being preoccupied, it is fortunate that the unique shell proves iden-
tical with Alvania tumida, M. 414. I found twenty (not "twelve
or fourteen ") ridges, which are not " obsolete," but become fainter
anteriorly. The two upper whorls are very finely cancellated.
247. Rissoa infrequens. The unique specimen of this Rissoina
is too much worn for description. It has more than the sixteen ribs ;
and the diagnostic marks must be received with caution.
248. Rissoa janus. The description of this Rissoina is drawn
from a very small, dead, broken specimen, from which the sculpture
is almost entirely worn away. The " var. a " should be considered
as the type, being in perfect condition, and the diagnosis be altered
as follows : The "fine crowded spiral striae" are seen all over, as
are also the "ribs," which on each whorl "appear as striae," and
are not " obsolete near the periphery." The diagnostic character is
that the spiral striae are composed of rows of minute dots.
249. Rissoa notabilis. After drawing this unique shell carefully
under the microscope, and making copious notes on the diagnosis
from the specimen, an untoward cough lodged it among the meshes
of the Curator's carpet, whence I endeavoured in vain to extricate it.
This unfortunate accident is, however, the less to be regretted, as I
can state with perfect confidence that it was exactly identical with
another shell in the collection, P. 255, q. v. ; and with M. 498,
Parthenia quinquecincta. The " concave summits" of the ribs imply
that the ribs are sharp, with concave interstices ; and the " upper
keel " is simply due to the angulation of the whorls. Though the
lip was broken, the columellar plait, as well as the sinistral apex,
escaped the Professor's notice.
250. Rissoa scalariformis. This unique specimen is simply the
youn<r of Rissoina firmata, P. 244: and probably = Rissoina sp.
ind. M. 409.
16 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.
251. Rissoa, sp. md. This is a broken specimen of Chemnitzia
turrita, P. 230.
252. ? Cingula inconspicua. This unfortunate name, liable to be
confounded with Rissoa inconspicua, Alder, and IRissoa inconspicua,
C. B. Ad., will not be needed, as the type belongs to another sub-
order, and = Chrysallida ovulum, M. 512. The Professor did not
observe its close relationship with his Chemnitzia communis.
253. Cingula paupercula, C. B. Ad. A good species.
254. ? Cingula terebellum Parthenia exarata, M. 501. Although
I took every pains, in preparing the Maz. Cat., to identify Prof.
Adams's species, I was not prepared, in the writings of so careful a
naturalist who had devoted special attention to the minute species,
to find a Pyramidellid under Trochidae, especially with the mark
" apex subacute." The finding of a more perfect Mazatlan specimen
enables me to add to the diagnosis: "vertice nucleoso parvo, satis
extante, decliviter sito; interstitiis carinarum transversim rugulosis;
labro solidiore. Long. '087, long. spir. '057, lat. '038."
255. ? Cingula turrita ( + P. 249, Rissoa notabilis) Parthenia
quinquecincta, M. 498. When a shell is described under two genera
in the same sheet, the advocates of unbending priority will find it
difficult to decide. As each name belongs to a widely removed
family, that last given is at least the most correct and distinctive.
256. ILitiopa saxicola. The Professor states that this "shell
has the appearance of a Litiopa ;" but it wants both the peculiar
nucleus and the semitruncated columella ; also that the " labium
has a distinct deposit," of which I could not see any trace in either
of the specimens. It is probably a Cingula.
257. 1 Adeorbis abjecta. This is the adult form of the shell, of
which P. 233, Littorina atrata, is the young. The striae are seen on
the lower as well as the "upper part of the whorls." The umbili-
cus, though "small" for an Adeorbis, is rather large for a Fossarus,
to which genus the species undpubtedly belongs.
258. Vitrinella concinna. I could not find the "more or less
distinct ridge between the first two keels."
259. Vitrinella exigua=M. 305. The omissions in the Pro-
fessor's diagnoses of this and other species, being supplied in the
Maz. Cat., need not be repeated here: v. M. pp. 236-247.
260. Vitrinella janus. The Professor does not mention the fifth
keel, which bounds the umbilicus, and within which are the " minute
spiral striae." The "transverse striae" are strong between keels
2, 3, and 4 ; faint between 4 and 5, and between 1 and 2 ; and eva-
nescent near the suture.
261 . Vitrinella minuta. The original type of this species accords
better with Ethalia than with Teinostoma, to which I had referred
the Cumingian type.
262. Vitrinella modesta. The " modesty " of this unique shell is
DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 17
coordinate with considerable attrition, and an 'umbilicus tilled with
dirt. It appeared to me regularly rounded, without any keel. The
" few spiral striae " are probably the remains of what once covered
the whole surface.
263. Vitrinella panamensis=M. 295.
264. Vitrinella parva=M. 296.
265. Vitrinella perparva=.M. 304. The coronation of the upper
keel is seen (though not described) in the type specimen.
266. Vitrinella regularis. The unique shell can hardly be called
" subdiscoidal," since the " spire is convex, moderately elevated."
I could not find the "impressed spiral line." It belongs to Ethalia.
267. Vitrinella seminuda. The unique type of this species also
is much worn. I could not discover the " minute striae of growth."
Beneath, there are five spiral lirae, and a few spiral striae near the
mouth. The umbilical region and the base have fine radiating distant
striae. It comes nearest to V. carinulata, M. 309, but is distinct.
268. Vitrinella tricarinata. This unique type is also worn.
The spiral keels are scarcely " prominent," that on the periphery
being decidedly faint. The "transverse striae" are between the
suture and the nearest rib. The umbilical striae are very faint.
269. Vitrinella valvatoides. This species probably belongs to
Ethalia. Beside the keels, there are three obsolete spiral lirae two
on the base, and one above the periphery. The umbilicus is bounded
by a long, thin callosity, which gives a character to the shell inter-
mediate between the two genera.
270. Solarium, sp. ind. a. Of the form represented by this
species and the next I have been able to examine a large number of
specimens collected at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, and in the
Gulf of Mexico. I know of no mark by which to distinguish the
shells from the two oceans. From each locality they vary greatly
in the size of the umbilicus, and in the strength of sculpture, number
of knobs, &c. I should consider them all as varieties of S. granu-
latum, Lam. S. quadriceps, lids., appears distinct, though it may
only be an extreme variety.
271. Solarium, sp. ind. b. This contains the specimens with
coarser sculpture than the last.
272. Solarium, sp. ind. c. This is a distinct species of Torinia y
having the size and general aspect of Helix rotundata.
273. Trochus catenulatus= Modulus c., M. 401;
274. Trochus coronulatus=0mphalius c. This species reappears
at Cape St. Lucas, and is closely allied to O. ligulatus, M. 293.
275. Trochus leanus=Calliostoma I. This distinctive generic
name is strongly to be preferred to the specific Ziziphinus.
276. Trochus lima. This shell exactly accords with Calliostoma
anlonii, Koch, in Mus. Cuming.
18 DR. T. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA,
277. Trochus lividus= Modulus disculus, M. 403.
278. Trochus panamensis=Omphalius p. A good species, though
apparently very rare ; for I had the pleasure of adding it to the
2 79 . Troch us pellis-serpentis= Tegula p.
280. Trochus reticulatusOmpJialius viridulus, M. 292. This
is the common Trochid of the Panama region, as is ligulatus of the
281. Turbo buschiilhaniUa inermis, M. 287. This shell ap-
pears to replace U. olivacea in the southern fauna. Besides the dif-
ferences indicated in Maz. Cat. p. 229, the operculum is quite
282. ? Turbo phasianelIa=Collonia ph.: not (Melaraphe) pha-
283. Turbo rutilus. The unique type is in miserable condition,
to which the " hright red with pale streaks " is owing. The shell
may possiblv have been originally a Pomaulax undosus, which is
truly a Lower Californian species. It appears, however, to be a
favourite with sailors, as specimens are continually appearing, not
only high and low on the West Coast, but also from the Pacific
Islands. The specimens brought by Comm. Wilkes's U.S. Expl. Exp.
were obtained in N. S. Wales ! Prof. Adams's fragments were pro-
bably due to ballast.
234. Turbo saxosits=CaUopoma snxnsum. This replaces the C.
fuctuosum of the Gulf, M. 282, and the C. tessellatum of Lower
California. The "var. depressum" of P. Z. S., 1855, I believe to
be really a Senectus from the Pacific Islands.
285. Scalaria hexagona, C. B. Ad. : non Sbv., M. 564. The
Professor's shell is (I think) one of the species I described in P. Z S.
from Mr. Bridges' s collection ; but the distinctions in this genus are
too critical to decide without comparison of types. This shell is
broad ; whorls very separate ; varices long and sharp ; spirally
286. Scalaria obtusa, C. B. Ad. ; ? non Shy. This also appeared
to me one of Mr. Bridges's species. It is a very pretty shell, with
close, sharp, coronated varices.
287. Scalaria, sp. ind. a. Like the next, but larger, and with
spiral striae between the extremely crowded, sharp varices.
288. Scalaria, sp. ind. b. Of the Clathratula type, without spiral
289. Scalaria, sp. ind. c, is probably the young of Cirsotrema
funiculatum, M. 509, which, with its congeners, may be removed to
290. Eulima iota. This shell, which is a Leiostraca (not " ? Sfy-
lifer"), is probably distinct from the Mazatlan form, M. 555, which
saould btand as L. retcxta.
DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 19
291. Eulima recta. The type is a very good species of Leio-
straca ; but I doubt its identity with the Cumingian specimen, with
which the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, was compared. It most resembles
the' I/, linear is, M. 554, with which it agrees in divergence and
general shape ; but that is very much smaller, with the upper whorls
more tumid. In the Professor's type of L. recta, I searched in vain
for traces of the " two brown spots." They were probably thrown
by defective light. The " two opaque spiral bands " are simply the
effect of the suture, and the previous whorl showing through. For
the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, I propose the name of L. involuta.
292. Eulima solitaria. This also is a Leiostraca, not " 1 Sty-
lifer," and accords exactly with the Leiostraca, sp. ind. a, M. 552,
but not with the supposed L. solitaria, M. 55 1 . The latter agrees
in shape with the unique Panama shell, whorl for. whorl ; but its
base and labrum are much more produced anteriorly. For this rea-
son, it may be known as L. producta.
293. Pyramidella, sp. ind. This is probably the Obeliscus de-
scribed in Maz. Oat. no. 486.
294. Pyramidella conic a = Obeliscus conicus, C. B. Ad., not
295. Natica chemnitzii=N. maroccana, M. 570. The Professor
first labelled these shells " N. ? maroccana, Chem.," but crossed it off
in pencil. Another tray appeared (without number) labelled "luni-
fasciata, Lam." They all belong to the large West Coast form of
maroccana. [N.B. The shells described in P. Z. S. as " var. call-
fornica," on the authority of the late Mr. Nuttall, are (with others
from the same source) undoubtedly from the Sandwich Islands.
The Pacific specimens (of which I have examined many thousands,
brought by Comm. Wilkes's E. E.) present a very different type from
those of the west coasts of Africa and America ; but are regarded
by Mr. Cuming as only a local variety.]
296. Natica ? lurida. These shells are simply a pale variety of
297. Natica otis, C. B. Ad. (not Brod. & Sby.). These shells
appear to be the young of Polinices " salangonensis," P. 298.
298. Natica 1 salangonensis. I had no opportunity of comparing
this Polinices with the species of Recluz.
299. Natica souleyetiana. The shells closely resemble N. ma-
roccana, but with a larger umbilicus.
300. Natica 1mrginea y C. B. Ad. (not Re'cl.) = Polinices uber,
301. Natica, sp. ind. a. There is no ticket answering to this
number, which was probably intended for the N. maroccana t var.
302. Natica, sp. ind. b. The shells are marked e, and are the
young of Polinices uber, P. 300, M. 576.
20 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.
303. Natica, sp. ind. c. The shell is marked/*, and is probably
= N. haneti
304. Nerita $cabricosta=~Mi. 326. After examining a multitude
of specimens from different parts of the coast, I have not the slightest
doubt of the identity of the forms called ornata and deshayesii.
305. Nerita, sp. ind. a=N. bernhardi, M. 327.
306. Neritina guayaquilensis. Stet. + iV. intermedia, Sby.
307. Neritina picta=WL. 329.
308-316. Stent. The shells described as "Auricula " belong to
317. Truncatella bairdiana. A good species.
318. 11 Truncatella dubiosa. This belongs to Hydrobia or some
319. Bulla (Tornatina) infrequens=Tornatina i. t M. 222.
320. Bulla (Cylichna) luticola=Cylichna /., M. 221. The Ma-
zatlan shell is much more constricted than most of Prof. Adams's
321. Bulla punctulata=B. adamsi, M. 224. The B. punctata,
A. Ad. = -B. punctu/ata, A. Ad., but is not the B. punctulata,
C. B. Ad.=. puncticulata, C. B. Ad., MS. on ticket.
322. Bulla, sp. ind. = Tornatina cannata, M. 223.
323. Vermetus 1 glomeratus, C. B. Ad. (not Bivonia glomerata,
Lam.)= V. eburneiiSy M. 354. The shells sometimes assume a ru-
fous tint in the later whorls, in which state (if the Turritelloid apex
be concealed) it is liable to be confounded with Aletes centiquadrus.
Some of the Professor's shells belong to the latter species.
324. Vermetus panamensis, C. B. Ad. (? Rouss.)=^/ees centi-
quadruSy M. 352.
325. Stomatella inflata is a Lamellaria with broken lip and very
much curved columella : v. M. 577. [A Sigaretus y with somewhat
sharper columella than the ordinary W. Indian form, was found
among the Professor's duplicate Panama shells ; but as it does not
occur either in the catalogue or the collection, it was probably dropped
in from the Jamaica series.]
326. Hipponyx, sp. ind. Of the Professor's "two small speci-
mens " marked " subrufa, jun.," one is H. grayanus, jun., M. 350.
The other may be the same, but is probably the young of H. bar-
batus. Neither are sufficiently perfect to determine with confidence.
327. Hipponyxlbarbata. Part of these specimens belong to H.
barbatus, M. 349 ; part to H. grayanus ; part are too much worn
to determine ; and one is a valve of Discina cumingii.
328. Hipponyxpanamensis=H. antiquatus, M. 347. The species
is very widely diffused, and varies greatly in each locality.
329. Hipponyx radiata-=H. grayanus, M. 350. The collection
DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 21
also contains a tray labelled " Panama : C. B. Ad. don./' in which
are Hipponyx serratus, M. 346, H. barbatus, and Gadinia pentago-
niostoma, M. 270. This last name should he dropped, except as a
variety of G. stellata, Shy., which is the normal state : v. B. A. Rep.
1857, pi. 7. f. 3, a-g.
330. Calyptrcea aberrans. The Professor candidly allows that
" in texture this shell much resembles a valve of an Anomia" which
it undoubtedly is, the supposed "probably imperfect cup" being
the ligamental pit. The large muscular scar is very clearly de-
veloped ; but the others are faint, as is customary in young shells,
and might stand for either Anomia or Placunanomia. The valve is
thin and glossy inside. The outside is smooth, excepting the lines
of growth, and is encrusted with beautiful zoophytes. A tiny Ser-
pulciy which has coiled itself close to the umbo, carries out the idea
of a Calyptrseid spiral apex ; but a careful microscopic examination
displayed the true Anomoid nucleus, at a little distance from the
margin, as is common in the Mazatlan specimens of A. lampe,
331. Calyptrcea (Syphopatella) aspersa= Galerus conicus, very
worn and young, with the lamina broken away. One of the speci-
mens may perhaps be mamillaris.
332. Calyptrcea cepacea=^L 345.
333. Calyptrcea conica. These are dead specimens, of which a
few may be the true Galerus conicus, M. 332. But most of them
belong to the brown-tinted variety of (the Professor's G. regulari$=)
mamillaris : v. no. 340.
334. Calyptrcea dentata=^Crucibulum imbricatum, M. 343.
335. Calyptrcea hispida=Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344.
336. Calyptrcea imbricata. The two specimens are too much
worn to affiliate with confidence, the cups being broken out. The
outside is ribbed, with arrow-headed striae between the ribs. They
probably = Crucibulum i., var.
337. Calyptrcea maculata=Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344. See
the attempt to unravel the confusion in the synonymy of this family
in Maz. Cat. pp. 264-295. Three specimens marked by the Pro-
fessor " C. maculata, var.," are young, dead radiata, no. 339.
338. Calyptrcea planulata. This unique shell is simply a young,
flat C. cepacea, with the cup prominent, and the outside sculpture
faintly developed, from living in a hollow place. The striae are not
" obsolete around the apex."
339. Calyptrcea radiata Crucibulum r. This rare and beautiful
species is quite distinct, even in the early stages, from all varieties
of C. spinosum.
340. Calyptrcea (Syphopatella) regularise Galerus mamillaris.
341. Calyptrcea umbrella= Crucibulum u. (=C. rudis t Brod.).
22 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.
342. Calyptraa llunguis, C. B. A.d. = Crucibulum spinosum, jun.
(not Galerus unguis, Brod.).
343. Crepidula cerithiicola. Most of the specimens are the young
of C. onyx y M. 340 ; but a few are of C. incur va, M. 339.
344. Crepidula echinus = (7. aculeata, M. 334.
345. Crepidula excavata, M. 337.
346. Crepidula 1hepatica=C. onyx, M. 340.
347. Crepidula incurva, M. 339. A very interesting series of
specimens ; of which two or three are probably the twisted form of
C. onyx. One tray contains specimens adhering to other shells.
One, fixed diagonally on a Calliostoma, takes exactly the arrow-
headed sculpture of the var. Gal. imbricata, Brod. Another, grown
diagonally on Pisania gemmata, has the general aspect of a Chiton.
One, fixed on the back of its neighbour which has grown on a Cal-
liostoma, has the granular interruptions of the ribs transmitted
through the first specimen. The same is true of one which has
grown on another which was planted on a Pisania. One specimen,
which had established itself on a Calliostoma, and began with normal
ribs, is losing these at the margin, adopting the sculpture of the
Trochid. An extremely twisted specimen in the tray of separate
shells has a bifid deck. A young one had edged itself into the apical
part of the deck, as into a maternal pouch ; so the old one made a
fresh deck over it.
348. Crepidula lessonii. Most of the specimens are of C. nivea,
var., M. 341. Two shells, which have the apex perfect, display the
characteristic nuclear riblets. One dark-coloured specimen may be
a hybrid, and another (though too much worn for confident affilia-
tion) appears to be C. unguiformis. Among the duplicates, all the
specimens which were perfect at the apex presented the niveoid
nucleus, though white ; but generally the riblets were more or less
349. Crepidula squama. These are the flat form (mostly dead
and worn) of C. nivea, M. 341. Some of them pass into lessonii.
Some are highly coloured, and may be the young of C. onyx ; one
even of C. incurva. One of the young shells in phial appears to be
(7. onyx ; but whenever the apex is perfect, it presents the typical
riblets : v. Maz. Cat. in loco.
350. Crepidula unguiformis. The apex being hidden in dead
shells, which I was not at liberty to break away, I could only exa-
mine one specimen, which appeared to be a C. nivea, var., as sup-
posed in Maz. Cat. p. 285. Of the loose specimens, scarcely any
are sufficiently perfect at the apex to speak with confidence. Most
of them, however, have the characteristic painting of the variety
squama ; and all may belong to the common species (C. nivea), ex-
cept one which is a true C. unguiformis, M. 342, on the back of
another shell, and a few which are probably C. onyx, var. Of the
duplicates, which I was at liberty to extract from the dead shells,
DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 23
SOTT-P ITP undoubtedly C. nivea ; others truly C. unguiformis ; and
others probably C. nivea, but with the riblets worn away by the
Sol. Crepidula nivea, M. 341. The specimens are small and
poor ; mostly rough, of the variety striolata passing into lessonii.
Wherever the apex is perfect, it presents the characteristic riblets,
but is generally white, not brown as in most of the finely grown
5f>2. Crepidula osculans. This is a perfect and extremely beau-
tiful specimen of Scutellina navicelloides, M. 269. The Professor
did not observe the non- spiral patelloid apex, and regarded the
" navicelloid " columellaas an extremely narrow deck. To the diag-
nosis in the Maz. Cat. may now be added " apice obtuso, sublcevi ;
vertice hand spirally vix conspicuo."
353. Crepidula rostrataG. adunca, M. 338, ?non Sby. The
examination of a large series of specimens from the temperate fauna
has led me unexpectedly to confirm Mr. Reeve's opinion that they
are distinct. The northern shell is C. adunca, Sby. (=Garnotia
[Gray] solida, Hds. = C. rostriformis, Gld.) ; and the tropical shell
must take the prior name, C. uncata, Mke. (^=C. rostrata, C. B. Ad.,
Rve. = C. adunca, Maz. Cat., non Sby.).
354. Fissurella <zqualis= Fissurellidcea <%.
355. Fissurella alta=Glyphis alta, M. 280.
356. Fissurella macro trema. Stet.
357. Fissurella microtrema. These are dead specimens, of which
some are F. rugosa, var., M. 273.
353. Fissurella mus=Glyphis ineequalis, var., M. 279. These
shells are intermediate between the typical form find pica.
359, 360. Stent.
361. Fissurella virescens. It is doubtful whether any of the spe-
cimens are of the true virescens, M. 271, as they run into nigro-
punctata by insensible gradations. Perhaps both species may prove
362. Siphonaria characteristica=S. gigas, var.
363. 364, 365. Stent.
366. Siphonaria ? pica. These are young dead limpets (not
367. Lottia 1 patina, C. B. Ad. (non Esch.). These shells differ
from Acmcea mesoleuca, M. 263, in being black instead of green, and
are prettily striped.
368. 369, 370. Lottia, sp. ind. There may be two or even more
species of Acmsea, but it is not impossible that there is only one
among the professor's Lottise, some of the specimens being the
young of ? Patella, no. 371.
24 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA.
371. ? Patella, sp. ind. This has the general appearance of P.
vulyata, but may be an Acmcea.
372. Chiton clathratus. (Genus indet.)
373. Chiton dispar, C. B. Ad.; not Lophyrus dispar, Sby. I
doubt whether any of the Professor's specimens belong to Sowerby's
species, which is black mixed with grey ; area-sculpture very faint ;
and sides imbricated, not rugulose. Among the duplicates were two
(if not three) species : the principal one with side-sculpture in lobated
knobs, which may be named Lophyrus adamsii', a ?variety with
simple knobs ; and a well-marked species without distinct side areas,
which may be called Lophyrus tenuisculptus.
374. Chiton lluridus. Probably correct.
375. Chiton pulchellus= Callochiton p. + C. elenensis.
376. Chiton stokesii= Lophyrus s.
377. Anomia lampe, C. B. Ad. It is doubtful whether this is
identical with the northern species, M. 219,
378. Anomia tenuis. This is probably the young of the last
species, and may give it a name, if new. It is doubtful how the
diagnosis of the scars was made out; as they were not visible in
either of the specimens retained, being encrusted with dead animal
matter. They were not distinct even after its removal.
379. Anomia, sp. ind. a. Probably the same species as the two
last, although far too dead, worn, and young to decide. See notes
on the variations of A. lampe, Maz. Cat. p. 168.
380. Ostrea, sp. ind. a. The hinge notches of the upper valve
fit between corresponding teeth in the lower. Inside rather flesh-