Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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Ve have here the judgment of one of the most distinguished students of

merican land-shells, whose labours on the tropical forms have accumulated
'acts so important in their bearing on the Darwinian controversy *. The fol-
owing is an outline of the Report, which is peculiarly valuable for the copious
otes on the station and distribution of species :


Helix Townsendiana, Lea. " Both slopes of the Bitter Root Mountains, from
2200-5600 ft. high. Large var. at the base of the range to 4800 ft. Small
var. in dry prairie at junction of Hell-Gate and Bitter Root Rivers; also in
Wash. Ter., west of the Coast Mountains. The most wide-spread of the
species," J. G. C. ; Puget Sound, Cape Disappointment, teste inland.

2. Helix Midlani, n.s., Bland. " Under logs and in dry pine-woods : dead, Coeur
d'Alene Mission : living, west side of Bitter Root Mountains," J. G. C. j
St. Joseph's River, 1st Camp, Oregon, teste Binney. Closely allied to H. Co-
lumbiana, Lea, = labiosa, Gld. A beautiful hyaline var. was found under a
stone, by the Bitter Root River, 4000 ft, high.

Helix polygyrella, n.s., Bland. " Moss and dead wood in dampest parts of
spruce-forests ; common on the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, especially eastern
slope," J. G. C. Entirely unlike any other N. A. species, and having affi-
nity with H. polygyrata from Brazil.

4. Helix Vancouverensis, Lea, = H. concava, Bin. sen. olim, non postea, nee Say ;
= H. vellicata, Fbs., certainly ; =H. sportella, Gld., probably. " West side
of Coeur d'Alene Mountains, W. T., in forests of Coniferae, such as it in-
habits west of the Cascade Range. Between these two ranges, for 200 miles,
is a wide plain, quite uninhabitable for snails, on account of drought. This
sp. and H. Townsendiana probably travel round it through the northern
forests in lat. 49," J. G. C. Also Crescent City, Cal., Newcomb; Oregon
City, Whidby's Is., W. T. ; Mus. Bland. Found on the Pacific slope, from
Puget Sound to San Diego.

6. Helix strigosa, Gld. " ^Estivating under pine-logs, on steep slope of shale,
containing veins of lime, 4000 ft. high, near Bitter Root River, Rocky Moun-
tains," J. G. C. ; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska ; Rio Piedra, W. New
Mexico ; teste Bland. One sp. reached N. York alive, and deposited six
young shells. [?May not these have been abnormally hatched in the body
of the parent, from the unnatural confinement.]

6. Helix Cooperi, Binn., jun. " East side of Mullan's Pass, Rocky Mountains,
W. T., at an elevation of 5500 ft," J. G. C. ; Black Hills of Nebraska, Dr.
V. Hayden ; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska j west side of Wind River
Mountains ; Rio Piedra, W. N. Mexico, teste Bland, Passes bv varieties
towards H. ' ~" " - - - - - -

igosa, Gld. Hayden's shell from Bridger's Pass,Nebr., referred
to by Binn., jun., Journ. A. N. S. Phil. 1858, p. 115, as H. solitaria, var., is
the young of this species.

7. Helix solitaria, Say. Both slopes of Coeur d'Alene Mts., 2500 feet high, J. G. C.

Also Prairie States, teste Bland.

8. Helix arborea, Say. " Damp bottom lands, along the lower valley of Hell-Gate

River, 4500 ft. high," J. G. C. Found from Labrador to Texas, and from
Florida to Nebraska ; also on the River Chama, N. Mex. ; also Guadaloupe,
teste Beau and FerussaCj letter to Say, 1820 j teste Bland.

* Vide " Geographical Distribution of the Genera and Species of Land Shells of the
West Indies, &c.," by Thomas Bland. Reprinted from Ann. LTC. Nat. Hist., vol. vii !New
York 1861.


630 REPORT 1863.


9. Helix striatella, Anth. With H. arborea, J. G. C. From Canada E. to Kansas,
and from Pembina (Red River N.) to Virginia ; teste Bland.

10. Succinea rusticana, Gld. " Rocky Mountains of Bitter Root Valley, 2500-

4500 ft," J. G. C.

The freshwater shells collected on the Rocky Mountains by Dr. Cooper
were determined, with the assistance of Dr. Lea and of Messrs. Binney and
Prime, as follows :

11. Limneea fragilis [as of] Linn. [Binney]. Hell-Gate River; Missouri River,

above the Falls. [=Z. paliistris, auct]

12. Limntea humilis, Say. Hell-Gate River.

13. Limneea bulimoides, Linn. [Binney]. Missouri River, above the Falls.

14. Limneea desidiosa, Say. Missouri River, above the Falls.

15. Physa hypnorum, Linn. Hell-Gate River.

16. Physa heterostropha, Say. Hell-Gate River ; Missouri River, above the Falls,

17. Planorlis trivolvis, Say. Hell-Gate River.

18. Planorbis ?parvtts, Say. Hell-Gate River.

19. Ancylus, sp. ind.

20. Melania plicifera, Lea. Hell-Gate River.

21. Leptoxis, sp. ind.

22. Amnicola, sp. ind.

23. Sphcerium [ Cyclas] occidentals, Prime. Hell-Gate River.

24. Sphcerium [ Cyclas\ striatinum, Lam. Missouri River, above the Falls.

25. Unio luteoluSj Lam.

26. Margariiana margaritifera, Linn. Missouri River, above the Falls ; also Spokan

River, below Lake Cceur d'Alene,=-4./a/c#Ms, Gld. ; the purple var. hitherto
only found on the Pacific slope.

109. The land-shells of the peninsula of California present points of great
interest to the student of geographical distribution. While those of the
eastern shore of the Gulf belong exclusively to the Mexican or Central Ame-
rican fauna, those of the western present in their general features that form
of the South American type which belongs to the region of the Andes. The
contrast between the Glandinae and painted Bulimids of Mazatlan, and the
small dull forms, or solid white shells of the peninsula, is evident even to the
superficial observer. They are catalogued by Mr. Binney in the ' Proc. Ac.
Nat. So. Philadelphia/ 1861, pp. 331-333, and are as follows, outline-figures
being given of the new species :


1. Helix areolata, Sby. Cerros Is., Dr. Veatch.

2. Helix Pandorce, Fbs. Margarita Is. (Binney).

3. Bulimus excelsus, Gld. La Paz. (Mus. Cal. Acad. N. S.)

4. Bulimus vesicalis, Gld. Lower California. [Altered in < Otia/ p. 184, to B.

sufflatus', nom. preoc.]

5. Bulimm pallidior, Sby.^vegetus, Gld. With B. incendem, v. infra. (S. Ame-

rica, Cuming.) [Cape St. Lucas List, no. 166.]

6. Bulimus proteus, Brod. One large and many young specimens ; Cape St. Lucas,

Xantm. (Mountains of Peru, teste Pfeiffer.) [C. S. L., no. 167.]

7. Bulimus Xantusi, n.s. Promontory of St. Lucas. 4 sp. Xantus. [No. 168.1.

8. Bulimus artemisia, n.s. Promontory of St. Lucas. 1 sp., on small species of

Artemisia ; Xantus. [C. S. L., no. 169.]

9. Bulimus jnlula } n.s. Todos Santos Mission and Margarita Is., in rocky spots

under mosses, not uncommon, Xantus. Resembles B.sujflatus,jun. [No. 170.]

10. Bulimus incendens, n.s. In great numbers with B. pallidior, Sby., climbing

high " copal " or copaiva trees, on dry hills 800-1000 ft. high ; Cape St.
Lucas, Margarita Bay, Xantus. Resembles B. excelsus, Gld. [No. 171.]

11. Pedipes lirata, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. [C. S. L., no. 172.]



110. At the time of the preparation of the first Report, not a single
naturalist was known in Europe to be resident on the western slope of North
America, to whom communications could be addressed on the subject of it.
There was, however, even at that time, a " Californian Academy of Natural
Sciences," which met at S. Francisco, and published its ' Proceedings.' This
Academy is now in a flourishing condition, under the presidency of Col. L
Ransom. The general zoological department is under the care of Dr. J". G,
Cooper; the shells under that of Dr. J. B. Trask, Vice- President of the Academy,
whose name has already appeared in Judge Cooper's Report, anted, p. 597 ;
and the fossils under that of Mr. "W. M. Gabb. The corresponding secretary
is Dr. W. 0. Ayres ; and the librarian Prof. J. D. Whitney, the director of
the State Geological Survey. Already the nucleus has been formed of a very
valuable collection, many of the critical species in which have been sent to
England for identification. The coasting- trade between S. Francisco and
many stations in L. California, the Gulf, and the Mexican coast, offers pecu-
liar facilities for obtaining valuable information. Two of the contributprs to
the Californian Academy require special and grateful mention. Dr. Wesley
Newcomb (whose labours had greatly enriched the State Collection at his
native city, Albany, New York, and whose researches among the Achatinellce
in the Sandwich Islands are well known) is stationed at Oakland, near Fran-
cisco, and has already furnished valuable papers, an abstract of which is here
given, as well as emendations and additions to the British Association Report,
which are included in their appropriate places*. The Rev. J. Rowell has long
been a regular correspondent of the Smithsonian Institution, and has sub-
mitted the whole of his West-coast collections for analysis. He has dis-
played peculiar industry in searching for small species on the backs of the
larger shells, especially the Haliotids of the Californian coast, and the Ostrea
iridescens, which is imported in large quantities from Acapulco for the San
Francisco market f.

In the < Proc. California Ac. Nat. Sc.,' vol. i. pp. 28-30, Feb. 1855, Dr.
J. B. Trask published descriptions of Anodonta Kandalli, Trask, Upper San
Joaquin ; Anodonta triangularis, Trask, Sacramento River ; Anodonta rotund-
ovata, Trask, Sacramento Vallejr ; AlasmodontaYubaensis, Trask, Yuba River.

In the < Ann. Lye. N. H. New York,' vol. vii. 1860, p. 146, Dr. Newcomb
describes the first Pupa found on the Pacific slope, viz. Pupa Rowellii, Newc.
Near Oakland, Cal. " Approaches nearest to P. ovata, Say."

* The " Chiton amiculatus" Newc., MS., = Cn/pfochiton Stelleri. " Rare near S. Fran-
cisco ; somewhat more abundant in the Bay of Monterey." His " Panopasa generosa" in
the Albany Museum, was found to be Schizothcerus Nuttallii.

t As an instance of the way in which mistakes arise, may be placed on record a series
of shells sent to Mr. Rousseau, of Troy, New York, by Mr. Hilman, formerly of that
city, now a resident at San Francisco. They were sent as Californian ; yet, of the thirty-
four species which it contained, only one could be called a native of that province. All
the rest were tropical, and of that peculiar character which belongs to Acapulco. No
doubt, the gentleman had obtained them from a trader to that city. If only a few species
had been sent, mixed with Californian shells, they might have puzzled the learned ; for they
were obtained, on the spot, by a gentleman of known integrity. As it was, the magnitude of
the error led to its discovery : but in how many similar cases such error is thought impos-
sible! Strigilla earn aria ; Donax carinatus, puncto-striatus ; Heterod. bimaculatus; Cal-
lista aurantia, chioncea ; Petr. robusfa ; Card, consors, biangulatum ; Liocard. apicinum ;
Trigona radiata, Hindsii; Anom. subimbricata; Lima tetrica; Siphonaria gigas, lecanium-,
Patella discors, pediculus; Fiss. rugosa; Cruc. imbricatum, spinosum, umbrella; Crcp.
acirfeata; Hipp, antiquatus, barbatus; Cerith. uncinatum; Modulus disculus', Nat>ca
maroccana, catenata ; Pohnices uber ; Leuc. cingulata ; JEneta harpa ; Purp. triangularis.
The single shell from the temperate fauna is Glyphis aspera,


632 REPORT 1863.

In the 'Ann. Lye. N. H. New York,' 1861, p. 287, the Eev. J. Rowell, of
San Francisco, describes the second species of Pupa* discovered on the
western slope, viz. " P. Califomica, How., San Francisco : plentiful."

On February 4th, 1861, Dr. Wesley Newcomb published (Latin) dia-
gnoses of the following Californian Pulmonates in the ; Proceedings of the
Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc.,' vol. ii. pp. 91-94. A second Part bears date March ISth,
pp. 103, 104.


91. Helix Bridgesii, Newc. San Pablo, Cal. Isp. Distinct from all described forms.
Helix Traskiiy Newc. Los Angelos, Cal. " Distinguished from H. Thonarsii

at a glance."

92. Vitrina Pfeiferi, Newc. Carson Valley. More rounded than diaphana, Drap.
94. Pisidium occidental, Newc. Ocean House, S. Francisco, Rowell.

103. Helix Carpetiteri, Newc. Tulare Valley, Mus. Cal. Ac. Belongs to the Cy-

clostomoid group, and has the aspect of a desert species. [Quite distinct
from H. Carpenteriana, Bland, Florida.]

Helix Ayresiana, Newc. Northern Oregon ; Mus. Cal. Ac. Resembles H.
reticulata, Pfr., a Californian species not identified by the author.

104. Physa costata, Newcomb. Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch, Mus. Cal. Ac.

In the < Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1861,' pp. 367-372, Mr. W. M.
Gabb published " Descriptions of New Species of American Tertiary Fossils,"
in which occur several Californian shells. The authorities for the localities
are not given, and the diagnoses are in English only. Considerable confusion
often arises from the study of tertiary fossils without knowledge of recent
shells, and vice versa. Mr. Gabb's writings on the Cretaceous fossils of Ame-
rica display an ability with which this paper is perhaps not commensurate.
Some errors which had been found very difficult to understand are here cor-
rected by the author himself, who regrets the incompleteness of his earlier

368. Turbonilla aspera, Gabb. Sta. Barbara, Miocene. [=ltt#n0n,sp.,teste Gabb,


Modelia striata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara, ? Miocene. [ = Lacuna carinata, Gld.
teste Gabb MS. and specimens. Mr. Gabb considers that Litorina Ptdroana
Conr., is the same species, which is probably not correct.]

369. Sphenia lilirata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with Saxicaxa

arctica, jun., var. ; but Mr. Gabb considers it a good species.]
Venus rhysomia, Gabb. ? Miocene, Sta. Barbara. [=zPsep1ns tantilla, Gld.,

teste Gabb MS. and specimens.]

871. Cardita monilicosta. ? Miocene, Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with
Venericardia ventricosa, Gld. jun. ; but Mr. Gabb considers it a good species.]
Morrisia Hornii. ? Miocene. Sta. Barbara. " First pointed out Dy Dr.
Horn in a rich fossiliferous marl, and not uncommon."

In the Proceedings of the Calif. Ac, Nat. Sc.' for April 7th, 1862, pp. 170-
172, Mr. W. M. Gabb published detailed English " Descriptions of two Specie ,
of Cephalopoda in the Museum of the Academy," of which one, Onychoteuthis
fusiformis, is said to be from Cape Horn, the other from California.

170. Octopus punctatus, Gabb. Common near San Francisco. Also abundant in
Scammon's Lagoon, Lower California, Capt. C. M. Scammon. Arms more
than seven feet long, Dr. W. O. Ayres. " Differs from O. megalocyathns,

* That the race of small Pupa is very ancient on the North American continent, as in
Europe, is evident from the very interesting discovery, by Prof, pawson, of a fossil Pupt>,
in situ, nestling in an upright tree, fossilized in the* Nova Scotian coal-beds; which can
scarcely be distinguished, even specifically, from some living forms.




Couth., E. E. Moll. p. 471, in absence of lateral membrane, size of mouth and
cupules,' and general coloration."

171. Onychoteuthis fusiformis, Gabb. u Cape Horn/' Mus. Ac. [San Clemente
Is., Gal., Cooper, MS.]

From- the ' Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S.,' 1863, p. 11, it appears that at least one
mollusc, a Teredo or Xylotrya, has already established for itself an economic
celebrity. Piles have been entirely destroyed in six months from the time
they were placed in the water.

On March 2, 1863, Mr. Auguste Remond published, in the same Journal,
English " Descriptions of two new Species of Bivalves from the Tertiaries of
Contra Costa County: "

13. Cardium Gabbii, Rem. Late tert. deposit near Kirker's Pass, in shelly sand,
with Tapes regular-is, Gabb, and Murex ponderosus, Gabb, both extinct.
" Easily recognized by heavy hinge and enormous laterals j lunule cari-
nated." [? Liocardiwn.~\

Ostrea Bourgeoisii, Rem. Same locality.

On April 20, 1863, Dr. Cooper described (in English) the following mol-
lusc, of which the only species previously known is from Cuba :

21. Gundlacliia Californica, Rowell. Fig. 5 (three views). Fifty specimens on
water-plants in clear, stagnant ponds, at Marysville, leather River, Roicell.

On January 8, 1864, Dr. Newcomb described (in Latin) the following,
with other Pulmonates from the State Survey, already tabulated in p. 609 :

115. Helix Hillebrandi, Newc. Tuolumne Co., Cal. One recent and several fossi
shells, M. Voy. Like H. Thouarsii, but depressed and hirsute.

The latest contribution to the malacology of California is one of the most
interesting. It is described (in Latin) by Dr. Newcomb, Feb. 1, 1864 :

121. Pedicularia Californica, Newc. One specimen from coral growing on a mon-
ster Ecliidnocerus, very tieep water, Farallones Is., D. N. Robinson. " As
beautiful as P. eleyantissima, Desh., from Is. Bourbon." [Mr. Pease also ob-
tained a deep-water Pedicularia from coral in the Pacific Is., which Mr.
Cuming affiliated to the Mediterranean P. Sicula. Dr. Gould (Otia, p. 215)
also describes P. decussata, coast of Georgia, 400 fm., U. S. Coast Survey.]

111. The following descriptions of species, and notes on habitats and
synonymy, have been collated from various American scientific periodicals,
chiefly by the assistance of Mr. Binney's ' Bibliography.'

In the ' American Journal of Science and Art,' 0. S., vol. xxxviii. p. 396,
April 1840, Dr. A. A. Gould records the following species, said to be from
" California." His Trochus vittatus is not known :

Murex tricolor et bicolor. Trochus vittatus.

Cardium Califomianum. \ Bulimus undatus.

In the ' Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History/ vol. iv
1846, No. 5, p. 165, Mr. John H. Redfield first described Triton Oregonense.
Straits of San Juan de Fuca : plate 11. fig. 2.

In the ' Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,'
1848, vol. iv. p. 121, Mr. T. A. Conrad described new genera, and gave notes oc
Parapholas Californica, Cryptomya Californica, and Psammobia Calif arnica,
altering Osteodesma hyalina (nom. preoc.) into Lyonsia Floridana. In the
same work, March 1854, vol. vii., Mr. Conrad described Cyathodonta undulata,
He also states that Gnctthodon trigonum. Petit, is probably identical with G
Lecontei, Conr. [?] (nom. prior), and alters genus Triyonella to Pachydesma.


634 REPORT 18G3.

In the <Proc. Boston Ac. Nat. Hist./ July 1851, vol. iv. p. 27, Dr. A. A.
Gould published " Notes on California!! Shells," and, in vol. vi. p. 11, described
Helix ramentosa, California, and Helix damascenus, from the desert east of

In the 'Proceedings Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.,' April 1856, vol. viii. pp. 80, 81,
Dr. Isaac Lea described the following species of new freshwater shells from
California :

Pompholyx effusa. Sacramento River.
Melania Shastaensis. Shasta and Scott Rivers.
Melania nigrina. Clear Creek, Shasta Co.
Physa triticea. Shasta Co.
Planorbis Traskii. Kern Lake, Tulan Co.
Lymncea proximo,. Arroya, St. Antonio.
Ancylus patelloides. Sacramento River.

and offered notes on

Margaritana margaritifera, Lea, = Alasmodonta falcata, Gld. ^Alasmodonta

Yubaensis, Trask. Klamath and Yuba.
Anodonta W~ahlamatetisis } J-jea,, = A. triangidata, Trask, -f- A. rotundovata, Trask.

Sacramento River.
Anodonta angulata, Lea,-f .4. feminalis, Gld., +.4. EandalK, Trask. Upper

San .Toaquin.

Helix OregonensiSj Lea. Point Cypress, Monterey Co.
Helir Nickliniana, Lea. Tomales" Bay and Dead 'Man's Island.
Helix Calif orniensis. Lea. Point Cypress.
Li/nm&a exigua, Lea. San Antonio Arroya.
Li/mncea pallida, Ad. San Antonio Arroya.
Phifsa heterostropha, Say. Los Angeles.
Hldania occata, Hds. Sacramento River.
Melania (Paludind) seminalis, Hds. Sacramento River.
Planorbis trivolvis, Say. Horn Lake.
Planorbis ammon, Gld. Lagoons, Sacramento Valley.

In the New Series of the 'Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia' occur descriptions
and notes on species, as under :

1857, Feb. 18. Helix intercisa, W. G. Bin.,= II. Nickliniana } Bin. sen., var.

1857. 19. Succinea lineata, W. G. Bin. Nebraska.

1857, June. 165. Mr. T. A. Conrad described the genus Gonidca for A. angu-

lata, Lea j and for Gonidca JRandalii, Trask, and Gonidea
feminalis, Gld. ; regarding the three species as probably
distinct. [Dr. Lea, however, considers them varietal.]

1858. March. 41. Dr. I. Lea described Planorbis Ncicbcrryi. Klamath Lake

and Canoe Creek, California.

1860. March. 23. Melania Neivberryi, Lea. Upper Des Chutes River, Oregon,

In the " Notes on Shells, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species," by
T. A. Conrad, reprinted from the Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.,' Aug. 1849, are
given the following synonyms, pp. 213, 214 :

Petricola Californica, Conr.,= Saxicava (?., Conr.,= P. arcuata, Desh.
Petricola carditoides, Conr.,= Saxicava c., Conr.,=P. cylindracea, Desh.
Siliqua Nicttallii, Com'.,s=Solecurtit8 N., Conr.,=SWecw^s maximus, Gld., non

Wood, Solen splendens, Chenu.
Siliqiia lucida, Com'. } =Sokcurttts 1.. ConT. } =Solecurtus radiatus, Gld., non

Linn. 12 Q


In his " Synopsis of the Genera Parapholas and Penitella," from the same
source, p. 335, are given as synonyms

Parapholas Californica, Conr., =zPholas C., Conr., =Pholas Janelli, Desh.
Penitella Conradi, Val., =Pkolas penita, Conr., Pholas concamerata, Desh.
Penitella inelanura^ Sby v =.Penitella Wilsoni, Conr. (not Parapholas bisulcata).

In the elaborate but somewhat intricate " Monograph of the Order PTiola-
dacea" <fec., by G. W. Tryon, jun., Philadelphia, 1862, the following species
f are quoted from the "West Coast, and form the conclusion of the marine shells
J hitherto described, so far as known to the writer :


49. Rocellaria \Gastr oclicena] ovata, Sby. Panama, W. I., and Charleston, Stimp-
son. " Not the slightest difference between the Pacific and Atlantic speci-

74. Pholas ( Cyrtopleura) truncate, Say. Massachusetts j S. Carolina ; Payta, Peru,
Ruschenberger ; Chili.

77. Dactylina (Gitocentrum) Chiloensis, King, 1832, = Ph. laqueata, Sby., 1849.
Peru, Chili [Panama, Jeivetf]. Scarcely differs from D. Campechensis.=
Ph. oUongata, Say, =Ph. Candeana, D'Orb.; Southern U. S., W.I.

82. Navea subo'lobosa, Gray, Ann. N. H. 1851, vol. viii. p. 385. California. ["In
a hole in a shell. Cabinet Gray." Neither shell nor authority stated.]

85. Pholadidea (Hatasia} ntelanttra, Sby. Lower California, = Pen itella Wilsonii,
Com-., J. A. N. Sc. Ph., fig. 4 (non 5). " This error in figuring led Dr.
Gray to misunderstand both the species and Conrad's idea of the genua
Penitella." [ Vide Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1856, p. 265.]

87. Penitella penita. [Mr. Tryon erroneously quotes (Netastoma) Darwinii, as

well as Ph. cornea, as synonyms.]

88. Joiiannetia (Pholadopsis) pectinata, Conr.,= Triomphalia ptdcherrima, Sby.

" California " [no authority], W. Columbia.

127. " Pholas retifer, Morch, Mai. Blatt. vii. 177, Dec. 1860. One broken right
valve. Hob. Real Llejos." = Dactylina (Gitocentruni) Chiloensis, King [teste

112. The following Table contains a complete list of all the Molluscs which
have been identified, from Vancouver Island to S. Diego, arranged so as to
show at the same time their habitat, and the principal collectors who have
obtained them. The species in the first column were obtained by Prof.
Nuttall; in the second, by Col. Jewett. The third column (marked B.A.)
contains the species tabulated from other sources in the First Report. Those
to the right of the double column are the fresh explorations recorded in this
Supplementary Report. The fourth column contains the shells brought by
the Pacific Railroad Expeditions, as well as the species sent to the officers of
the Smithsonian Institution by the Rev. J. Rowell and their various corre-
spondents. The fifth column (' Ken.') contains the species of the American,
and the sixth (' Lord ') of the British Nort/i Pacific Boundary Survey. The
seventh records the collections of Mr. Swan and his Indian children ; the
last, those of Dr. Cooper in the California!! Geological Survey. As a largo
proportion of the species are as yet unknown, and the diagnoses will be found
scattered in various periodicals, some of which are rarely accessible in this
country, it has been judged needful to add a few words of description, with
references to well-known books. By this means the student will have before
him a compact handbook of the fauna, and will distinguish at a glance the
range of localities, and the amount of authority for each. For the full
synonymy, the previous pages of the two Reports must be consulted,



REPORT 1863.

Results of the Explorations in the Vancouver and Caltfomian Province. 1864.

(Omitting the doubtfully located and undetermined species.)

Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 18 of 45)