Philip P. (Philip Pearsall) Carpenter.

The mollusks of western North America online

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attingente, aurantiaco maculata ; tota praeter zonam superficie au-
rantiaco puncticulata, punctis minimis, creberrimis, in quincunces
dispositis ; apertura subquadrata ; labro incrassato, intus vi.-den-
tato; labio exstante, a lirulis circa basim spiralibus indentato.
Long. -3, long. spir. '17, lat. '15 poll., div. 40.

Differs from Columbella albuginosa, Eve., in its peculiar and
constant painting.

49. tNitidella densilineata.

'IN. testa IN. millepunctatam forma et indole simulante, sed omnino
nitida, anfractibus planatis, suturis indistinctis, striolis circa basim
minimis ; livida, lineolis aurantiaco-fuscis divaricatis, ssepe ziczac-
formibus, densissime signata. Long. P 25, long. spir. '15, lat. *1
poll., div. 35.

The opercula of these two species being unknown, tbeir
generic position remains doubtful. The same is true of the two

50. ?Anachis tincta.

1A. testa parva, turrita, albida, rufo- aurantiaco supra costas tincta ;
anfr. nucl. laevibus ; norm, iv.-v., subplanatis, suturis \alde im-
pressis ; costulis x. radiantibus, et liris spiralibus transeuntibus,
in spira iii. supra costas conspicuis, unaque in sutura, dense in-
sculpta; interstitiis alte caelatis ; apertura subquadrata; labro in
medio incrassato. Long. *19, long. spir. '12, lat. *08 poll.,
div. 30.

5 1 . tAnachis fuscostrigata.

1A. testa parva, turrita, livida, nitida ; zonis rufo-fuscis, subspiralibus,
in spira circ. iii., interdum, maxirne ad basim, confluentibus, con-
spicue cincta ; lirulis radiantibus subobsoletis, circ. x., prope su-
turarn se monstrantibus ; apertura subquadrata. Long. *13, long,
spir. -095, lat. -045 poll., div. 20.

52. Pisania elata.

P. testa minore, valde turrita, Latiroidea ; alba, rufo-fusco antice et
postice varie maculata seu strigata; anfr. nucl. ?. . . . ; norm, vi.,
convexis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus vi.-viii., obtusis,
interstitiis undatis ; lirulis spiralibus distantibus, in spira plerum-
que iii., aliis minoribus intercalantibus ; canali angusto, sub-
recurvato ; apertura subovata ; pariete postice dentata ; columell?
parum contorta. Long. "68, long. spir. "37, lat. *29 poll., div. 38







From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 596-603,
November 22, 1864.

( 223 )


IT is remarkable that, notwithstanding the zeal with which most of
the old genera have been divided, to meet the wants of modern rr.ala-
cology, the genus Pandora, Lam., has been left untouched by Dr.
Gray, Messrs. Adams, and their follower, Chenu. Yet the species
known to the elder Sowerby present three distinct types of hinge,
which were well figured by him in his ' Conchological Illustrations.*
Specimens and even species of Pandora (except of the well-known
N. Atlantic forms) being very rarely seen in collections, it is pre-
sumed that naturalists have had but few opportunities of studying
them. Mr. Cuming having most kindly allowed me to examine the
hinge of all the species in his collection, it has appeared desirable to
propose two new genera, and also to group part of the typical species
under a subgenus.

It was at one time thought that the presence of an ossicle in the
cartilage was a family mark of inatinidcc, to which Myadora from
Pandoridce, and Tellimya from Kelliada, were consequently removed.
One of the new genera of Pandorids, however, possesses a well-deve-
loped ossicle ; and a small one is seen even in some species of the
normal genus.

The most highly organized structure in the family is found in the
North American genus Clidiophora, which has both clavicle* and
ossicle ; the next is the East- Indian group Ccelodon, which wants
both clavicle and ossicle, but possesses a tent-shaped dentition in the
left valve. The simplest form is the well-known Pandora, which
has neither clavicle, tent, nor ossicle ; but in the subgenus Kennerlia
the ossicle is present. The genus Myodora is quite distinct, but
connected with Pandora through Kennerlia.

Genus CLiDiopnoRAf.

Testa Pandoriformis, ventraliter expansa; valva dextra tridentafa,
dente postico elonyato ; valva sinistra scepius bidentata, dente
antico simplici ; cartilogine ossiculo frmata ; sinu pallii nullo.

1 . Type, CLIDIOPHORA CLAVICULATA, Cpr. (Pandora cl.) P.Z.S.
1855, p. 228.

* The word " clavicle " is used (in default of a better) to denote a linear dental
process running into the body of the shell, often serving as a support to the car.
dinal plate, as in Anatina and some species of Placunomia.

t Tli. K\ciFiov, a clavicle ; 0e c pu>.

15 225

In the dentition of the right valve this genus resembles Ccelodon,
except that the posterior lamina is greatly developed, resembling a
clavicle. The left valve wants the central tooth and chamber of that
genus. This structural deficiency, however, is compensated by the
development of an ossicle in the long cartilage. As far as is known,
all the species are from North and Central America, and are swollen


C. t. securiformi, minus transversa, tenui, subplanata ; umboni-
bus ad -J longitudinis sitis ; ventraliter maxime excurvata ;
marginibus dorsalibus, post, maxime incurvato, ant. hie et illic
alulis triangularibus cristato : intus marginibus posticis utra-
que in valva erectis : v. dextr. dente postico satis lonyo, cica-
trice adductoris tenus hand porrecto ; dente centrali extante ;
dente antico a margine separato, usque ad cic. anticam porrecto,
hand extante : v. sinistr. dente post, bijido, haud extante, al-
terum recipiente, fossa cartilaginea contigua ; d. centr. nullo ;
d. ant. satis extante, usque ad cicatr. anticam porrecto ; linea
palJiari a margine valde remota, regulariter in puncta divisa ;
radiis ab umbonibus usque ad puncta conspicuis, cequalibus ;
ossiculo tenui, elongate.
Long. 1-0, lat. '6, alt. -1 poll.

Hab. in sinu Californiensi ; legit Conway Shipley diligentissimus;
sp. un. in Museo Cumingiano.

This species is known from C. claviculata by the much greater
posterior curvature of the beaks, and anteriorly by the beautiful tri-
angular wing-like serrations of the margin, in which it resembles
Teliidora burneti. The inside has elegant rays from the umbo to
the dotted pallial line.

3. CLIDIOPHORA TABACEA, Meusch. (Mus. Gron.).

Specimens under this specific name are preserved in the Cumingian

3 a. CLIDIOPHORA TRILINEATA, Say (Pandora tr.), Hani. Rec.
Shells, p. 49.

3 b. CLIDIOPHORA NASUTA, Sby. (Pandora n.), Sp. Conch, f.
18, 19.

It is probable that these are simply varietal forms of the well-known
New England species. Say's name and Sowerby's excellent figure
prove that the peculiar hinge of the genus was observed by both
authors. Mr. Cuming gives " Philippines " as the habitat of his
specimens of C. nasuta, prob.ibly in error. Mr. Hanley quotes it as a
synonym of C. trilineata. An examination of a large series from Staten
Island proves that the outline varies considerably. The tablet in
the Nuttallian collection at the British Museum, marked Pandora
punctata 3 belongs to this species. Young shells, when quite perfect,


display faint radiating grooves on the prismatic layer of the flat valve,
as in Kennerlia.


Thrs very rare species was only known in England by worn left
valves in the British Museum, and in Mr. Cuming's and Mr. Hanley's
collections. The first perfect specimens were dredged by Dr. J. G.
Cooper (Zoologist to the Californian State Survey) at San Pedro.
A young shell, sent by him to the Smithsonian Institution, displays
a dentition agreeing in the main with C. trilineata. In the flat
valve, the central and anterior teeth are close together and nearly
parallel ; the anterior short, nearly obsolete ; the middle long and
sharp, corresponding with the long, sharp tooth in the convex valve,
which points to the outside of the anterior scar, instead of to the
middle, as in G. trilineata. The (posterior) clavicle-tooth in the fiat
valve is longer than in the Eastern species, with the cartilage on it
for two-fifths of the length. In C. trilineata it lies by the side, nearly
the whole way. The posterior margin of the convex valve fits between
the clavicle and the margin of the fiat valve. The ossicle is remark-
ably long and thin. The punctures are extremely conspicuous even
in this young, transparent, and papyraceous specimen ; and, what is
more peculiar, the dried remains of the animal are covered with
minute pearl-shaped grains of shelly matter corresponding with them.

4 a. CLIDIOPHORA DEPRESSA, Sby.,=Pandora d., Sp. Conch, f.
11, 12 ; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49.

The "posterior" dilated side of Sowcrby is the " anterior'' of
Hanley. The species was constituted from a " very few specimens,
all of them much worn down, as if they had been used as ornaments."
The hinge therefore may not have been accurately observed. They
were part of the Humphrey collection, and perhaps from the Califor-
nian region. Judging from the shape (for no type has been disco-
vered), it may be identical with C. punctata, Conr.


C. t. parum " elongata, ovata ; parte postica " hand rostruta,
latiortyobtusa; " margine dorsali " postico "subrecto; margins
ventrali rotundato" hand tumente ; parte antica curtiore ;
" umbombus sul&yaaltter subconvexis, itmbone dextro postice
anaulato": intus, v. convexa dente antico magno, acutissimo,
medio parvo, postico va'ido, maxime elongate ; v. planata den-
tibus antico et postico acutis ; ligamentojuxta dentemposticum

"Long. 7, lat. -42, alt. '11 poll."

Hab. in Panama : sp. unicum, postice fractum, legit C. B. Adams
deploratus : Museo Coll. Amherstiange : = Pandora cornuta (Old.),
C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 498, P.Z.S. 1863, p. 368.

Prof. Adams's "appropriate name suggested by Dr. Gould " being
calculated to mislead, I have thought it necessary to change it.


Most of the original diagnosis must also be dropped, the parts above
quoted being all that it is desirable to retain. The present descrip-
tion is written from notes and drawings made on a careful examina-
tion of the broken type. The lines of growth show that, so far from
being " cornute," the species is remarkable for the absence of beak,
the margins being more equally rounded even than in P. nltitsa,
which in shape it somewhat resembles. The hinge is almost exactly
like that of C. claviculata, jun., but differs in the somewhat greater
proportionate length of the clavicle, and in the unwonted size and
sharp pointing of the anterior tooth. The new name has been chosen
to record this peculiarity, rather than follow the modern custom of
naming from the author of the mistake. The best naturalists occa-
sionally err ; but corrections can be made without affixing a false com-
pliment in perpetuity.

6. ?CLIDIOPHORA DISCORS, Sby. (Pandora d.)> P. Z. S. 1835,
p 99 ; Sp. Conch, f. 29, 30.

The type has not been discovered ; the figure and diagnosis only
relate to the outside ; and the habitat is riot stated. The genus is
therefore doubtful ; but in shape it resembles the young of C. clavi-

7. ? CLIDIOPHORA ARCUATA, Sby. (Pandora .), Sp. Conch, f.2/,
28 ; P. Z. S. 1835, p. 93 ; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49.

The worn valves in the Cumingian collection do not allow of a
confident determination of the genus.


Testa Pandoriformis : valva sinistra dentibiis duobus, cicatrirem
adductoris anticam versus radiantibus, lamina infra cavernosa
junctis : ossiculo nullo : sinu pallii nullo.

The shells of this group vary considerably in shape and dentition
in the different species ; but agree in this, that in the left valve there
is a kind of tent, formed by a thin laminated roof lying on the top of
two diverging teeth. It is hard even to guess what is the use of this
(perhaps unique) structure ; especially as its opening is not towards
the body of the shell, but directly facing the anterior adductor. It
is seen at once on opening the typical species, which was well figured
by Sowerby, Sp. Conch, f. 22. In the aberrant forms it might easily
be overlooked, and a glass is needed to detect it in small specimens ;
but if it exists, the shell can be supported on a pin thrust into the
" hollow tooth." When more species are known, the group may
require subdivision, the C.Jlexuosus especially presenting a marked
transition to Clidiophora. In that genus the posterior part excels
in development ; in Ccelodon, the anterior. -All the known species
ft re from the Eastern seas, but are very seldom seen in collections.
An enlarged diagnosis of the type species is offered.

* Th. icotXos, hollow ; 6$oi>v, tooth.



Pandora ceylanica, Sby. P. Z. S. 1835, p. 94 ; Sp. Concli. f. 20,
21, 22, = P. ceylonica, Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 50, = P. indica, Chenu,
Man. Conch, ii. p. 54. f. 214.

C. t. planata, rostrata, securiformi ; ventraliter maxime, antica

satis excurvata ; margine postico dorsali valde incurvato :

intus,valva dextra, margine postico rectanvulatim superstante,

dentibus anticis ii. prcelongis, satis extantibus, usque ad cica-

tricem adductoris continuis, dentem cavernosum vaivce altering

amplectantibus ; dente postico curtiore, extante, fossam carii-

lagineam per totam longitudinem gerente : vaioa sinistra, mar-

gine postico subrectangulatim superstante ; sulco postico

dentem v. alt. recipiente ; dentibus anticis usque ad cicatncem

adductoris continuis, centrali lonffiore, plus quam dimidio inter-

stitii lamina tenui tecto, ventraliter arcuato.

Under this species, of which the correct locality appears in the

name, Mr. Sowerby quotes "a single specimen obtained at Island

Muerte, W. Columbia, 11 fm., by Mr. Cuming." The hinge may

not have been examined. The shell quoted does not now appear in

the Cumingian collection, and probably belonged to Clidioyhora

claviculata, which in shape resembles the typical Cwlodoii.

1 a. CCELODON CUMINGII, Hani. (Pandora c.), P. Z. S. 1861,
p. 272.

This agrees with the last species in shape and dentition, and is
probably only a variety.

Hob. Philippines (Cuming).

2. CCELODON DELICATULUS, A. Ad. (Pandora d.) P. Z. S. (diagn.

. . marginibus dorsalibus ad angulum circ. 160 diver gentibus :

cardine v. dextr. dente postico satis elongato ; centrali curto,

ad umbonem valde calloso ; antico longissimo, cicatricem ant.

superante, margini contiguo : v. sinistr. dente centrali curto,

supra cavernam evecto, in anticum pralongum continuo.

In this species, the shape of which is not unlike P. obtusa, though

less transverse, the anterior teeth are enormously developed at the

expense of the central. These are short, but prominent ; in the left

valve bent over, along the whole length, to form the roof of the

chamber, and then drawn on into the anterior tooth.


C. t. parva, tenuissima, maxime planata ; parte antica minore,
excurvata ; ventraliter valde excurvata, postice jnaxime elon-
gata, rostro angustiore ; dorsaliter valde incurvata : intus, v.
dextr. dente post, satis longo ; d. centrali prcelongo, postice
flectOy cicatricem adductoris parum superante ; d. antico mi-
nore : v. sinistr. cartilagine valde elviiyata, postice sita ; d.

centrali preelongo, postice fccto ; d. antico minore a margine
remoto, lamina totias longitudinis ad centralem juncto.

Long. -()5, lat. 3, alt. -05 poll.

Hub. in China et Borneo (Mus. Cuminy.).

This species is the Eastern representative of P. rostrata, as is C.
ddicatulus of P. obtusa. It has the reverse dentition, the central
tooth being very long, and the anterior short, bridged over to meet
it at the whole length. In the Borneo shell, which is larger, the
anterior tooth is rather longer, with the front margin of the ceiling
more incurved; but the differences are probably due to increased
age only.

4. CCELODON FLEXUO*US, Sby. (Pandora /.), Sp. Conch, f. 13,
14, 15; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49'(diagn. auct.),

. . cardine v. dextra dente postico prcelongo, a margine separato t
usque ad cicatr. adduct. porrecto ; fossa cartilaginea curia,
inter denies post, et centr. sita / d. centr. curtissimo, maxime
ex t ante, retrorsum dejtecto ; d. ant. minimo, pene obsoleto : v.
sinistr. sulco prcelongo postico ; fossa cartilaginea separata^
cvrtiore ; d. centr. extante, curtissimo, supra cavernam pyn-
formem, in dentem anticum usque ad cicatr. adduct. prolonga-
turn, porrecto.

This long-known but rare Red Sea species is to Pandora what
Tnsis (Gray) is to Area. It is swollen and twisted, and, by its
long clavicle, forms an interesting transition to Clidiophora.

4 a. 1 CCELODON UNGUICULUS, Sby. (Pandora u.), Sp. Conclu
f. 16, 17; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49.

The type has not been found of this species, which was described
from a convex valve only. It clearly belongs to the same section as
C.flexuosus, and, though the shape is somewhat different, perhaps
it is only a variety.

Genus PANDORA, Lara.

It is proposed to limit this genus according to the diagnosis of Sow-
erby, founded on Lamarck's. Succeeding naturalists have adopted
the diagnosis, while they have included in it species to which it did
not apply*. It presents a very simple type of hinge, as though the
Pandorid idea were gradually fading away towards Myodora. The
P. wardiana is the finest species in the group ; but it is scarcely
typical, having the radiating grooves of the section Kennerlia. The
Lamarckian type is the Tellina in&qualis of Linnaeus.

1. PANDORA ROSTRATA, Lam., Forbes & Hani, et auct. plur.=
P. inagualis, Linn., Gray, Add.


* Chenn, however (Man. Conch, ii. p. 51), gives an original and extended
diagnosis, in which he accredits to the whole genus " une dent triangulaire,
aplatie, bifurquee. dont la portion anterieure, plus longue, se prolonge jusqu'a
1'impression musculaire anterieure " a character which only belongs to the sec-
tion Ccelodou,


2. PANDORA OBTUSA, Lam, v auct,

3. PANDORA BREVIFRONS, Sby., Sp. Conch, f. 25, 26; P. Z. S.
1835, p. 93.

4. PANDORA CISTULA, Gld. Otia, p, 77.

This species is not quoted in the index to the E. E. Moll., but
appears in the text (p. 396') and in the Atlas (f. 500). In shape,
but not in texture, it resembles P. oblonga.

5. PANDORA OBLONGA, Sby., Sp. Conch, f. 10; Hani. Rec. Shells,
p. 49.

The unique type of this species, from Humphrey's collection, has
not been found ; it was not described in the P. Z. S., and very closely
resembles P. rostrata.

6. PANDORA RADIATA, Sby., P. Z. S. 1835, p. 24; Sp. Conch.
f. 23, 24.

7. PANDORA WARDIANA, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 487.

No ossicle has been observed in any of the above species. If it be
found hereafter in living specimens of the grooved P. radiata and
P. wardiana, they should be removed to the subgenus. The group
il^not local, as appears to be the case with Ccelodon and Clidiqphora,
being found in both hemispheres and on both sides of the equator.

Subgenus KENNERLIA*.

Pandora cartilagine ossiculo tenuiore instruct a ; lamina exte-
riore prismatica valv& planatte radiis plerumque insculpta.

The typical species have radiating grooves in the exterior prismatic
layer of the right valve. These have not been observed in K. gla-
cialis, but perhaps the specimens are somewhat decorticated. The
essential character is the possession of an ossicle. This is well deve-
loped in K. glacialis, but so thin in the other species that it is often
hidden in dried shells by the contraction of the cartilage. The first
species in which it was observed (Dr. Kennerley having sent several
fresh specimens, preserved in alcohol, to the Smithsonian Institu-
tion) was


K. t. tenui, planoconvexa, maxime rostrata ; marginibus dorsa-
libus rectis, ad angulum circ. 160; ventrali regulariter et
modice excurvato, postice vix sinuato ; epidermide olivacea,
plerumque erosa, postice corrugata ; lamina externa prismatica
spongiosa ; valva planata radiatim sulcata (quasi filosa) , sulcis
distantibus; valva convexa, costa obtusissima postice decurrente;

* Named in grateful remembrance of the services rendered to science by the
late Dr. Kennerley, the naturalist to the American N. Pacific Boundary Survey ;
whose premature death has interrupted, almost at the onset, our knowledge of
the dredging- faun a of Puget Sound


lineis sen undis incrementi conspicuis : intus dente cardinali
uno, parvo, extante ; callositate claviculoidea antica, maryini
contigua ; fossa cartilayinea postice sita ; cicatricibus adduc-
torum rotundatis, margini dorsali contiguis ; linea pallii sim-

Long. -8, lat. *4, alt. '12 poll.

Hab. in sinu Pugetiano (Kennerley).


K. t. " K. filosee " simili, sed hand rostrata ; postice latiore /
carinis in valva convexa duabus, in valva planata una, ex umbo-
nibus postice decurrentibus ; lamina prismatic a radiatim sul-
cata, hand sponyiosa ; valva convexa tenuiter indentata ; liga-
mento elongate, tenuissimo.
Long. -5, lat. '25, alt. '06 poll.

Hab. in insula Catalina, Californise ; 40-60 uln., rara (Dr. J. G.
Cooper. State Geological Survey Coll. no. 1063 ; M us. Smithsonian

The shape and keels at once distinguish this heautiful little species
from its Northern ally, with which, in the hinge and threading of
the outer layer, it exactly agrees. The ligament in both species is
extremely thin, holding the valves together from the umbo to the
posterior end. The fossil Pandora bilirata, Conr., may prove idea*
tical with this recent species ; but the diagnosis, figure, and type
specimen are so imperfect that it would be too hazardous to affiliate

3. KKNNERLIA GLACIALIS, Leach (Pandora gl.}, Sby. Sp. Conch.
f. 4, 5, 6 ; Hanl Rec. Shells, p. 49 (diagn. auct.).

. , .valva dextra callo conspicuo fossam cartilagineam Jirmante;
ossiculo fortiore.

The known species of Kennerlia are thus confined to the North
Pacific and the Arctic seas. The diagnosis of No. 1 belongs to a
paper on Dr. Kennerley's new species in the Journ. Ac. N. S. Philad. ;
and that of No. 2 to a series of papers on Dr. Cooper's new species
in the Proc. Calif. Ac. N. S. They are inserted here to complete
the monograph, as far as known to the writer. The "Pandora
striata, Quoy" (Add. Gen. ii. p. 371), is a Myodora. The latter
genus is so well defined that no alteration is proposed in it,










From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol
XIV. (Nos. 537), pp. 423429, December, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XV
(Nos. 3756), pp. 2832, January, 1865.

' 233 )








THE shells here described were mostly collected by Indian chil-
dren for their excellent teacher Mr.J.G.Swan, in the neighbour-
hood of Neeah Bay, W. T. They were presented by him to the
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ; and, in accordance
with their liberal policy, the first available duplicates will be
found in the British Museum or in Mr. Cuming's Collection.
The species are numbered to correspond with the list in the
British Association Report for 1863, pp. 626-628; see also
pp. 636-664-.

5. Mtsra salmonea.

M. testa parva, solida, compacta, subquadrata ; laevi, nitente, epi-
dermide tenui cinerea induta ; extus pallide, iritus vivide salmoneo
tincta; marginibus dorsalibus rectis, ad angulum 120 separatis,
umbonibus haud extantibus ; marginibus antico et ventrali regu-
lariter late excurvatis ; parte postica brevissima, hrud angulata :
intus, dent. card, utraque valva ii., quorum unus bifidus ; laterali-
bus v. dextr. sequidistantibus, ant. extante, post, parvo ; nymphis
rectis, haud conspicuis ; cicatr. add. post, subrotundata, ant. sub-
rhomboidea ; sinu pallii satis regulariter ovali, per iv. inter v.
partes interstitii porrecto. Long. '57, lat. '45, alt. '11 poll.

Variat testa aurantiaca, rarius albida, rosaceo tincta.

Hob. San Francisco (Pac. Rail E.E.); Neeah Bay (Swan),
plentiful; Monterey, 20 fathoms (Cooper).

In shape almost close to Macoma crassula, Desh. (Arctic) ;
but that species is thinner, not glossy or salmon-coloured, and
has no lateral teeth.

6. Angulus variegatus.

A. testa forma A. obtnso simili, sed costa interna omnino careut,
valde insequilateraii, solidiore, nitente, rosaceo et flavido subrai'

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