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Francisco and Monterey v. P page 75.

179



G DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

68. Monoceros cingulatum = Leucozonia c., M. 583.

69. Purpura carolensis=P. triangularis, M. 608.

70. Purpura foveolata = Cuma costata, M. 610, probably; but the
markings have been too much obliterated to decide with confidence.

71. Purpura kiosquiformis^Cuma k., M. 609. There are in
the collection three shells, labelled by the Professor "P. pvrpnroirfes
(Fusus), Orb., Panama" = Pisania cT orbignyi, Kve. fto authority
is given, and they probably came from Peru.

72. Pvrpvra, sp. ind. This shell is not to be found. It has
probably been put with the last, of which it is no doubt a variety :
v. M. p. 482.

73. Purpura melo. Stet.

74. Purpura osculans appears to be the young of Rhizocheilus
nux y M. 611 ; of which R. distans, Cpr., and probably R. califor-
nicus, A. Ad., are only varieties.

75. Purpura tecta Cuma t.

76. Purpura undata = P. biserialis, M. 606.

77. Columbella atramentaria= Anachis a.

78. Columbella bicanalifera=StrGmbina b.

79. Columbella boivinii. This species must rank with {Anachis
or) Engina*, the operculum being Pisanoid.

80. Columbella conspicua = Anachis c.

81. Columbella costellata, C. B. Ad. = Anachis scalarina, Sby.,
M. 645 ; not A. costellata, Sby., M. 646.

82. Columbella diminut a = Anachis d.

83. Columbella dorsata = Strombina d.

84. Columbella fluctuata-= Anachis fl.

85. Columbella fulva= Anachis /., M. 648.

86. Columbella fuscata, M. 617. The small var. is C. f estiva,
Kien.

87. Columbella oibberula = Strombina g.

8 8 . Columbella gracilis = Anachis g.

89. Columbella guttata=Nitidella cribraria, M. 613.

90. 91, 92. Stent.

93. Columbella fyrata = Anachis I

94. Columbella major, M. 615.

95. Columbella wodesta Truncaria m. It might be convenient
to leave this genus as arranged by Messrs. H. and A. Ad. Mr.
Henry Adams desires to restrict it to the type species, in which

* Of the shells called by Trend) authors Stmi-fticinvla, these vith a Purpiroid
oy>erculum may he retained as Sistmrn, while these with Pisanoid cjeituluiu
should be renioved as Enyina^ with Anachis, to the Muricidae.

180



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

case this and similar species must be moved to Nitidella, if the oper-
culum be (as is presumed) Purpuroid ; or to Amycla, if Nassoid.

96. ColumbeUa mcesta Anachis m.

97 ColumbeUa nigricans= Anachis n.

98. Co/umbella parva. This appears to be only a dead specimen
of G. pygmaa, P. 100.

99. ColumbeUa pulchrior is probably a Nitidella.

100. ColumbeUa pygmtza= Anachis p., IvL 651.

101. ColumbeUa ruf/osff = Anachis r. This appears to be the
commonest and most variable species of the genus. The typical
specimens are somewhat stumpy, with stout knobs. Then the knobs
pass into long, compressed ridges, and finally change into narrow
bars. These are wide apart, or close, or nearly evanescent on the
back. The shape passes from the stumpy to an acuminate form
like costellata. Some adults are more than twice the size of others;
but the same variations are found in both extremes. The colours
are generally laid on in patches on the knobby specimens ; in fine
flames, on the smoother ones. In all varieties, it is known from
Jiuctuata by the spiral strise over the whole surface ; and from varia

by the shoulder, more or less developed into a keel, on the whorls of
the spire.

102. ColumbeUa strombiformis, M. 616.

103. ColumbeUa tessellata, C. B. Ad. (non Gask.)= Anachis gua-
temalensis, Rve.

104. ColumbeUa turrita Strombina t.

105. ColumbeUa varia = Anachis v.

106. ColumbeUa sp. ind. is the young of a species in Mus.
Cuming., resembling harpaformis.

107 Ricinula carbonaria=Engina c.

108. Ricinula jug osa may be an Engina, but has more the aspect
of the Pacific group Peristernia.

109. Ricinula r eeviana= Engina pulchr a, Rve.

110. Cassis abbreviata=Bezoardica a. On comparing a large
series of specimens from Cape St. Lucas with a similar series of C.
inflata from Texas, I was unable to discover any specific differences.
It varies greatly, from each ocean, in painting, sculpture, height of
spire, &c.

111. Cassis coarctataLevenia c

112,113, 114( = M.4SO), 115, 1 16 ( = M. 481), 117, 118* ( = M.
476), 119* ( = M. 477), 120 ( = M. 475), 121, 122 ( = M. 381,
galeatus), 123 ( = M. 449), 124 (=M. 448), 125. Stem.

* Having now examined a large number of specimens of these two forms, I
have no hesitation whatever in regarding Conm regain atis as simply a variety of
C. purpurascens. Similar differences may be obsened in comparing large series
of almost all Cones.

lol



8 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

126. Triton chemnitzii=AryGbuccinam nodosum, M. 580. These
shells are small and turreted. Those Prof. Adams marked " T. cin-
yulatum, Lam., E. Indies," are much more like the Mazatlan shells.

127. Triton const rictus=Distortio c. The specimens of this
group from the Pacific Coast, from the Gulf of Mexico, and from
the China Seas are very difficult to discriminate.

128. Triton fusoides. This unique and very elegant shell can
scarcely be called a Triton, even of the Epidromus type. It may
perhaps rank with Euthria, but is peculiar in possessing a distinct
anterior sinus, near the canal, like Rostellaria.

129. 130, 131, 132*, 133, 134*, 135. Stent.

136. Murex dubius=Muricidea dubia, M. 673.

137. Murex erosus=Muricidea e.

138. Murex radix = Phyllonotus r. The Professor's specimens
of this species are remarkably fine, more nearly resembling the Gulf
niyritus than the heavy stumpy shells usually seen. His yomi
specimens are heavier, but more turreted, than the young niyritus.
The opercula appear to have fewer frills ; but such differences may
be due only to station. The specimens he marked ambiyuus (with-
out locality) belong to the typical niyritus. Phyllonotus radix and
niyritus graduate into each other almost as freely as the latter does
into ambiyuus: v. M. 666.

13. Murex rectirostris. This and kindred species run into each
other too closely, when adult, to speak with any confidence on so
young a specimen in bad condition.

140. Murex recurvirostris. This specimen is also far too imper-
fect to affiliate: v. M. 665.

141. Murex reaius= Phyllonotus r., M. 670.

142. Murex salebrosus Vitularia s., M. 612. The curious group
of Muricoid Purpurids culminates on the West American shores. It
is represented in the north temperate regions by Cerastoma, on the
warmer shores by Chorus, and in the tropical regions by Vitularia.
The Lower Californian Murex belcheri, Hds., belongs to the group.
Dr. Alcock (who has succeeded the late Capt. Brown as Curator of
the Manchester Natural History Museum) has pointed out very well-
marked physiological distinctions between the two families, which
are coordinate with the differences in the opercula.

* Dr. Gray (Guide to Mollusca, pp. 39, 42) leaves the round-variced Ranellids,
as Apollon, in the Tritonida, " operc. annular, nucleus subapical, within the
apex ;" but removes the sharp-variced species, as Ranella, to the Cassididee, and
figures the operculum like Bezoardica, " half-ovate, nucleus central, lateral, in-
ternal." The operculum of R. calata, No. 132, is almost identical with Murex,
and the shell accords with Apollon\ but R. nititla, No. 134, which has very sharp
varices, has its operculum widely removed from Bezoardica. It is closely related
to that of Cerastoma^ Rhizocheilus, and some of the Ocinebree; nucleus near the
anterior end of the labrum ; lahral portions of the annular layers eroded ; scar as
in 1'uqjunds, vwth about thiee roughly angular ridges of growth.

182



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

143. Murex vibex. This Peruvian species also probably belongs
to the Purpurid group.

144. Murex vittatusMuricidea v.

145. (==M. 638), 146 ( = M. 579). Stent.

147. Fusus bellus, C. B. Ad. This is a pretty little shell, resem-
bling a young Metula, and is probably orie of the species assigned
with doubt to that genus, M. 619-622, or to Fusus, M. 642. I should
erase the words, " some of which are varicoid" (referring to the ra-
diating ribs), as my glass did not enable me to detect a single one.

148. Fasciolaria granosa. A minute specimen is of the size and
general appearance of the fry of Chrysoilomus antiquus, with one and
a half irregular nuclear whorls. An adult has its operculum broken
and mended from a subcentral nucleus a mode of proceeding which
I have now observed in such a multitude of species belonging to dif-
ferent families of Proboscidifers and Toxifers that I venture to assign
it as the original type of their opercula, from which the special
family forms are modifications of high development. Of the spiral
Rostrifers there is not yet sufficient evidence to speak*.

149. Turbinella ccestus, M. 581.

150. Turbinella castanea Latirus c.

151. Turbinella cerata=Latirus c., M. 5S2.

152. Turbinella rudis=Latirus r.

153. Turbinella spadicea = Latirus s.

154. Cancellaria affinis. Very closely allied to C. urceolata t
M.445. ,

15,5, 156, 157 (=M. 446), 158, 159. Stent.

160. Cancellaria pygmcea is simply a young specimen of C, <r<r-
niostoma, no. 157.

161, 162. Stent.

163. Pleurotoma aterrima= Drillia a.

164. Pleurotoma atrior. This is a fine specimen, not quite ma-
ture in the lip, of Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M. 461.

165. Pleurotoma bicanalifera = Clathurella b.

166. Pleurotoma collaris= Drillia c.

167. Pleurotoma concinna Cithara c.

168. Pleurotoma corrugata = Drillia c.

169. Pleurotoma discors Drillia d. Probably a finely developed
variety of aterrima.

* When at Charleston, S. C., I had an opportunity of examining many very fine
specimens of the giant Fasciolaria, so seldom seen in this country, of which a
broken specimen in my collection measures 20 in. In sculpture, colour, and
general appearance some were so very like F. princeps, M. 584, that I was tempted
to consider the latter a degraded local variety, till i lound the operculum, which
is destitute of the singular grooving of the Gulf species.

183



10 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

170. Pleurotoma duplicata= Drillia d.

171. Pleurotoma excentnca Drillia e. I cannot endorse this
and some other determinations of critical species of Pleurotomids,
not being able to remove the specimens for comparison with types.
Even the types in Mus. Cuming. do not always present satisfactory
diagnostic characters.

1 72. Pleurotoma exigua=Mangelia e. I could not discover "the
rest in pairs."

1 73. Pleurotoma gemmulosa=Mangelia g.

174. Pleurotoma grandimaculata Drillia g.

175. Pleurotoma incrassata= Drillia i., M. 459. The collection
contains D. luctuosa, M. 467, as from Panama, but not of the Pro-
fessor's collecting.

176. Pleurotoma nigerrima = Drillia n.

177. Pleurotoma obeliscus= Drillia o. Very worn and doubtful.

178. Pleurotoma olivacea. Closely resembles P. funiculata,
M. 457.

179. Pleurotoma pallida = Drillia p>

180. Pleurotoma rigida = Clathurella r.

181. Pleurotoma rudis. It is probable that this is not the true
Drillia rudis, being distinguished by white spots on the knobs :
v. M. 460.

182. Pleurotoma rustica = Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M.
461. These specimens being very wcrn, their specific identity with
P. 164 was not recognized by the Professor. One shell,^marked
"rustica, var.," may be the true rustica a species by no means
satisfactorily distinguished.

183. Pleurotoma striosa= Drillia s.

184. Pleurotoma zonulata = Drillia z., M. 463.

185. Pleurotoma, sp. a. A small, dark, purple-brown Mangelia,
of the leufroyi type.

186. Pleurotoma, sp. b. A slender, pure-white, ribbed shell;
probably a Cithara.

187. Manoelia, sp. c. A young Daphnella.

188. Mangelia, sp. d. A very worn, black shell; with white,
knobby ribs.

189. Mangelia, sp. e. A very small, white shell; resembling a
young Bela turricula.

190. Mangelia, sp./. A very small, white Drillia, with distinct
posterior notch ; spirally striated, with rather sharp ribs.

191. Manaelia neolecta. Of the "elevated spiral line on the
middle of the whorls " I could discover no trace, except of colour.
It is therefore probable that it=M. acuticostata, M. 4/3.

184



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 11

192. Mangelia sulcosa is the true Columbella s of Sby.

193. Cerithium adustum = C. maculosum, M. 381.

194. Cerithium assimilatum=Cerithiopsis a., M. 563. ,

195. Cerithium bimarginatum = Cerithiopsis b. A good species;
but I could not detect the "intermediate raised line." The apical
whorls are almost smooth. The "prominent spiral fold" on the
colurnella is simply that which bounds the recurved canal.

196. Cerithium famelicum. Confusion has arisen from the Pro-
fessor having sent to Mr. Cuming as his type a shell which does not
answer to the diagnosis, and which is described as (? var.) mediolceve,
M. 382. Ten specimens are retained in the Amherst Museum, of
which eight are of the uncinatum type, =M. 383, and two of the
Cumingian. C. uncinatum, being an old species, is probably from
the Atlantic or E. Indies : if this should prove identical, the name
famelicum must be dropped ; if distinct, retained for the west coast
uncinoids, according to the diagnosis. After an examination of a
large series of specimens collected by Mr. Xantus at Cape St. Lucas,
I am confirmed in the belief that the Cumingian shell is a distinct
species, which must stand as C. mediolceve.

197. Cerithium ffemmatum = Rhinoclavis gemmatus, M. 389. So
much .confusion has arisen from raising specific names to the generic
peerage, that whenever a good distinct name has been given, it ap-
pears best to retain it the unbending rule of mere priority for work
which is sometimes slovenly, and therefore best forgotten, notwith-
standing.

198. Cerithium ? interruptum, C. B. Ad. (non Mke. = M. 388).
Great confusion has arisen from this erroneous determination, as
may be seen by comparing the Maz. Cat. in loco with the mono-
graph of Sowerby, jun., who has redescribed the southern, highly
sculptured forms of the true interruptum as C. galapayinis.

198 and 199 are regarded by Messrs. Cuming and Sowerby as
varieties of

200. Cerithium irroratum, C. B. Ad. (Gld. ipse et MSS., non
Gld. in Expl. Exp.) = <7. stercusmuscarum, M. 387. The aspect of
the Panama shells is so different from that of the Mazatlan speci-
mens that I did not wonder at Dr. Gould's opinion that they were
distinct. He was, however, misled in affiliating the former to his
C. irroratum, of which I fortunately discovered the figured type in
the Smithsonian Institution, and which proves to be (according to
Mr. Cuming) the C. obesum of Sby. sen., from the Philippines. It
is fortunate therefore that the name may be entirely dropped. Some
of the specimens of no. 198 graduate sufficiently closely to the Ma-
zatlan form; those of no. 199 are intermediate; while those of
no. 200 present a stronger but smaller shell, well armed with small
nodules, which are not to be seen in the fine Gulf specimens.

201. Cerithium neglectum = Cerithiopsis n.

202. Cerithium pacijicum. Stet.

1S5



n DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

203. Cerithium pauperculum is a good, new species of Chrysallida.
The Professor probably did not recognize the Chemnitzoid apex and
the Odostomoid plait. The following alterations may be made in
the diagnosis: Shell pale orange [not horn], with six [not five]
keels on the spire ; spiral ridges anteriorly fainter [not obsolete] ;
apex sinistral [not acute], of three Paludinoid whorls, the last large
in proportion; columella effuse [not canaliculated], with a long,
slender, slanting plait.

204. Cerithium pulchrum=Cerithidea p. A distinct and truly
beautiful species, seldom obtained by collectors.

205. Cerithium reevianum=Cerithidea montaynei, M. 394.

206. Cerithium validum Cerithidea varicosa, M. 395. The
Southern shells, in all their changes, present such a different aspect
from the Gulf specimens, that I am inclined to regard the form Ma-
zatlanica as distinct, of which C. albonodosa may prove a variety.

207. Triphoris alternate, M. 391.

208. Triphoris inconspicuus is scarcely even a variety of the last ;
and does not differ so much as the specimens described under the
same name, M. 392.

209. Triphoris infrequens is not the shell described, under the
same name, M. 393, but is the Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, M. 557.
It would have been strange if I had recognized the shell from the
diagnosis ; for both of the specimens are dextral. The apex is nearly
smooth. I forbear to redescribe nos. 392, 393 of the Maz. Cat.,
as they were separated principally in deference to Prof. Adams's
authority, until more numerous specimens should have been examined.

210. Turritella banksii=T. goniostoma, jun., M. 379.

211. CfBcum dimi7iutum = Caecum firmatum, jun., with numerous
close rings. All the Professor's specimens of this genus were dead ;
most of them pierced by Proboscidifers. They fully confirmed the
judgments I ventured to form of them in the Maz. Cat. and in the
" Monograph of the Csecidse," P. Z. S. 1858, p. 413 et seq.

212. Caecum eburneum C. firmatum. The rings vary from
twenty-six to thirty-three.

213. Caecum firmatum, M. 368. Add to the diagnosis in Maz.
Cat. p. 320, last line, '* operculo mx concavo, suturis minus definitis."

214. Caecum lave. The two specimens are too worn for identifi-
cation, but will pass sufficiently for the species described under the
same name, M. 372.

215. Caecum laqueatum. A good species of the Elephantulum
group: v. Maz. Cat. p. 315, and P. Z. S. loc. cit. p. 420.

216. Caecum monstrosum = C. firmatum in the adolescent stage.

217. Caecum parvum turns out, as was expected, to be = C. unda-
turn, M. 371. The unique specimen is stunted and dead.

218. Caecum pygmceum is a small but nearly adult C. firmatum.

186



DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 13

219. Chemnitzia aculeus, M. 521.

220. Chemnitzia acuminata is a true Chemnitzia, and not a Chry-
sallida, as supposed in the Br. Assoc. Report, p. 334. The name
misleads, as it is a peculiarly broad species. The vertex consists of
three Paludirioid whorls, of which the apex is visible, projecting a
little beyond the spire. The ribs, instead of " terminating abruptly
on the periphery of the last whorl/' become gradually evanescent

the base*.



221. Chemnitzia affinis. Comp. M. 523, which was identified
from Mr. Cuming's specimen. The diagnosis needs the following
corrections from the type. The "ribs terminate " not very " abruptly
at the periphery." Anteriorly very finely striated [not " smooth "].
" Last whorl " not " angular at the periphery." Base prolonged.
It is probably the adult form of my Chemnitzia undata, M. 531, the
characteristic fine, waved, spiral striae having escaped the Professor's
notice. The only difference is that the ribs evanesce more suddenly
in the Panama than in the Mazatlan shell, which may be due simply
to age.

222. Chemnitzia clathratula, part. = Chrysallida clathratula, M.
513, which was identified from the Cumingian specimen. The spe-
cimens preserved as types contain, along with this species, one of
Chrysallida communis, one (almost certainly) of Chrysallida effusa,
M. 510, and one of Dunkeria sulanguJata, M. 537. Some parts of
the description appear taken from the latter species : e. g. the " five
or six " spiral lines, of which there are only four in the Chrysallida \
and the angle on the " upper part " of the whorls, which in the
latter are well rounded.

223. Chemnitzia communis, M. 507. This is the type of the
genus Chrysallida: v. M. pp. 416, 420. Prof. Adams's tray con-
tains also one specimen of Chrysallida e/'usa, M. 510 ; one of Chrys.
telescopium, M. 508; one of Dunkeria subangulata, M. 537; and
one which may be a variety of the latter, or a distinct species.

224. Chemnitzia gracilior. The " well-impressed spiral line " is
only seen in some of the whorls.

225 Chemnitzia major belongs to the section Dunkeria. I counted
eighteen (not twenty-four) ribs.

226. Chemnitzia marginata is a good species of Chrysallida ; but
I could not find the " spiral, compressed ridge."

227 Chemnitzia panamensis, M. 518. I counted twenty-four
(not twenty-seven) ribs. The tray also contains one specimen of

* As several errors are here pointed out in the diagnoses of small shells, it is
right to state that Prof. Adams had not the advantage of a microscope during a
considerable portion of the work ; nor was the instrument a good one when ob-
tained. Moreover the incessant demands on his attention as Professor of Astro-
nomy and Mathematics, as well as of Natural History, and his duties as State
Geologist of Vermont, did not leave him much time for original research. What
he accomplished during his short life is marvellous. Had that life been spared to
revise his works, the necessity for this friendly criticism would not have arisen.

187



14 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.

Ch. C-B-ddamsii, M. 519, with straight ribs; and one with spiral
sculpture, which may belong to C/t. gracilliina, M. 530, but wants
the produced apex.

228. Chemnitzia sim'dix. This speries most nearly resembles
anuleus, but is broader, larger, and with more ribs, of which I counted
from twenty to twenty-two (not twenty-six). I should not c<il the
whorls " convex." They are, however, more rounded, and the base
is more produced, than in the shell called " IsimilisS* M. 520, which
is perhaps a variety of panamensis.

229. Chemnitzia striosa. The early whorls, are very slender.
The spiral striae are on the tops of the ribs, of which I counted from
tvventy-four to thirty- two (instead of "about forty").

230. Chemnitzia turrita. This species includes the " Rissoa,
sp. ind." no. 251.

23 1 . ? Littorina angiostoma is a Fossarus.

232. Littorina aspera, M. 397. The Mazatlan periwinkles, being
in good condition, divide themselves very naturally into three
species. The Panama specimens, being generally eroded, are not so
easily dealt with. Of Prof. Adams's specimens here retained, the
majority belong to aspera, although several of the smaller ones are
pJiilippii, M. 39 3. The young appear to be of both species mixed.
The " variety " consists of the abnormal tall specimens of conspersa,
M. 396, with a few very large philippii intermixed.

233. Littorina atrata. This abundant little shell is a Fossarus,
of which the Professor's lAdeorbis abjecta, no. 257, is a more ad-
vanced form. It is possible that one of the Fossari described in
Maz. Cat., nos. 404, 405, may be conspecific ; but among the mul-
titude of specimens I could not find one with the nuclear whorls
sufficiently perfect to decide. The shells vary extremely in shape
nnd sculpture.

234. Littorina conspersa, M. 396. Smaller and generally more
stumpy than the Mazatlan shells, but containing a few specimens of
the same extreme forms.

235. ? Littorina excavata Fossarus e.

236. Littorina fasciata, M. 400. The specimens of this species
and of L. varia graduate rather closely towards each other.

237- ? Littorina foveata. A good species of Fossarus. Read,
*' Last whorl angular" at the umbilicus [not " below the middle"].

238. 1 Littorina megasoma. This is also a good species of Fos-
sarus. The Professor was doubtful whether to refer these forms to
Littorina or to Narica.

239. Littorina ? parvula, C. B. Ad. This is not Philippi's L.
parvula, but is a dwarf form of the L. philippii, M. 398. The Pro-
fessor suggests the name L. dubiosa for this sufficiently well-marked
species ; but as he catalogued and distributed his specimens under
'{parvula, and kept others under aspera t it may be best to retain

188



UR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 15

the name philippii under which it has been very extensively col-
lated.

240. Littorina pulchra. A very rare species, belonging (witfc
fasciata and variety to the Melaraphe group.

241. Littorina puncticulata. This is the normal state of L. co-
gpersa : v. M. 396.

242. Littorina varia : v. note on P. 236.

243. Rissoa clandestina. Three specimens appear of this specks
of Rissoina, closely resembling R. woodwardii, M. 410, but with
more ribs, and not displaying the intercostal striulse.

244. Rissoa firmata. Another species of Rissoina , resembling
jR. stricta, M. 408, but smaller. The Professor did not observe
the fine spiral sculpture, as described in no. 250 ; q. v.

245. Rissoa fortis. A good species of Rissoina, differing from
R. janus in the absence of spiral punctures.

246i ? Rissoa inconspicua, C. B. Ad., non Alder. The name



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