Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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tl!4. Siphonaria aquilirata, Cpr.,[= 8. cequilorata, Eve. Mazatlan, Reigen-, C. S.
Lucas, Xantus ; Margarita Bay, very fine, teste Pease.]

fl!5. r Siphonaria thersites, Cpr. Neeah Bay,

Doubtful, spurious, and extralimital species :

Helix aspersa, Mull. " Sta. Barbara/' Kellett and TFooo\ [Imported.]

Helix arbustomtm, Linn.

Tfr&r Sagraiana, D'Orb. [Certainly Cuban.]

Helix " Sandiegoensis, Lea/' Gld., P. R. R., vol. v. p. 331. No such sp. de-

scribed," teste Binney.
Helix peregrina, Bosc.
Bvlimm Humboldti, Rve. P" Mazatlan."
Bulimus Laurentii) Sby. "Sitka:" probably Sitcha in San Salvador, teite


Melania [Bulimus] striata, Perry. [Vide anted, p. 520.]
Svccinea aperta, Lea, = & rotundata, Gld. Sandwich Is., U. S. Expl. Exp.
^Physa Mattgericc, Gray, teste Woodward, Manual, p. 171 ; but probably equa-

torial S. America.
^Siphonaria amara, [Nutt. Admitted into the list by Mr. Binney, on the autho-

rity of Rve., as of Nutt. ; but it lives on the Sanawich Is. ; teste Pease, New-

comb, U. S. E. E.].

116. The Smithsonian Institution has lately issued a " Descriptive Cata-
logue of the species of Amnicola, Vivipara, Bithynia, Yalvata, and Ampul-
taria" by Mr. "W. G. Binney. It is abundantly illustrated with outline-
woodcuts, and contains the synonymy corrected from all the accessible types.
Dr. Stimpson is at present engaged in dissecting the molluscs ; but none of
his investigations have yet been published. The following is a resume of the
West Coast species, from a proof kindly furnished by the author.

Page. Fig.

4. Amnicola longinqua, Gld., Bost. Proc. v. 130. Colorado Desert, Blake.

5. 6. Amnicola protea, Gld., Bost. Proc. v. 129. Colorado Desert, Blake, Webb.
12. 45. Vivipara , Lam., = Pa/woYM#, Lam. [This genus, so fine and plentiful east

of the Rocky Mountains, does not appear on the west.]

44. Paludina Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vi. p. 101, pi. 23. f. 109.
[In text. In later manuscript list, this name appears as a synonym of]
jFlumintcola (Stimps., MS.) Nuttallii, Lea, = Amnicola Nuttalliana, Cp.,
Minn. Rep. p. 374, = Leptcxis Nuttallii, Hald., = Anculosus Nitttattii, Rve,
?+Paludma seminalis, Hds. (p. 46, f. 81). [?+P. Hindsii, Baird.] Co-
lumbia River, Nuttall, Cooper ; tipper des Chutes Riv. and Klamath
Lake, Or., Newberry ; Roques R., Or. ; Sacramento R., Hinds; Brit.
Columbia, Lord; Canoe Creek and Pitt River, Cal., Newberry.
46. 80. Bithinia nuclea, Lea, = Paludina n., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vi. p. 91, pi. 23.
f. 103 fin text. In later MS. list, appears as synonym of] Flvmmicola
vir en s,Lt&,( Paludina v., Lea; Leptoxis v.,Hald.),+-no/wrfma wwc/ea,Lea.
Wahlamat River, Oregon, NvtUdl [Willamette, MS. list].

The following are added by Mr. Binney in his later MS. list :

Valvata virens, Tryon. Clear Lake, Calif. [The Smithsonian duplicates have
been unfortunately distributed under the name " V.sinccra, Say, "which had
been previously given to the specimens, and under which they are quoted in
the Check-List of 1860, no. 456. According- to Mr. B., V. sincera is " like




ecarinate forms of V. tricarinata, Say," to which the Clear Lake specimens

bear but slight resemblance.]
Pomatiopsis Itinneyi, Tryon.
Fluminicola fusca, Hald. (Leptoxisf.). Shores of Lake Utah, Capt. Burton.

117. Of the West Coast species of Melaniadse we are unable to offer any
list embracing the synonymy, as the materials are at present in the hands of
Mr. Tryon for elimination, and his labours are not yet sufficiently advanced
to furnish a report. His Manual of the North American Melaniadas will be
published by the Smithsonian Institution. The animals of many species have
already been dissected by Dr. Stimpson*. It is unfortunate that in the two
most important branches of North American freshwater molluscs, the Me-
laniadae and the Unionidae, there exists a radical difference of opinion between
the leading writers, which has sometimes assumed the appearance of per-
sonal animosity. Malacologists east of the Atlantic, unwilling to become
partisans when the leading nomenclators of the rival schools are equally
honoured, have to a great extent declined to pay attention to the unexhausted
riches of the American waters, regarding any settlement of the disputed
points as hopeless. Dr. Isaac Lea, who has spared no expense in illustrating
his publications of the results of a life-long study, follows the restrictions
on the priority-rule allowed by the British Association Committee. Other
writers, however, claim a certainty in identifying the supposed species of
Bafinesque and other similarly inaccurate authors, which would be considered
by most English naturalists as not warranted b_y the few loose words of de-
scription given. It would be well if the student were permitted to start from
the first carefully ascertained landmark, rather than from the defaced tracks
of the first hunter.

In the Check-List of North-American Fluviatile Gasteropods, published by
the Smithsonian Institution. June 1860, which contains the names of 405
(supposed) species of Melanin, Lithasia, Gfyrotoma,Leptoxis, and lo, Mr.Binney
assigns the following eleven to the West Coast. None of them are accredited
to the eastern division.

43. Melania bulbosa, Old.

104. Melania exigua, Conr.

166. Melania Menkeana, Lea.

174. Melania Newberryi, Lea.

177. Melania nigrina, Lea. Clear Creek,

Shasta Co.

211. Melania plicifera, Lea.

242. Melania Shastaensis, Lea. Shasta

and Scott Rivers.

243. Melania silicula, Gld. [=M.plici-

fera, small var., teste Lea.]

296. Melania Wahlamatensis, Lea.

297. Melania Warderiana, Lea.
360. Melania fusca, Hald.

118. Dr. Lea's Check-List of the Unionidae (June 1860), after eliminating
synonyms, assigns to America, north of Mexico, no fewer than 552 species
of Unio, Margaritana, and Anodonta. The type-specimens of the species
described by Dr. Gould from the United States Exploring Expedition were
submitted to Dr. Lea's inspection, and confirmed his previous opinion that
they were varieties of those before known. The U. famelicus, Gld., he pro-
nounced to be a South- American shell ; but it appears, without note, in the
Check List, no. 133, probably by oversight. The only widely diffused species
is the long-famed " pearl-mussel" of the Conway and other British streams.
The following seven are accredited to the Pacific coast :

* See his very interesting and important paper " On the structural Characters of the so-
called Melanians of North America," in the 'American Journal of Science,' vol. xxxvii?.,
July 1864, pp. 41-53. It appears that the sexual system is quite distinct from that of the
ordinary Ctenobranchiate Gasteropods, and approaches the Cyclobran dilates.


678 REPORT 1863.

281. UnioOregonensis, Lea [Comp. 534.] | 499. Anodonta Calif orniensis, Lea.
484. Margaritana margaritifera, Lea. i 531. Anodonta Nuttalliana, Lea.
[Lmn.] I 534. Anodonta Oregoncnsis, Lea.

494. Anodonta angulata, Lea. I 551. Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea.

Besides these, 36 species of Unio and Anodonta are assigned to Mexico
and Central America in a separate list ; but no distinction is indicated be-
tween the Pacific and the Atlantic slope of the mountain-range.

119. At the request of the Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Temple Prime, ol
New York, well known for his special devotion to this department, has con-
sented to prepare a Manual of the Cyrenidse inhabiting American waters.
All the accessible materials from the "West Coast are in his hands for exami-
nation. The first part of his " Monograph of the Species of Sphcerium of
North and South America" is printed in the Proc. Ac. N. Sc. Phil.' 1861,
pp. 402 et seq., and contains quotations of five species, nos. 4, 7, 9, 10, 11,
with synonymy, from "Washington Ter., Oregon, and California. He has
kindly (in advance of his intended publications) furnished to Mr. W. G. Bin-
iiey the following MS. " Synopsis of the Corbiculidas of the West Coast of
North America," with liberty to publish in this Eeport. It is here condensed,
with synonyms and references, in the nomenclature of the writer.

Mr. Prime's List of West North- American Corbiculidae* [Cyrenidae].
1. Corbicula convexa, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 342, = C. ventricosa, Pr. MS. Mazatlan.

15. f. 9. Nicaragua ; Belize.

2. Cyrena radiata, Hani., P. Z. S. 1844, p. 159. Eealejo.

3. Cyrena solida, Phil., Abbild. 1846, p. 78, pi. 15. f. 9.

4. Cyrena triangula, V. de Busch, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 78, pi. 2. f. 3~ = C. altilis, Old.,

Bost. Pr. 1852, p. 400, pi. 16. f. 5 bis,= C. Mexicana, pars, Maz. Cat., no. 165
(= C. varians, cat. prov.). Mazatlan.

5. Cyrena insignis, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 20; II. Conch. 1861, p. 39, pi. 2. f. 2.


6. Cyrena olivacea, Cpr., Maz. Cat., no. 164,= C. Fontainei, Desh., MS. (non D'Orb.,

B. M. Cat. no. 253). Mazatlan.

7. Cyrena acuta, Pr., 111. Conch. 1862, p. 387, pi. 14. f. 1. Centr. America.

8. Cyrena Mexicana, Sby., Zool. II. 1829, p. 364 [Maz. Cat, no. 165= ]C. varians,

' cat. prov. pars, + C. fragilis, Desh. MS. -j- C. aquilateralis, Desh., P. Z. S.
1854, p. 20. Mazatlan.

9. Cyrena Calif arnica, Pr., Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 1860, p. 276,= C. subquadrata,

Desh., P.'Z. S. 1854, p. 21 (nom. preoc.). California.

10. Cyrena Panamensis, Pr., Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 1860, p. 283, = C. inflata, Desh.,

P. Z. S. 1854, p. 23 (nom. preoc.). Panama.

11. Cyrena Eecluzii, Pr.,= C. cordifonnis, Reel., II. Conch. 1853, p. 251, pi. 7. f. 9

(nom. preoc.). Centr. America.

12. Cyrena Cumingu, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 22. Centr. America.

13. Cyrena tumida, Pr.,= C. angulata, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 22 (nom. preoc.).

Centr. America.

14. Cyrena pullastr a, Morch, Mai. Bl. 1860, p. 194. Realejo.

15. Cyrena maritima, C. B. Ad., Pan. Sh., no. 451. Panama.

16. Cyrena sordida, Hani., P. Z. S. 1844, p. 159. Central America.

17. Sphcerium triangtdarc,Ssiy(Cydas t.), New Harm. Dissem. 1829, p. 356. Mexico.

18. Sphceritimstriatin'um, Lam. (Cyclass.), An, s.Vert. vol.v. p. 560, 1818,= C.eden-

tula, Say, loc. cit. p. 2, = C. cornea (Lam.). C. B. Ad., Cat., 1847,= C. albula,
Pr., Bost. Proc. 1851, p. 155, + C. tenuitiriata, Pr., p. 156, + C. acuminata,
Pr., p. 158,+ C. inornata, Pr.,-f C. simplex, Pr.,+ C. modesta,Pr., p. 159. Hob.
N. York to Alabama, Connecticut to Illinois ; Hell-gate River, W. T.

19. Sphcerium dentatum,K*\&.(Cyclasd.), Proc. A. N.S.Phil. 1841, p. 100. Oregon.

* The name Corbicula, having been first given to a species, and being itself a diminu-
tive is scarcely fitted to displace long-used generic appellations in marking the family-
fc ,oup.


20. Sphcerium occidental^ Pr., Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 1860, p. 295, = C. ovalis, Pr.,

Bost. Proc. 1852, p. 276 (nom. preoc.),=< Sph. ovale, Stn.,' Add. Gen. vol. ii.
p. 450. H(ib. New York to Georgia j Vermont to Wisconsin ; Hell-gate
River, W. T.

21. Sphcerium nobile, Gld. (Cyclas n.\ Bost. Proc. 1855, p. 229 [Otia, p. 218]. San

Pedro, Webb.

22. Sphcenum patella, Gld. (Cyclas p.), Bost. Proc. 1850, p. 292 [Otia, p. 86 j E. E.

Moll. f. 527, type not returned to S. I.] Oregon.

23. Sphcerium Spokani, Baird [P. Z. S. 1863, p. 69, f. 12, 13 : antea, p. 605]. B. Col.

24. Sphcerium tumidum, Baird [P. Z. S. 1863, p. 69, f. 11 : antea, p. 605]. B. Col.

25. Sphcerium meridionale, Pr., JProc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1861, p. 414. Panama ; Mus.


26. Sphcerium lenticula, Gld. (Lucina * I.), Bost. Proc. 1850, p. 256. California.

27. Sphcerium subtransversum, Pr., P. Z. S. I860, p. 322. Mexico.

28. Pisidium abditum, Hald. [?ubi] = Cyclas minor, C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc. 1841, p. 48,

= P. obscurum, Pr., Bost. Proc. '1851, p. 161,+ P. Kurtzii, Pr., p. 162, + P.
zonatum, Pr., p. 162,+P. regulars, Pr., Bost. II. vi. 363, pi. 12. f. 11-13, 1852,
+ P. notatum, Pr., Bost. II. vi. 365, pi. 12. f. 20-22, 1852, +P. amplum + P
resartum, Ingalls, MS.,+P. rubrum+P. plenum, Lewis, MS., +P. retusum,
Pr., P.Z.S. 1859, p. 322.

29. Pisidium occidental, Newc. [Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc. 1861, p. 94]. San Fran-

cisco, Rowell.

120. Of the tertiary fossils throwing light on existing species no addi-
tional information has yet been published. We cannot but hope that the
researches of Mr. Gabb, on the fossils collected by the Californian Geological
Survey, will develope relations of great interest between the existing and
former conditions of the continent. The Astorian fossils described by Mr.
Conrad from the U. S. Exploring Expedition (vol. x., Geology, Philadelphia,
1849), and tabulated in the first Report, p. 367, belong to the Smithsonian
Institution, but were not discovered there in 1860. All of them, however (in-
cluding the indeterminate species), are figured in the atlas of plates. They
resemble the fossils of the Pacific Railroad Expeditions in being very imper-
fect, for which reason the following criticisms may prove erroneous. The
general aspect of the collection betokens the Miocene period.

My a abrupta, Conr., may be the young of Glycimeris generosa, Gld,

Thracia trapezoides, Conr., may be curta, Conr.

Solemya ventricosa, Conr., has the aspect of a large Lazaria.

Tcllina arctata, Conr., closely resembles Macima, var. expansa.

Tellina emacerata, Conr., is perhaps Bodegenria. lids.

iMcina acutilineata, Conr., appears to be borealis, Linn.

Cardita subtenta, Conr.,== Venericardia borealis, Conr.

Nucula divaricata, ConT.,=Acila castrensis, Hds.

Pectunculus patulus, Conr., may be sevtentrionalis, Midd.

Pectunculus nitens, Conr., resembles Psephis tantilla, Gld.

Pecten propatulus, Conr. A very fine specimen, enclosed in a large nodule
from Oregon, was presented to the Brit. Mus. by Mr. C. Pace. If not identical
with Amusium caurinum, Gld., it is most closely allied, especially to the
Japanese form.

* Mr. Prime assigns no reason for changing Dr. Gould's Lucina into a Cyclas, nor any
authority for " California." He was, perhaps, misled by the artist's engraved references to
the figures 528, a, b, where he has drawn a rule, referring to the Cyclades above, instead of
writing Lucina. It is assigned to "?Coast of Patagonia" in 'Otia,' p. 63, and to "?R.
Janeiro" in ' E. E. Moll.,' p. 414. In each place the shell is compared to an Astarte or
Cyprina, with lateral teeth. The type was not returned to the Smithsonian Institution ;
but the diagnosis states that it is " chalky, thickened within the deep and jagged pallial
line, sculpture faint but decussated, and margin finely crenulated," characters more con-
sistent with Lucina, s. g. Myrtcea, than with Cyclas. If the type cannot be recovered, per-
haps the species may be dropped, as it is not the Lucina (Myrt&a) lenticula, Eve.


680 REPORT 1863.

Terebrahda nitens, Conr., is very probably Waldhtimia painful n< Grid.
Bvlla petrosa, Conr., has the shape of Tornatina iximia, Bd.
Crepidvla prompta, Conr., is certainly princeps, Midd.
Tiirritella, sp. ind., resembles Mesalia lacteola.

?Doliwn petrosvm, Conr., resembles the young of Priene nodosn. Oheirm,
Fusus geniculus, Conr. A similar shell has just been taken at the Favallones
by Dr. Cooper.

121. To correct the general table of " Mollusca of the West Coast of N.
America" (First Eeport, pp. 298-345), and the deductions founded upon it
(pp. 346-367), would involve the necessity of reprinting a considerable por-
tion. The student, being now in possession of all tlie known sources of
fresh information, can with his own pen strike out the spurious species, alter
the synonyms, insert the newly discovered forms, and make the requisite
corrections in the classified results.

122. With regard to the tropical fauna, the researches at Cape St. Lucas
and in the interior of the Gulf of California, though leaving much to be
desired, bear-out the general conclusions arrived- at in paragraphs 78-87.
The evidence for the identity of specific forms on the Atlantic and Pacific sides
of Central America has been greatly confirmed. Dr. Gould writes, " The
doctrine of local limitations meets with so few apparent exceptions that we
admit it as an axiom in zoology that species strongly resembling each other,
derived from widely diverse localities, especially if a continent intervenes,
and if no known or plausible means of communication can be assigned,
should be assumed as different until their identity can be proved (vide E. E.
Moll. Intr. p. xi). Much study of living specimens must be made before
the apparent exceptions can be brought under the rule." It has, however,
to be borne in mind that the researches of modern geology clearly point to
considerable alterations in the existing configuration of continents, and m
the consequent direction of ocean-currents, during the ascertained period of
many species now living. Nor are we warranted in the belief that the
existing fauna in any locality has been created at any one time, or has
radiated from any single spot. To study the relations of living shells simply
in connexion with the existing map of the world must lead but to partial
results. The facts accumulating with regard to the British species, by
tracing them through the northern drift (now found even on the Snowdonian
range), to the oldest crag deposits when Europe was contained in far different
boundaries, show how altered may have been the configuration of the new
world when the oldest of its molluscs were first created. Coordinately with
the glacial period, Central America may have been a group of islands ; co-
ordinately with the creation of Saoricav a pholadls and Chrysodomus antiquvs.
the gulf-weed may have floated between the llocky Mountains in the
archipelago of West America, and Japanese molluscs may have known how
to migrate to the Mediterranean shores. Dr. Gould's position may there-
fore be accepted in theory ; yet, in practice, the " imperfection of the geological
record"*, and even of our knowledge of existing species and their variations,
demands that the greatest caution be exercised in building results on deduc-
tions from our ignorance. Already the fossil Malea ringens of the Atlantic
has proved a " Rosetta Stone " to interpret the Cyprcna exanthema, Purpura
patula, and other Caribbean shells of the Pacific ; and as the geology of the
West Coast advances, so may we expect to find traces of previous denizens of

* No student of geographical distribution should omit to weigh carefully the chapter
on this subject in Darwin's ' Origin of Species,' and the information given in LyelTs
* Antiquity of Man/



American waters, which have bequeathed some species now flourishing, and
others dying-out, to the existing seas. The present faunas of West America
are perhaps the most isolated on the surface of the globe ; yet, if we knew
the ancestry of each specific form, we might find some first appearing with man
on this planet, others first living even in historic times, others tracing their
descent from remote periods, and it may be very distant localities, in the ages
of the Miocene, possibly even of the Eocene oceans. These suppositions are
not set forth as theories, but simply to guard against interpretations of facts
based on conclusions which may be only the results of our necessarily
imperfect information.

123. With regard to forms offering local peculiarities sufficient to dis-
tinguish them from correlative forms offering equal peculiarities in some other
fauna, we are by no means warranted in assuming that these have sprung
from different creations. If a race of men, migrating to a new continent, in
a very few generations, or even in the next, develope an essentially different
2)h>/sique, it is fair to conclude that molluscs, borne by a change of currents to
a distant region, or steadily migrating to the extreme limit of their con-
ditions of life, will also change their appearance. If the publication of the
" Darwinian Theory " has had no other effect, it has at least checked the pro-
pensity to announce "new species" for differences which may fairly be re-
garded as varietal. It must also be borne in mind, that if the views of Mr.
Darwin be only a theory, such also is the name required for the prevalent
opinion of separate creations for all diverse forms. What indeed can we
possibly know of the mode of original creation of a single species ? We can
only prove that one or the other supposition best explains a certain class of
facts. It is not necessary for a working naturalist to commit himself to an
exclusive belief in either of these theories. He may perhaps best explain
some facts by the doctrine of separate creation, others by that of natural
selection. In either case it is his duty to trace-out, as far as possible, the
limits as well as the powers of variation in every living form, and to guard
against seeing that only which accords with his prevailing belief.

124. The study of European shells, as they exist in Norway, in Britain, in
the Mediterranean, at the Canaries, or as they appear at different depths
and stations in our own seas, still more as they occur in the widely separated
periods of the later and middle tertiary ages, is an excellent preparation for
the examination of either recent or fossil faunas in districts where our know-
ledge is fragmentary and unconfirmed. It may be safely stated that there are,
in the American waters, many tropical forms from the West Indies and the
Pacific shores, some temperate forms from California and the Atlantic, and
many sub-boreal species in the Vancouver district and the European seas,
not differing from each other more or even so much as forms universally
allowed by malacologists to have had a common origin from Britain and the
Mediterranean, from the Red and the Coralline Crag.

125. It is interesting to observe that, notwithstanding the probable con-
nexion of the oceans through the Rocky Mountains during the Miocene age, j
there is extremely little similarity between the special temperate faunas of
East and West America. Not a single species has yet been proved identical,
and the allied forms are but few in number. They appear as follows :

OaUfornian species. U. S. Atlantic species.

Clidiopliora punctata.
Lvonsia Californica.
Macoma inconspicua.
Angulus modestus.
Raeta uudulata.


C. trilineata (? =nasuta).

L. (hyal!na=)Floridana.

M. fusca.

A. tener.

R. canaliculate.


REPORT 1863.

California*, species.

Liocardium substriatum.
Lunatia Lewisii.
Na?sa mendica.
Amycla (species).

U. S. Atlantic species^
L. Mortoni.
L. heros.
N. trivittata.
Amycla (species).

126. When, however, we approach the region in which boreal and sub-
boreal forms occur, many species are found in common, and between others
there is but slight difference. Yet even here there are more British than
!> ew England species in the West-coast fauna. As might be expected, the
British species are for the most part those which are also found fossil, and
therefore have had time to diffuse themselves widely over the hemisphere.
It ia, however, remarkable that many Crag species have reached Eastern
Asia and West America which are not found in Grand Manan and New
England. It is also extraordinary that certain special generic forms of the
Crag, as Acila, Miodon, Verticordia, and Solariella, reappear in the North
Pacific*. When seeking for an explanation of so remarkable a connexion
between faunas widely removed in space and time, the correlative fact must
be borne in mind, that the northern drift f, so widely diffused over Europe
and Eastern America, has not yet been traced in the western region. The
following Table exhibits, not only the identical but the similar species be-
longing to the northern faunas of the Atlantic and Pacific. In the Asiatic
column, K denotes that the species occurs in the Kamtschatka region, J in
Japan. In the second column, Y signifies the Vancouver district, Cthe Cali-
fornian, and I the Sta. Barbara group of islands. The species marked F
are also fossil. In the third column, C denotes the Coralline, R the Red, and
M the Mammaliferous Crag. The fourth contains the species living in the
British seas ; the fifth, on the American side of the Atlantic, Gr. standing
for Greenland.

East Asia.

West America.



E. America.






V Rhynconella psittacea . .
V C Xylotrya pennatifera ....
V Xvlotrya timbriata. .....



Faujasii, C R
lata, RM

corbis, C R

cardiiformis, C

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