.] San Diego, Webb, Blake.

32. Litorina, sp. ind. [var. plena, Gld.] San Diego.

33. Melampus, sp. ind. [olivaceus, Cpr.] San Diego.

34. Olica biplicata, Sby. San Pedro.

XI. 23,24. 35. Potamis ptdlatus, Gld., n.s. Prel. Rep. 1855. [= Cerithidea fus-

cata, Gld., n.s. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 206. = C. sacrata, var., teste

Nuttall, Cooper.] San Diego, Webb, Make.
XI. 6-9. 36. Amnicolaprotea,Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., March 1855.

Colorado Desert (Gran Jornada), Webb, Blake.
XL 10,11. 37. Amnicola longinqua, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost, Soc. N. H., March

1855. Colorado Desert (Cienaga Grande), Blake.
XI. 12-18. 38. Planorbis ammon, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost, Soc. N. H., Feb. [Otia,

Mar. in text] 1855. A very variable species. Colorado Desert

and Ocoya Creek, Webb, Blake.
XI. 1-5. 39. Pliysa humerosa, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. II., Feb. 1855.

Colorado Desert, Blake ; Pecos River, Webb.

40. Succinea, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek.

41. Helix Vancouver emis. Lea. San Francisco.

42. Helix San-Diegoensis, Lea. Point Reyes. [No such species,

teste Binney.]

43. Helix mfumata, Gld. [Otia, p. 215.] Point Reyes.

44. Helix Oreyonensis, Lea. Cypress Point.

99. The fossils of the various Western expeditions were being arranged in
1860 in the Smithsonian Museum by Prof. J. S. Newberry, M.D., a natu-
ralist of rare experience and accomplishments, and author of " Reports on
the Geology, Botany, and Zoology of Northern California and Oregon." Wash-
ington, 1857. They are embodied in vol. vi. of the l Pacific Railroad Re-
ports.' The following is a list of the fossils, which were described )<y
Mr. Conrad in pp. 69-73, having first appeared in the Proceedings of the
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Dec. 1856, to which page-refer-
ences are added.

Dr. Newberry's Californian Fossils.

Page. Plate. Fig.

69. IX. 1. Schizopyga Califomiana, Conr., Phil. Proc. Dec. 1856, p. 315.

[Partaking of the characters of Cancellaria and Pyramidella.~\

Santa Clara, Cal.
j; 2. Cryptomya ovalis, Conr., p. 314. [Closely approaching the recent

species, C. Californica.] Monterey Co.
ff 3. Thracia mactropsis, Conr., p. 313. Monterey Co.

* The Crepidulce returned in this collection were aduwa and fntgosa, var.

18G3.



59i REPORT 18C3.

Page. Plate. Fi?.

70. II. 4. Mya Montereyana, Conr., p. 313. [Figure resembles Periploma

aryentaria.~] Monterey Co.

5. ?Alya8ul,stmiata,Conr. [Comp.Macomainqmnata.'] Monterey Co.

}) n 6. Arcopagia medialis, Conr., p. 314. Like A. biplicata, Conr.. of

the Maryland Miocene. [Closely resembles Lutricola alta, Conr.]

Montere Co.



,, 7. Tapes liuteahim, Conr., p. 314. California.

1



8. Area canal-is, Conr., p. 314. Santa Barbara,
9. Area trilincata, Conr., p. 314. Santa Barbara.



;onr., p. dl4. Uamorma.

ensis, Conr. [Closely resembles Pect. intermedms.~]

i, Ccrnr., p. 313. ? Santa Barbara and shores of



10. Area congesta, Conr., p. 314. California.

71. III. 11. Axincea llarbarensis,
12. Mulinia densata,

Pablo Bay.

Dosinia I'.mgula, Conr., p. 315. Monterey.

13. Dosinia alta, Conr., p. 315. Monterey.

14. Pecten Pabloensis, Conr. San Pablo Bay.

15. Pallium Estrellanum, Conr., p. 313. Estrella Valley.

' 16. Janira Mia, Conr., p. 312. Santa Barbara.

/2 ' ^ I7a } Ostrea Titan > Conr v p kil. Proc - 1856 - San Luis Obispo.

73. V. 25. Pandora bilirata, Conr., p. 267. [Closely resembles Kennerlia

bicarinata.~\ Santa Barbara.
24. Cardita occidental, Conr., 1855, p. 267. [?= C. ventricosa, Gld.l

Santa Barbara.
23. Diadora crucibuliformis, Conr., 1855, p. 267. [? = Pundweila

cueidlata, Gld.] Santa Barbara.

Fossils of Gatun, Isthmus of Darien.

72. V. 22. Malea ringens, Swains. Gatun.
19. TurriteUa altilira, Conr. Gatun.

20. Turritella Gatunensis, Conr. Gatun.
n 20. Triton, sp. ind. Gatun.

n 21. ? Cytherea Dariena, Conr. [The figure does not appear conspe-
cific with that in the Blake collection, no. 50.] Galun.

The northern fossils are supposed by Mr. Conrad to be of the Miocene period,
and not to be referable to existing species. Those from Sta. Barbara, however,
are clearly of a very recent age, and probably belong to the beds searched by
Col. Jewett. But by far the most interesting result of Dr. Newberry's ex-
plorations was the discovery of the very typical Pacific shell, Malea ringens,
in the Tertiary strata on the Atlantic slope of the Isthmus of Darien, not
many miles from the Caribbean Sea. The characters of this shell being such



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