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Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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psittacea
pennatifera
rtmbriata
crispata
pholadis

Binghami
truncata
proxima

compressa

borealis
flexuosus

suborbicul.


psittacea

crispata
pholadis

truncata
proxima,&c
Greenland,
borealis
compressa


V C Zirphsea crispata


V C Saxicava pholadis
V C Glycimeris generosa ....
V Spha^nia ovalis


V Mya truncata


V Macoma inquinata
V Serripes Grcenlandicus . .
V I Venericardia borealis ....
V Astarte (compacta) ....
V Miodon prolongatus ....


I Cryptodon flexuosus ....
I Verticordia 9-costata. . . .
V C Kellia suborbicularis ....



* Whether there be any similar correspondence in the Polyzoa is not yet known, Mr.
Busk not having had time to complete his examination.

t See, in this connexion, a very accurate Table of the species which travel round
Cape Cod, with their distribution in existing seas and over different provinces of the
various drift-formations in the Old and New World, by Sanderson Smith, in Ann. Lye.
Nat. Hist. N. York, vol. vii. 1860, p. 166.

1 From the Coralline Crag. Looks more like ovalis.

168



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA.,



683



1 East Asia.


West'Araerica.


Crag.


British.


."5. America.


J




C


rubra




JK


V C Mytilus edulis


KM


edulis


edulis






FORM


modiolus


modiolus


JK


V Modiolaria marmorata . .
V Modiolaria laevigata ....
I Crenella decussata


OR


marmorata
nigra
decussata


marmorata
laevisrata
glanditid


JK




OEM


tenuis


tenuis


insignis.&c
JK


V C I F Acila castrensis ....
V Yoldia lanceolata


Cobboldiaj,RM
RM




lanceolata




V Leda minuta


RM


caudata


minuta


1 ~

(Asia)


I Limasa subauriculata. . . .
V C Hinnites giganteus ....


C

Cortesyi, C
M


subauricul
palustris


palustiis




V C Cvlichna attonsa


cvlindracea. C R


attonsa






V Haminea hvdatis .


M


hvdatis




J K, caeca


VC Dentalium Indianorum. .
V Lepeta csscoides


entale, M


entale
(ca3ca,JVbr.)


striolaturn
casca, Gr




V Margarita helicina





helicina


helicina










Vahlii Gr


_


V Mesalia lacteola






lactea, Gr







M


vincta


vincta


K(tuiTicula


V Bala fidiciila


turricula, R


turricula


turricula




V Bela excurvata


Trevelliana, R


Trevelliana




K


V C Seal aria Indianorum ....

V Velutina Isevigata


M


communis
Ise vi^ata


laBvisfata


K


V Natica clausa


R


(Norway)


clausa




V C I Eulima micans


polita, C R


micans







V Cerithiopsis tubercularis
V I Triforis ad versus
C I Erato columbella



C
Vlaugerise. C R


;ubercularis
adversus


(W I")









lapillus


lapillus





V Chrysodomus liratus. . . .
V Trophon multicostatus . .





(Norway)


10-costatiisj
Gunneri



127. The following species (besides others dredged by Mr. A. Adams, but not
yet determined) have been found on both the Asiatic and American shores of
the N. Pacific, in addition to those recorded by Middendorff, v. Brit. Assoc.
Report, p. 223.



Terebratella Coreanica.
Waldheimia Californica.
Waldheimia pulvinata.
Waldheimia Grayi.
Glycimeris generosa.
Sciiizothaarus Nuttallii.
Solen sicarius.
Sanguinolaria Nuttallii.
Tellina Bodegensis.



Cardium modestum.
Amusium caurinum.
Placunanomia macroschisma.
Crepidula grandis.
Drillia inermis.
Lunatia pallida.
Priene Oregonensis.
Cerostoma foliatum.



Siphonalia Kellettii.
128. The Vancouver and Californian districts have so many characteristic
species in common (111 out of 492), that they must be regarded as con-
stituting one fauna, differing as do the British and Mediterranean regions.
Pull particulars as to the range of the different species may be expected in
Dr. Cooper's Report to the Californian Geological Survey. One fact must,
however, be here specially noted, viz. the great peculiarity of the island-fauna.
Although the Sta, Barbara group are so near the mainland, the dredge bus
not only produced many species not known on the continent, but also many

169



684 REPORT 18G3.

before considered as essentially tropical. Along with- these are not only some
species of types hitherto regarded as almost exclusively Asiatic, as Verticordia,
Solariella, and Fulvia modesta, but also some which belong to the sub-boreal
district, as Lucina borealis, Venericardia borealis, and Crenella decussata. The
latter belongs to the British, and not to the N. England form.

129. Of the bleudingof the temperate and tropical faunas on the peninsula of
L. California we are still in ignorance. All we know is, that at Margarita Bay
the shells are still tropical, and that at Cerros Island they are strangely inter-
mixed. There is peculiar evidence of connexion between the faunas of the penin-
sula and of S. America, not only in the land-shells (v. anted, p. 630), but in
some of the marine forms. Beside identical species with wide range, as many Ca-
lyptraeids, the following are coordinate between the North and South Paciiic:



Upper and Lower California.
Netastoma Darwinii.
Solecurtus Californianus.
Semele rupium.
Callista var. puella.
Ohama pellucida.
Liocardium substriatum.
Axinsea (Barbarensis.)
Verticordia novemcostata.
Pecten aequisulcatus.
Siphonaria thersites.
Tonicia lineata.
Acmaea patina.
Acnuea persona.
Scurria mitra.
Chlorostoma funebrale.
Mitra maura.
Eanella Californica.
Priene Oregonensis.
Trophon multicostatus.



South America.

N. Darwinii.

S. Dombeyi.

(Ditto, Galapagos.)

C. pannosa.

C. pellucida.

L. Elenense.

A. intermedia.

V. ornata.

P. ventricosus.

S. lateralis, &c.

T. lineolata.

A. scutum, D'Orb.

A. " Oregona," H. C.

S. scurra.

C. nice stum.

M. maura.

R. ventricosa.

P. cancellata.

T. Magellanicus.



Time and space do not avail for pointing out further relations with exotic
faunas ; which indeed will be performed with greater correctness after Dr.
Cooper shall have published his complete lists.

130. Eor the sake of avoiding the inconvenience of trinomial nomenclature,
the subgeneric and varietal names have often been cited in this Eeport instead
of the generic and specific, in order that the exact form of the shell quoted
might be more quickly determined. The diagnoses of all the new species
here tabulated are written for the press, and will shortly appear in the dif-
ferent scientific journals. Additional specimens will probably prove several
forms to be conspecific which are here treated as distinct. In the present
state of the science, absolute certainty is not to be attained. The object of
the writer* has been principally to bring together the works of his prede-
cessors, and so to arrange and describe the new materials that those who
continue his labours may be able to draw their own conclusions from existing
data. In order to facilitate reference, a brief index is here given of the
subject-matter of the former and of the present Reports.

* The best thanks of the writer are due to Hugh Cuming, Esq., for the free use of his
collection ; to Messrs. H. & A. Adams, Hanley, Beeve, and Sowerby, for aid in identifying
specimens ; to the officers and naturalists connected with the Smithsonian Institution ;
to Dr. A. A. Gould, for very valuable corrections ; and generally to authors and friends,
who have kindly rendered him all the assistance in their power. He earnestly invites
criticisms on the subject-matter of the two Reports ; in order that they may be embodied,
and errors corrected, in the Manuals of the West-Coast Mollusca which he has undertaken
to prepare for the Smithsonian Institution.

Warrington, Aug. 22nd t 1864. ^ ,_~



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 685

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page in

Paragraph. Report L Keport II,

1-5. Physical Condition of West America 159 ...

6-12. Errors respecting Habitat 162 ...

2 S-21. Errors of Nomenclature 164 ...

' 22. Table of Localities 167 ... 517

23. Table of collectors. Early Writers. Linnaeus, Solander,

Martyn, Chemnitz, Dixon, Dombey, Perry, Leach,

Dillwyn, Larnarck, Swainson ... 168 ... 517

24. Humboidt and Bonpland (Valenciennes) 169 ... 521

25. Voyage of Coquille :' Lesson 172 ... 521

26. Eschscholtz 172 ... 521

27. Tankerville Catalogue : Zoological Journal 174 ... 522

28. Voyage of ' Blossom ': Beechey, Belcher 175 ... 522

29. Wood's ' Index Testa ceologicus ' and Supplement ... 178 ... 523

30. Voyage of ' Astrolabe ': Quoy and Gaimard 179 ...

31. Voyage of ' Adventure ' and ' Beagle ': King 179 ... 524

32. Hugh Cuming's Researches 179

33. D'Orbigny's S. America 189 ...

34. Botta 191

35. Blainville's Purpurse ... , 191 ...

36. Guerin's Magasin : Duclos 191 ... 524

37. Voyage of ' Beagle' : Darwin (see also p. 359) 192 ...

38. Lady Katherine Douglas (afterwards Wigram) 192 ... 525

39. Nuttall; Conrad 192 ... 525

40. Voyage of ' Bjnite' : Eydoux and Souleyet 201 ...

41. 'Venus': Deshayes, Valenciennes 202 ... 528

42. 'Sulphur': Hinds 204 ... 529

43. U. S. Exploring Expedition ; Gould 208 ... 529

44. Middendorff 214 ... 532

45. Voyage of ' Samarang ': Adams and Eeeve 224 ... 534

46. E. B. Philippi 224 ... 534

47. Mexican-War Naturalists, Kich and Green ; also Jewett 225 ... 534
48, 49. Melchers ; Menke 235 ...

50. Kellett and Wood ; Forbes 239 ... 542

51. Eeigen; Br. Mus. Mazatlan Catalogue 241 ... 542

62, 110. Conrad on Wilson's shells ' 264 ... 634

53. Jay's Catalogue ... ... 265 ... 548

54. C. B. Adams ; Panama Catalogue 265 ... 549

55. Br. Mus. Catalogues ; VenericUe 281 ... 553

56. Sailor's Collection 281 ... 554

67,98. Gould's Collection 233 ... 554

58. Bridges 284 ... 554

59. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 285 ... 554

60. Sowerby; ' Conchologi cat Illustrations ' 288 ... 559

61. ' Thesaurus Conchy liorum ' and 'Malacological

Magazine' 288 ... 561

Sowerby's ' Genera ' ; Reeve's ' Conchologia Systematica' 561

62. Reeve's ' Conchologia Iconica ' ... ... 289 ... 562

63. Kiener, ' Coquilles Vivantes ' ... ... 293 . . 563

64, 65. German authors ; Pfeiffer, Menke, Philippi, Kiister,

Dunker 294 ... 573

66. British Museum Collection , 296 ... 574

67. Cumingian Collection ... 297

68. Various European sources : Bosc, Lesson, Gray, Wood-

ward, Hanley, Journ. de Conch., Chenu, Duclos,

Deshayes 297 ... 575

69. 121. General Table of the Western Faunas 297 ...

70,71. Isolation from other Provinces 346

72, 73. Boreal and Sitcha District 347 ...

74-76. Fauna of Oregon and Upper California 348 ... 635

77, 78. Lower California ; S. Diego, S. Pedro, S. Juan,

La Paz, Guaymas 350

79-83. Tropical Fauna ; Galapagos 353

84-87, 122. Comparison with other Faunas 362 . 680

171



686 REPORT 1863.

Page in
Paragraph. Eeport I. Eeport II.

88. Land and Freshwater Shells 366

89. Polyzoa 367



91, 120. Fossil Species ; U. S. Expl.Exp 367

90, 92. Conclusion of First Eeport ... 367

3. Smithsonian Institution ; Collections and Publications



679

577

94. N. Pacific Exploring Expedition ; Stimpson, Gould 582

95. TJ. S. Japan Expedition ; Jay 587

96. A. Adams ; Japan 588

97. Pacific EailroadEeports; Blake's Fossils 588

98. Gould's Shells 283 ... 592

99. Newberry's Fossils 593

100. Antisell's Fossils ,594

101. W. Cooper's Shells (Coop.) 596

102. U. S. N. Pacific Boundary Survey ; Kennerley.. 601

103. Brit. ; Lord, Lyall, Forbes 603

104. Californian State Geological Survey; J. G. Cooper (Cp.) . 607

105. Cape St. Lucas Shells ; Xantus 616

106. Neeah Bay, Vancouver, &c. ; Swan 626

107. Farallone Islands 628

108. J. G. Cooper's Land Shells ; Bland 629

109. Land Shells of Lower CaMfornia 630

110. Californian Naturalists: Trask, Newcomb, Eowell, Gabb,

Eemond 631

111. Various American publications 633

112. General Table of the Vancouver and Californian Fauna 635

113. Additional Shells from Lower California and the Gulf;

Cerros Island, Margarita Bay, La Paz, Guay mas 664

1 14. Additional Shells of Tropical Fauna ; Acapulco, Eeal

Llejos, Panama 668

115. General List of Land, Freshwater, and Marine Pulmo-

nates; Binney . ... 669

116. Paludinidae, &c. ; Binney 676

117. Melaniadae; Binney 677

118. Unionidae; Lea 677

119. Cyrenidae; Prime 678

91, 120. Tertiary Fossils 367 ... 679

69, 121. Corrections of General Table 297 ... 680

84 r 122. Comparison with other Faunas 362 ... 680

123. Local peculiarities 681

124. Comparative study of European Fauna 681

125. Comparison with Eastern American Fauna 681

126. Comparison with the Crag Fossils 682

127. Comparison with Asiatic Shells 683

128. Peculiarities of the Island Fauna 684

129. Comparison of the West Coast of N. and S. America 684

130. Explanation of Nomenclature ... ... 684



172



B.



EEYIEW



OF



PROF. C. B. ADAMS'S CATALOGUE



OF THE



SHELLS OF PANAMA. FROM THE TYPE SPECIMENS.



BY
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., PH.D.



From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 339-369,

June 23, 1863.



( 173 )



REVIEW OF PROF. C. B. ADAMS'S 'CATALOGUE OF THE SHELLS
OF PANAMA'*, FROM THE TYPE SPECIMENS. BY PHILIP P.
CARPENTER, B.A., PH.D.

A resume of this important contribution to our knowledge of local
faunas, and a comparison with the British Museum ' Descriptive
Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca,' is given
in the 'Report of the British Association' for 1856, pp. 265-281.
Full series of the old species, and the first specimens of the new,
were deposited by Prof. Adams in the Museum of Amherst College,
\\hich also contains similar series of the Professor's Caribbean col-
lections. The second specimens of new species were sent to Mr.
Cuming, and through his kindness were freely used in preparing
the Mazatlan Catalogue, thus avoiding the necessity of many syno-
nvms. An instructive lesson in candour and forbearance may be
learnt by comparing together the works of any two naturalists of
equal celebrity, or by comparing either of them with the types.
With the best desires for accuracy, and the greatest care, it is hardly
possible for an author to describe so that his readers shall see shells
as he sees them. If this be true of such full and precise diagnoses
as those of Adams and Gould, how much greater must be the diffi-
culty to foreigners of recognizing shells from the brief descriptions
of Broderip, Lamarck, and the older writers generally. The careful

* Catalogue of Shells collected at Panama ; with Notes on their Synonymy,
Station, and Geographical Distribution by C. B. Adams, Professor of Zoology,
&c., in Amherst College, Mass. Reprinted from the ' Annals of Lyceum of Nat.
Hist. N. Y.,' vol. v. New York, 1852.

175



2 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

preservation of types therefore, and the interchange of specimens
named from types, is of the first importance to save the time and
ensure the accuracy of succeeding writers. The Smithsonian Insti-
tution has fully recognized this principle by directing that the first
available duplicate of all type species described from its collections
shall be deposited in some museum open to students on the other
side of the Atlantic.

As the authorities of Amherst College had not taken any steps
to figure their unique specimens, and as Prof. Adams's determina-
tions of old species had not been verified, I made it my business
(when visiting America to deposit the first duplicate series of the
Mazatlan Shells in the New York State Museum at Albany) to com-
pare Prof. Adams's. collection, on the spot, with his published book,
in my copy of which I made my notes and sketches at the time.
Every facility was afforded me by the Curator. I was allowed freely
to handle the specimens in the presence of his assistant, and to draw
the minute species under my microscope. I took with me for com-
parison the drawings of the minute Mazatlan shells in the British
Museum. The species being numbered in both the Panama and the
Mazatlan lists, it is easy now to institute a comparison between them.
They are here distinguished by the initials P. and M.

P. 1. Ovula avena. May be distinct from Radius variabilis,
J\i. 435, being much more stumpy, with a thicker lip ; but the few
specimens are in poor condition, and the differences may be accidents
of station.

2. Ovula emarginata=Carinea e. Quite distinct from its Carib-
bean analogue C. gibbosa.

3. Ovula neglecta, C. B. Ad., is probably a small variety of Ra-
dius variabilis.

4. Ovula variabilis, C. B. Ad. = Radius v., M. 435.

5. Ovula, sp. ind., probably =varia b His, jun.

6. Cyprcea arabicula= Aricia a., M. 438.

7. Cypraea cervinetta=C. exanthema, M. 436. Having now
examined a multitude of specimens from different stations on the
west coast, which differ from each other quite as much as they do
from the typical Caribbean forms, I am confirmed in the belief of
their identity.

8. Cyprcea punctulata= Aricia p. Erroneously given, in M.
p. 374, as a probable synonym of A. arabicula. It is less thickened
at the sides, with smaller spots. Although specimens of arabicula
graduate into it at the back, it may always be known by the mouth,
which has its teeth much further apart.

9. Cyprcea pustulat a = Trivia p., M. 439.

176



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

10. Cyprcea radians= Trivia r., M. 4-40.

11. Cyprcea ru b esc ens dead sp. of Trivia sanguined, M. 442.

12. Cyprcea sanguinea= Trivia s., M. 442.

13. Erato scabriuscula. Stet.

14. Marginella minor. Stet, M. 587.

15. Marginella sapotilla. The Panama specimens collected by
Prof. Adams, and abundantly by others, more closely resemble M.
prunum than the type M. sapotilla of Hinds, which is a much smaller
shell. The Caribbean shells (which are found across the Isthmus
at Aspinwall) differ only in having a sharper angle in the labrum at
the posterior notch. Adanson's habitat, doubted by Prof. Adams
(note, p. 41), is confirmed by specimens in the Bristol Institution
brought from Sierra Leone by Chief Justice Rankine. The Pacific
shells are probably conspecific, sufficient evidence being now in our
possession that the two oceans were united at least as late as the
Miocene epoch*.

16. Mitra funiculata. Stet.

17. Mitra lens, M. 585.

18. Mitra nucleola. Closely resembling young specimens of the
Caribbean M. granulosa.

19. Mitra solitaria, C. B. Ad. = Zierliana s. Other specimens
have since been found of this characteristic species. The " trans-
verse ribs " can scarcely be said to be " obsolete anteriorly."

20. Mitra tiistis = Strigatella t. t M. 586.

21. Terebra elata = Myurella e.

22. Terebra larvccformis = Myurella I.

23. 24. Stent.

25. Terebra tuberculosa = MyureIla t.

26. Terebra varicosa. This may possibly be a very young speci-
men of Subula v. ; but I think it distinct.

27-31. Sp. ind. A specimen of Euryta fulyurata, M. 455, is in
the museum, as from Panama, but not of Prof. Adams's collecting.

32. Oliva angulata, M. 590.

* The specimens in the Cumingian Museum, named M. ccerulescens at the time i
of the British Association Report, are now labelled " sapotilla, Hds., 5-13 fathoms
sandy mud, Panama, H. C." Another set of Pacific shells (notch-angle rounded)
are given as " Marginella n. s., Panama," " San Domingo" having been erased.
The large West Indian form (notch-angle sharp) is given as " ccerulescens, var.,
Lam., 10 fathoms sandy mud, Panama." Another set of large shells, with sharp
angle, and labrum tinted behind, is given as " ccerulescens, Lam., Panama," hut
without authority. The small West-Indian form (like the typical sapotilla) is
given as " glans, Mke." Either in this, as in other instances, error has crept into
the locality-marks, or else even the distinction pointed out by Mr. Redfield (who
has given peculiar study to this geuus) caunot be relied ou for separating the spe-
ci/s goographi'-ally.

12 ,177



4 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

33. Oliva araneosa = O. melchersi, M. 59 1 . Prof. Adams's shanty
specimen can scarcely be distinguished from that which he marked
" 0. literata, Alabama." But the ordinary aspect of the shells O.
reticularis from the Caribbean Islands, O. literata from the coast of
the Southern States, and O. melchersi from the Pacific, is sufficiently
distinct (for the genus).

34. Oliva inconspicua, C. B. M. = Olivella i., M. 599. Some of
the shells referred to this species from Panama, Mazatlan, and Cape
St. Lucas graduate into the Caribbean O. oryza ; others v mto dwarf
forms of O. gracilis. The species either needs revision from fresh
specimens, or should be merged into O. gracilis.

35. Oliva pellucida, C. B. Ad. Dead specimen ; differs from
Olivella p., Rve.

36. Oliva porphyria. Stet.

37. Oliva semistriata = Olivella s. Closely resembles 0. colu-
mellaris.

38. Oliva testacea=Agaronia t. y M. 602.

39. Oliva undatella = Olivella u., M. 595.

40. Oliva venulata. This shanty specimen is O. angulata, jun.
The O. venulata, M. 593, is named by Prof. Adams O julietta, as
also by Mke. (non Duel.). The true O. Juliet fa (Guacomayo, Mus.
Smiths.) is the Pacific "analogue" of O.fusiformis.

41. Oliva volutella = Olivella v. It is surprising that this species,
so immensely common at Panama and up the coast, should not reach
the Gulf, and that the equally common O. tergina of Mazatlan and
O. gracilis of Cape St. Lucas and Acapulco should be rare elsewhere,
while the larger Olives are found from Guaymas to the equator.
O.'dama (=lineolata, Gray, C. B. Ad.), abundant at Mazatlan, was
bought, not collected, by the Professor at Panama.

42 Planaxis planicostata. Stet. Also immensely common at
Panama, though absent from Mazatlan.

43. Nassa canescens, C. B. Ad. Having compared this unique
specimen with P. 50, q. v., I can speak to their complete identity.
The "pale grey" of the "interspaces" is due to the shell being
dead.

44, 45. Stent.

46. Nassa gemmulosa=M.. 631, exactly.

47. Stet.

48. Nassa luteostoma M. 623.

49. Nassa nodifera. Also found at Guaymas.

50. Nassa pagodus, C. B. Ad. (-{-N. canescens, P. 43) =* A ; .
(? pagodus, var.) acuta, M. 625. It is certainly the N. decussata
of Kien., but probably not of Lam. Whether it is the Triton pago-
dus cf Rve. I am still unable to say, the type being apparently lost.
We are bound to suppose that Mr. Reeve could not mistake so de-

178



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. )

ci Jed a Nassa for a Triton ; so that if Lamarck's is a similar Eastern
species, the West American may stand as N. acuta.

o-l. Nassa panamensis, C. B. Ad. The Professor rightly marked
his duplicates " exilis, Pws." This abundant shell, having a Pisa-
rioid, not a Nassoid operculum, probably belongs to Phos, Northia y
or some genus not yet eliminated. N. obsoleta, Say, has a similar
operculum, and appears nearly related.

52. Nassa proximo,. The unique specimen appears to be an ex-
treme form of N. versicolor, P. 55.

53. Nassa 1 scabriuscula, C. B. Ad. (non Pws.) = 2NT. complanata,
Pws. : v. P. 56.

54. Nassa striata, C. B. Ad. The two type specimens, one young,
the other adult, both belong to a variety of versicolor. The phrase,
" last whorl spirally canaliculate on the left side," simply expresses
the ordinary character of Nassa. The specimens in Mas. Cuming.,
however, from another source, differ somewhat in the nucleus from
the small form of N. versicolor. These = N. paupera, Gld., teste
Cuming, and should take that name.

55. Nassa versicolor, C. B. Ad., M. 632. The revolving striae
vary so greatly in this species, as well as the size, obesity, and colour,
that it is hard to assign its limits. The specimens marked versicolor
by the Professor vary much more among themselves than the ex-
treme ones do from his proximo and striata. The apex and early
whorls of each are exactly the same under the microscope. It is pos-
sible that the unique crebristriata, M. 633, is also an extreme variety.

56. Nassa wilsoni appears to be only a dwarf form of P. 53,
N. complanata.

57. Buccinum crassum=Phos c.

58. Buccinum distortum=Clavella d.

59. Buccinum insigne = Pisania i. y M. 659.

60. Buccinum luaubre, C. B. Ad. The Professor marked this shell
on his card " Murex ? ? " ; then " Fususl"; then " Fusus nodu-
losus, Ad., n. s."; then " Buccinum (?) lugubre, Ad., n. s."; so that
the old genera were sometimes as badly defined as the new ones. It
may rank* with Pisania.

6 1 . Buccinum pagodus = Pisania p.

62. Buccinum pristis= Nor thia serrata.

63. Buccinum riny ens = Pisania r. t M. 663.

64. Buccinum sang uinolentum = Pisania s., M. 662.

65. Buccinum stimpsonianum= Nassa st.

66. Dolium rinaens=Malea r.

67. Monoceros br evident atum. This species, very common at
Panama, has been transported over (not through) the Pacific, to Sau



Online LibraryPhilip P. (Philip Pearsall) CarpenterThe mollusks of western North America → online text (page 25 of 45)