Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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as to be easily recognized, and not even the genus appearing in the Atlantic,
it is fair to conclude that it had migrated from its head waters in the Pacific
during a period when the oceans were connected. We have a right, there-
fore, to infer that during the lifetime of existing species there was a period
when the present separation between the two oceans did not exist. We
may conclude that species as old in creation as Malea ringens may be found
still living in each ocean ; and there is, therefore, no necessity for creating
" representative species," simply because, according to the present configu-
ration of our oceans, we do not see how the molluscs could have travelled to
unexpected grounds.

100. In vol. vii. of the Pacific Railroad Reports, part 2, is the Geological
Report, presented to the Hon. Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, by
Thos. Antisell, M.D. He states reasons for believing that during the Eocene
period the Sierra Nevada only existed as a group of islands ; that its final
uplifting was after the Miocene period ; and that during the whole of that



period the coast-range was entirely under water. The Miocene beds ar*
above 2000 feet in thickness, and abound in fossils generally distinct from
those of the eastern strata. There is nothing in California answering to the
Northern Drift of the countries bordering on the Atlantic. The molluscs of
Dr. AntiselTs Survey were described by Mr. Conrad, pp. 189-196. He
remarks that " the fossils of the Estrella Yalley and Sta. Inez Mountains are
quite distinct from those of the Sta. Barbara beds, and bear a strong resem-
blance to the existing Pacific fauna. The Miocene period is noted, both in
the eastern and western beds, for the extraordinary development of Pecti-
nidce, both in number, in size, and in the exemplification of typical ideas."
It also appears to be peculiarly rich in Arcadce, which are now almost
banished from that region, while they flourish further south. The large
Amusium caurinum and the delicate Pecten hastatus of the Vancouver district,
as well as the remarkable Janira dentata of the Gulf, may be regarded as a
legacy to existing seas from the Miocene idea; otherwise the very few
Pectinids which occur in collections along the whole West Coast of North
America is a fact worthy of note. Mr. Conrad has " no doubt but that the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans were connected at the Eocene period;" and the
fossils here described afford strong evidence that the connexion existed during
the Miocene epoch. All the species here enumerated (except Pecten deserti
and " Anomia subcostata ") were believed to be distinct from those collected
by the preceding naturalists.

Dr. AntiseWs Californian Fossils.

Page. Plate. Fig.

190. II. 1,2, Hinnites crassa, Conr. [?=1T. yigantea, Gray.] Sta. Mar-
ti, err. typ.] garita.

I. 1. Pecten Meekii, Conr. San Raphael Hills.

Pecten deserti, Conr. Blake's Col., p. 15. Corrizo Creek.

' III. 1. Pecten discus, Conr. Near Sta. Inez.

191. I. 2. Pecten mag nolia, Conr. [Probably = P. Jeffersonius, Say, Vir-

ginia.] Near Sta. Inez.

III. 2. Pecten altiplicatus, Conr. San Raphael Hills.
III. 3, 4. Pallium Estrellanum, Conr. [JamraJ] Estrella.

I. 3. Spondylus Estrellanus, Conr. \?Janira.~\ Estrella.

192. V. 3, 5. Tapes montana, Conr. San Buenaventura.
VII. 1. Tapes Inezensis, Conr. Sta. Inez.

)} IV. 1, 2. Venus Pajaroana, Conr. Pajaro River.

;; IV. 3,4. Arcopagia unda, Conr. Shore of Sta. Barbara and Estrella.

[Closely resembles A. biplicata ; ? Lutricola alta.~\
VII. 4. Cyclas permacra, Conr. Sierra Monica. Resembles C. pan-

duta, Conr.,=Zwcwa compressa, Lea.
VI. 6. Cyclas Estrellana, Conr. Estrella.

V. 1. Area Obispoana, Com-. San Luis Obispo.

193. V. 2, 4. Parliy desma Inezana, Conr. [Like P. crassatelloides."] Sta,

Inez Mts.

VI. 1, 2. Crassatella collina, Conr. Sta. Inez Mts.

II. 3. Ostrea subjecta, Conr. "Maybe the young of O. Panzana."

Sierra Monica.

,. II. 4. Ostrea Panzana, Conr. Panza, Estrella, and Gaviote Pas.

H Dosinia alta, Conr. Salinas River.

VII. 2. Dosinia lonaula, Conr. Salinas River.

194. VI. 4. Dosinia montana, Conr. Salinas River.

VI. 5. Dosinia subobliqua, Conr. Salinas River. Alsa it small Venns r

a Natica, and a Pecten.

M VIII. 2, 3. Mytilus Inezensis, Conr. Sta. Inez.
n V. 6. Lutraria transmontana, Conr. Allied to L. papyria, Conr:

Los Angeles ; also San Luis.
6 81

5C6 REPORT 1863.

Paje. Plate. Fig.

VI. 3. Axinea Barbaremis, Conr. Los Angeles. [?=mfermedt'us.]

n VIL 3. ? Mactra Gabiotensis, Conr. Gaviote Pass. May be a tick*
zodesma. Associated with Mytilus sp. and InfundibuluK

n VII. 5. Glycimeris Estrellanus, Conr. Panza and Estrella VaUeys

Allied to Panop&a reflexa, Say. [? = P. yenerosa, Old.]"
195. Perna montana, Conr. S.Buenaventura. Allied to P. ma.t'tllata

VII. 3. Trochita costellata, Conr. Gaviote Pass.

w VIII. 4. Turntella Inezana, Conr. Sta. Inez Mts.

VIII. 5. Turritella variata, Conr. Sta. Inez Mts.

,. X. 5, 6. Natica Inezana, Conr. \?Lunatia Lemsii.~\ Sta. Inez Mts.

As before, the fossils appear to be in very bad condition. The succeeding
palaeontologists who have to identify from them are not to be envied. Theii
principal value is to show what remains in store for future explorers. The
extreme beauty of preservation in the fossils collected by Col. Jewett, rivalling
those of the Paris Basin, and sometimes surpassing the conspecific living
shells, makes us astonished that so large a staff of eminent men, employed
by the Government, made such poor instalments of contribution to malacolo-
gical science. The plan, too often followed, of remunerating naturalists, not
according to the skilled labour they bestow, but according to the number ot
" new species " they describe, is greatly to be deprecated. Further knowledge
concerning the old species may be more important in scientific inquiries than
the mere naming of new forms. It is generally a much harder task to per-
form, and, therefore, more deserving of substantial as well as of honourable

101. The shells collected on the North Pacific Railroad Survey were in-
trusted to W. Cooper, Esq., of Hoboken, New Jersey, for description : Dr.
Gould being occupied with preparing the diagnoses of the N. Pacific E. E.
species. Judge Cooper was at that time the only naturalist in America known
to be actively engaged in studying the marine shells of the West Coast, of
which he has a remarkably valuable collection. He had rendered very valu-
able service to the Smithsonian Institution by naming their specimens. Un-
fortunately, there is such great difficulty even in New York city (of which
Hoboken is a suburb) in obtaining access to typically named shells, AS well us
to many necessary books *, that, notwithstanding the greatest care, errors of
determination are almost sure to arise.

The " Report upon the Mollusca collected on the Survey, by Wm. Cooper,"
forms No. 6 of the Appendix, pp. 369-386, and errata. (Unfortunately the

* Both Judge Cooper and Dr. Lea informed me (1860) that they had not been able
even to see a copy of the plates to the U. S. Expl. Exped. Mollusca. Through special
favour, I was enabled to obtain a series of the proofs to work by. The Smithsonian
Institution, though intrusted with the keeping of the collections, was not favoured
with a copy until after the war began, when the whole series was granted by Congress.
Judge Cooper had derived great assistance from the British Association Report, and
has communicated many corrections iu it. In the alterations of synonymy, and in
defining the limits of specific variation, I have had the benefit of his counsel and ex-
perience; and have rarely felt compelled to differ from him. liaving himself collected
extensively in the West Indies, he had excellent opportunities of comparing fresh
specimens from the now separated oceans. I was fortunate enough to meet his son,
Dr. J. G. Cooper, at the Smithsonian Institution, and to examine the types of the
species he collected (which are here enumerated) with the advantage of his memory
and knowledge. His later contributions to the malacology of \V. America will be
afterwards enumerated: his valuable Treatise on the Forests and Trees of North
America will be found in the Smithsonian Reports, 1858, pp. 240-280.



work had been carelessly printed.) It contains the following species, tho
1 )calities quoted in the text from other sources being here omitted :

oGU. Murex foliatus, Gmel., = 7J/. monodon, Esch. (Cerostoma). San Diego, ? fossil,


9J Murex festivus, Hds. Dead. San Diego, Cassidy.
Triton Oregonensis, Redfield (non Jay/ nee Say) =71 cancellation, Midd.,

Rve., non Lam. Straits of De Fuca, Suckley, Gibbs, J. G. Cooper.

370. Clirysodomus antiquus, var. Behringiana, Midd., one specimen. Straits of Do

Fuca, Suckley. [Comp. Chr. tabulatusJ]

f) Chrysodomus Middendorffi-i, Coop., n. s.,= Tritonium decemcostatum, Midd.
One specimen on the shore of Whidby's Island. Straits of De Fuca, J. G.
Cooper. [ = JBuc. liratum, Mart. This being a remarkable instance of a
"representative species," it requires to be minutely criticized. Judge
Cooper compared his specimen with 130 eastern shells*, and noted the differ-
ences with great fulness and accuracy. A series of Middendorff's Pacific
shells having been brought to England by Mr. Damon, and sold at high
prices, I made a searching comparison of one of them with the eastern
specimens furnished me by Judge Cooper and other most trusty naturalists.
According to the diagnosis of Middendoiffii, it should be referred to C. de-
cemcostatus, Say, and not to the De Fuca species, as it agrees in all respects
with the eastern peculiarities quoted, except that the riblets near the canal
are rather more numerous and denned. As it might be suspected that
Mr. Damon's shells were mixed, I have made a similar comparison with a
shell from the N. W. coast, sent to the Smiths. Inst, by Mr. Pease, and with
the same result. On examining the specimens in the Cumingian Collection,
in company with A. Adams, Esq., we were both convinced that the eastern
and western forms could not be separated. In the similar shells collected
by Mr. Adams in the Japan seas there are remarkable variations in the de-
tails of sculpture.]

371. CJirysodomm Sitchensis, Midd. ^incisus, Gld., = cftrs, Rve.]. Str. De Fuca,

Suckley, Gibbs.

Nassa mendica, Gld. Puget Sound, Suckley.

Nassa Gibbsii, Coop., n. s. "Resembles N. trivittata more than N. mendica."
Port Townsend, Puget Sound. [In a large series, neither Dr. Stimpson nor
I were able to separate Cis species from N. mendica. Similar variations
are common in British Nassce. Picked individuals from the Neeah Bay-
series would probably be named triwttata, if mixed with eastern shells.]

Purpura lactuca, Esch. , + M. fevqugineus, Esch., = P. septentrionalis, Rve. Puget
Sound, Suckley, Gibbs; Shoalwater Bay, Str. de Fuca, J. G. Cooper.
"Abounds on rocks and oyster-beds in Shoalwater Bay, the form and
amount of rugosity depending on station. The oyster-eaters are smooth
even when young." J. G. C.

G72. Purpura ostrina, Gld., = P. Freycinetii, Midd., non Desh. +P. decemcostata
[Coop., non] Midd. Rocks above low- water mark ; from mouth of Hood's
Canal to Str. Fuca ; Puget Sound, common, J. G. Cooper.

Purpyra lapittus [Coop., non] Linn. [=P. saxicola, Val.] Str. De Fuca,
Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper. "Found with P. ostrma, and equally common."
[Some varieties run into the New England form of P. lapilhis, sufficiently
nearly to justify the identification ; but the bulk of the specimens are easily
distinguished by the excavated columella, They pass by insensible grada-
tions to P. ostrina, Gld., which is a rare and extreme variety. Many of the
shells called P. Freycinetii by Midd. are certainly referable to this species.
Some forms pass towards the true P. Freycinetii, Desh., while others are
equally close to the very different P. emaryinata, Desh.]

Purpura emarcfinata, Des'h., = P. Conradi, Nutt. MS. "Upper California,"
Trask -, San Diego, Trotcbridae. [This appears to be exclusively a southern
form = saxicola, var.]

Monoceros engonatum, Conr., = Jf. unicarinatum, Sby. San Pedro, Dr. Tra*k
873. Monoceros hipilloicles, Conr.,=J/.^wcfrtfwH ; Gray. San Pedro, Dr. Tra*k.


598 REPORT 18C3.


373. Columbella gausapata, Gld. Str. de Fuca, Sucklcy.

Columbella valaa [Cooper, non] Gld. [ = Buccinum corrugatum, Rve.] Str.
de Fuca, Suckley.

Natica Leivisii, Gld.,=JV. herculea, Midd. Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper, Suck-
ley. "Shell sometimes remarkably globose, sometimes with spire nmcli
produced." W. C. "Abundant throughout the N.W. sounds, and col-
lected in great numbers by the Indians for food. In summer it cravls
above high-water mark to deposit its eggs " in the well-known sand-coils,
which are "beautifully symmetrical, smooth, and perfect on both sides."


Potamis pullatus, Gld. A variable species. U. Cal., Trask.

374. Melania plicifera, Lea. Very common in rivers, W. T., J. G. Cooptr,

Melania silicula, Gld. [ = one of the many vars. of M. plici/era, teste Lea],
In rivers, W. T., Nisqually and Oregon, J. G. Cooper.

Melania Shortaensis, Lea, MS. \_=Shastaensis ) Lea]. Willopah River, J. G.

Amnicola Nuttalliana, Lea, Phil. Trans, pi. 26. f. 89. Columbia River, J. G.

Amnicola seminalis, Hds. U. Cal., Trask. [Belongs to Dr. Stimpson's new-
genus, Flutmnicola.l

Turritella Eschrichtii, Midd. [=ittium Jilosum, Gld.]. Puget Sound, Sitct>
ley, Gibbs.

" Litorina rudis, Gld., Stn." [Cooper, non Mont.]. Shoalwater Bay, De
Fuca, J. G. Cooper, Suckley, Gibbs. " Very abundant on the N.W. coast,
where it presents the same varied appearances as our eastern shell." W. C.
[To an English eye, it appears quite distinct. L. rudis, Coop., with ,wi-
tenebrosa, Midd., and modesta, Phil., are probably vars. of L. Sitkana, Phil.,
-L. sulcata, Gld.l

Litorina scutulata, Gld. On rocks, from the head of Puget Sound to De Fuca,
J. G. Cooper.

Litorina planaxis, Nutt. [=. patula, Gld.]. San Luis Obispo, Dr. Antisell.

375. Tr chusjilosus, Wood,= T. ligatus, Gld.,= T. modestus, Midd. Str. de Fuca,

J. G. Cooper] U. Cal., Trask. \=T. costatus, Mart.]
2rocftus Schantaricus [Coop., non] Midd. \_=zMarg. pupilla, Gld.., = M. calo-

stoma, A. Ad.] Str. de Fuca, J. G. Cooper, abundant.

Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas. Nootka Sound, Capt. Russell, teste Trask.
HaKotis corrugata. San Diego, Cassidy.
Ilaliotis splendens. San Diego, Cassidy.
Haliotis rufescens. San Diego, Cassidy.

Haliotis Cracherodii. (None of the rare var. Calif orniensis.} S. Diego, Cassidy.
Fissurella nigropunctata, Sby. Two specimens sent by Dr. Trask as coming

from Catalina Is., U. Cal. [Pimported].
Fissurella aspera } lEsch.,? = cratitia, Gld., ? = densiclathrata, live. \_=Lincolni,

Gray. This is certainly Gould's species from type ; but Reeve's shell is

southern, and appears distinct.] U. Cal., Lieut. Troivbridge.

376. Nacella instabilis.

Acmcea pelta.
Acmcea persona.
Acmcea spectrum.
Acmcea scabra.
Acmcea ceruginosa.

The few shells collected of this family are mostly imper-
fect, but appear to belong to the species quoted : for
the synonymy of which, reference is made to the Bri-
tish Association Report.

j Still fewer materials, among which the quoted species
r. I were identified. [The " submarmoreus" both of

Scurria mitra.

Chiton muscosus.

Chiton submarmoreus.

Chiton tunicatus. T Midd. and Coop., may prove to be Tonicia lineata f

Chiton lianosus. ) var.] Chiefly from Oregon.

Helix fidelis, Gray,= Nuttalliana t Lea. Forests W. of Cascade Mountain,

W. *T., J. G. Cooper.
Helix Zownsetidiana, Lea. " Common in open prairies near the sea, but not

near Puget Sound," W. T., J. G. Cooper.




376. Hdix Columbiana, Lea,=fo&zosa, Gld. "In wet meadows from Vancouver
to the coast, not near Puget Sound," W. T v J. G. Cooper.

877. Helix Fancouverensis, Lea \_+sportetta, Gld., teste Bland]. "West of Cas-

cade Mountain ; most abundant under alder- gro ves j also on Whidby's
Island," W. T., J. G. Cooper.

IMiv devia, Gld.,=Basikervillei, Pfr. Two sp. in damp woods, near Van-
couver, W. T., J. G. Cooper.

,, Hdix tudiculata, Binn. Rare, with the last, Vancouver ; also Washington
Territory, J. G. Cooper.

Succinea NuttaUiana, Lea. Rare and dead, at Vancouver, J. G. Cooper.

Umax Columbianus, Gld. "Abundant in dense, damp spruce-forests, near
Pacific coast; grows to 6 inches, and is smooth, not rugose, when living,"
J. G. Cooper.

878. Limncga umbrosa, Gld. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper.

Limnaea emarginata, Say. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper.

Limmcajuguiaris, Say. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper.

Physa elongata, Say. Near Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper.

Physa heterostropka, Say. Ponds in W. T., J. G. Cooper.

Physa bullata, Gld. MS. Lake Oyosa, W. T., J. G. Cooper.

Ancylus caurinm, Coop., ?n.s. ["? = A. Nuttalli, Hold.," Coop. MS.] Black
River, near Puget Sound, J. G. Cooper.

Planorbis corpulentus, Say. Lake Oyosa, W. T., J. G. Cooper.

Planorbis trivolvis, Say. Exceedingly abundant in shallow lakes near Van-
couver, W. T., J. G. Cooper.

Planorbis planulatus, Coop., n. s. "A small carinated species, found only in

lakes on Whidby's Island," /. G. Cooper. [Comp. P. opcrcularis, Gld.]
379. Sulla nebulosa, Gld. Bav of S. Pedro, Trask.

Sulla tenella, A. Ad., in Sby. Thes. pi. 134. f. 104 [?]. Puget Sound, one sp.,
Snckley. [?=Haminea hydatisJ]

ff Ostrea edulis, Coop, [non Linn. :=O. lurida, Cpr.]. De Fuca and Puget
Sound, Gibbs -, Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. "Small in Puget Sound; finer in
Shoalwater Bay, which supplies S. Francisco market ; large at Vancouver's
Island ; very large near mouth of Hood's Canal."

\Placuri\anomia macroschisma, Desh. De Fuca, Gibbs', Nootka Sound, Copt.

Pe?ten caurinus, Gld. De Fuca, Suckley. One of the specimens measures

2 } inches in circumference and 8 in. across.

830. Pecten rentricosus, $b\.,~\-tumidus, Sby. [= ?var. aquisulcatus, Cpr.]. Upper
Cal., Trask\ San Diego, Cassidy.

, Mytffus edulu, Ln. Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. " As abundant as in Europe
and N. England, with the same variations, and when eaten occasionally
causing urticaria." J. G. Cooper.

, Mytilm Cahforniamts, Conr. Puget Sound, Port Townsend, Stickley, Gibbs j
Upper Cal, Trask. One specimen is 9 inches long.

n Modiola capax [Cooper, non] Conr. [ = Jf. modiolus, Ln.]. Not common. Str.
de Fuca, Gibbs, Cooper.

ModiolafiaMlata^ Gld. Puget S. and Str. de Fuca, Gibbs. [ = 3f. recta, var.]

Lifhophaaus, sp. ind., like falcatus. [Probably Adula stylina, Cpr.] Rocks

near mouth of Umpqua B-iver, Oregon, Dr. Vollum.

331. Area grandis, Coop, [non Brod. and Sby.,= A. multicostata, Sby.]. One sp.
living. San Diego, Cassidy.

n Marffaritana margariti/era, ~Le&, = Alasmodonta falcata, Gld. River Chehalis,
&c., W. T., Cooper; Shasta River, Or., Trask. After careful comparison
with eastern U. S. specimens, and those from Newfoundland and Europe,
Judge Cooper agrees with Dr. Lea that the N.W. shells are at most a slight
variety. " The most abundant of the freshwater bivalves, and the only one
yet found in the Chehalis, the streams running into Puget Sound, and "most
branches of the Columbia. No species is found in the streams running into
Shoalwater Bay. Eaten by the Indians E. of the Cascade Mountains/'
J. G. C,


600 KEPORT- 1863.

Page .

381. Anodonta angulata, Lea,+A feminalis, Old. Plentiful in Yaldma Hirer,

W. T., Cooper. A series of specimens of var'ous ages leads Judge Cooper
to endorse Dr. Lea's opinion of the identity of the two species.

Anodonta Oregonensis, Lea. Rivers of W. T., Cooper.

Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea. Lagoons in Sacramento River, Dr. Trash.

382. Cardium Nuttalli, Conr. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper; San

Franc., Dr. Bigelow, Trask. "The most abundant clam of Shoalwater Bay,
inhabiting sandy mud, a few inches below the surface. The Indians feel
for them with a knife or sharp stick with great expertness. In July many
come to the surface and die, f from the sun's heat.

Cardium quadragenarium, Conr. One valve. San Luis Obispo, Dr. Antisell.

Lucina Calif arnica, Conr. San Diego, Cassidy.

)} Cyclas, sp. ind. Whidby's Island ; pools near Steilacoom, Cooper.

Venu^ staminea, Conr.,+ Venerupis Petitii, Desh.,+ Venus rigida, Old. [pars],
+ Tapes diversa, Sby. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper, Suck-
ley ; San Francisco, Trask ; San Diego, Lieut. Trowbridgc. [To the
above synonymy, by Judge Cooper, the large series of specimens in the
Smithsonian Mus. compels an assent. He considers Tapes straminca, of
Sby. Thes., to be a variety of V. histrionica, but it more probably = T.
grata, as Dr. Gould appears to have considered it, having copied Sowerby's
error. Conrad named it, not from the colour, as was supposed when quoting
it as " straminea" but from the thread-like sculpture (teste Conr. ips.).
Whatever be the form, colour, or sculpture of the shell, Judge Cooper
remarks in all the same characters of teeth and hinge j we may add also, of
the pallial sinus.]

883. Saxidomus Nuttallii [Coop., non] Conr.,+ Venerupis gigantea, Desh.,-f Vemts

maxima, Phil. [?]. Near Copalux River, south of Shoalwater Bay, com-
mon at Puget Sound, Cooper ; Bodegas, Cal., Trask. " Much superior to
the Atlantic quahog as food, but called by the same name. Its station is in
somewhat hard sand, near l.-w. mark,",/. G. C. [Judge Cooper regards all
the Saxidomi of the coast, except S. aratus, as one species. The southern
form, " with rough concentric striae and brown disc, is Conrad's species ;
" others from Oregon are much smoother, without regular stri;e." The.-e are
& squalidus, Desh. Dr. Cooper found " a fossil variety, in coast-banks 10
feet above sea-level, which is well figured in Midd. and (less distinctly) by
Desh. A Californian specimen measures 4-8 in. across. " The fossils, through
disintegration, often assume the aspect of Venus Kennerleyi, the former
margins remaining as varical ridges, while the softer interstices have
Venus lamellifera, Conr.,= Venerupis Cordieri, Desh. San Diego, Cassidy,

884. Lutraria maxima, Midd., L. capax, Gld. [ = Schizotheerus Nuttalli, Conr.]

Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. San Francisco, Trask. " Lives buried nearly 2 feet
in hard sand, near 1. w. mark, its long siphons reaching the surface; also in
many parts of Puget Sound up to near Olympia. It is excellent food, and
a chief article of winter stores to the Indians, who string and smoke them
in their lodges. Length, 7f in. The burrows are found in the cliffs, 10 fert
above high water, with all the other Mollusca now living ; and two, not
now found, were then common [viz. ?...]. The Indians have no tradition
as to the elevation, and the ancient trees show no signs of the irregular
upheavings which raised the former levels of low water, by successive
stages, to a height now nearly 100 feet," J. G. C.

Tellina nasuta, Conr. Common, from L. Cal. to the Arctic Seas. Shoal-
water Bay, Cooper-, Puget Sound, SucJdcy; San Francisco, Trask.

Tellina edentula [Cpr., Coop., not Brod. and S\>y., = Macoma secta, var. edulis,
Nutt,]. Puget Sound, Gibbs.

Tellina Bodegensis, lids. Shoalwater Bay, rare, Cooper; mouth of Umpqua

River, Vollum.

885. Sanguinolaria Californiana, Conr. "Common at the mouth of the Columbia
and other rivers, and high up salt-water creeks/' Cooper. \_ =
inconspicua } Brod. and Sby.]




Solen sicarius, Gld. One dead shell, near Steilacoom, Puget Sound, Cooper.
" Probably abundant on the mud-flats near the mouth of the Nisqually
River," j. G. C.

9f Machcera patula, Portl. and Dix. (Coop, errata ; Nuttalli in text), = Solen
maximus, Wood, non C\i?mn.,= Solecurtus Nuttallii, Com., = Macha;ra cos-
tata, Midd., non Say. Washington Ter., Cooper. "Burrows a few inches
from the surface, at the edge of the usual low tide ; is justly considered
(except the oyster) the best of the many fine eatable molluscs of the coast.
It is the only truly marine mollusc found near the Columbia River ; extends
northwards wherever the beach is sandy, but not known in the Straits of
de Fuca," J. G. C.

9t Mya cancellata, (Platyodon) , Conr. Dead valves, St. Luis Obispo, Dr,

Sph(snia California, (Cryptomyd), Conr. San Francisco, Trask.
886. MytiUmeria Nuttalli, Conr. A group, nestling in a white, friable, arenaceous

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