arranged those obtained at different places in separate drawers. The " Upper
Californian " collections were made at Monterey, San Francisco, San Diego,
and San Pedro ; the " Lower Californian," in the Gulf, principally at La
Paz, partly at San Jose and Mazatlan. At the latter place he met M.
Reigen, who had filled his house with decomposing molluscs to such an ex-
tent as to induce the neighbours to have recourse to the police. From him he
obtained many species not in the Brit. Mus. Cat., and probably sent to Europe
in the Havre collection. Major Rich's beautiful series may be consulted at
his residence, opposite the British Legation, Washington, D. C. ; and are
designed ultimately for one of the public museums in the neighbourhood.
The following is a list of the species :
Shells collected by Major Rich, from the Californian Fauna.
Pholadidea ovoidea 1 2 .
Parapholas Californica l . (The young is
very acuminate, with imbricated cups,
as in P. calva.)
Netastoma Danvinii x .
Saxicava pholadis l 3 .
Platyodon cancellatus 4 .
Schizotheirus Nuttalli 4 .
Cryptomya California l .
Thracia curta *.
Lyonsia Californica *.
Mytilimeria Nuttalli l . (Very fine, with
Solen sicarius 3 .
Macha3ra patula l .
Solecurtus Californianus 8 .
Sanguinolaria Nuttalli 4 .
Psammobia rubroradiata l .
Macoma nasuta x , secta l *.
Scrobicularia alta 4 .
Semele decisa l .
Cumingja Californica l -
Donax Californicus T .
Mactra Californica 1 .
Pachydesma crassatelloides l *.
Amiantis callosa 4 .
Chione succincta 4 .
Tapes staminea et vars. 1 2 4 , lacini-
ata 1 *.
Petricola carditoides l .
Rupellaria lamellifera l ,
Chama Buddiana 4 .
Cardium Nuttalli 4 .
Lucina Califomica *.
Diplodonta orbella 4 .
Kellia Laperousii \
Mytilus Californianus 1 , edulis 1 , v.glome-
ratus * 4 .
Septifer bifurcatus 1 *.
Modiola modiolus l .
Lithophagus attenuatus l .
Adula falcata 1 *.
Pecten v. requisulcatus 4 , monotimeris 4 .
Hinnites giganteus l .
Placunanomia macroschisma l .
Bulla nebulosa 4 .
Katherina tun* ata l .
Mopalia muscosa l , Hindsii l .
Nacella incessa 2 .
Acmcea persona a , pelta 2 , spectrum 2 , sea-
bra 2 , et var. limatula f 2 .
Lottia gigantea a .
Scurria mitra 2 .
Fissurella oraata 4 2 .
1 Monterey. Fresh specimens of seven species from the southern fauna were also
obtained at Monterey, probably from commerce.
- San Diego. 3 San Francisco.
* These species were flrsfc found by Major Rich.
4 Uear San Pedro.
ON MOLLUSCA 07 THE IVEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA.
Glyphis densiclathrata 2 .
Lucapiaa crenulata l (one spec. Catalina
Haliotia rufescens l 4 , Craclierodii l 4 ,
Kamtscliatkana l 4 .
Pomaulax undosus 4 .
Trochiscus Norrisii 2 (and Catalina Is.).
Calliostoma canaliculatum 1 , annula-
tum l , costatum l .
Oniphalius fuscescens 4 .
Clilorostoma funebrale *, brunneum J ,
Crucibulum spinosum 2 .
Crepidula rugosa -, adunca -, explanata a .
Hipponyx Pantiquatus 2 , Ftumens 1 .
Serpulorbis squamigerus 2 .
Spiroo-lyphus iituella * *.
Litorina planaxis *.
Trivia Californica l .
Conns Californicus 4 .
Eanella Californica 4 .
(Xivella biplicata *, baetica *.
Purpura, vars. ostrina l , emarginata l .
Cerostoma Nuttalli 4 .
Nassa mendica 1 ) perpingius *, fossata 4 .
Helix, three sp.
Shells collected ~by Major Rich, near La Paz (west shore of the Gulf of CaL),
(Tliracia) Cyathodonta plicata.
Donax navicula, punctato-str., rostratus.
Standella fragilis (common).
Trigona argentina, radiata, planulata.
Callista concinna, cliionaea.
Chione succincta, amathusia, gnidia,
Tapes grata, histrionica.
Chama spinosa, producta, corrugata.
Cardium censors, biangulatum.
Codakia tigerrina (two fine specimens).
Cyrena olivacea, Mexic&^ia.
Barbatia Heeviana, solida.
Pecten ventricosus, subnodosus.
Lima tetrica *.
Ostrea amara (Maz. Cat. 215. Is. Cres-
tona, entrance of Gulf), Virginica
(more pearly than the Atlantic shells,
Bulimus sufflatus *, excelsus *, pallidior.
Physa elata *, aurantia.
Acmaea atrata, mesoleuca.
Fissurella rugosa, virescena.
Glyphis alta, inteq^ualis.
Haliotis splendens (three fresh specimens
from a resident at San Jose).
Oniphalius rugosus, coronulatus.
Nerita scabricosta, Bernhardi.
Crucibulum spinosum, imbricatum, pec-
Galerus mamillaris, conicus.
Crepidula aculeata, onyx, nivea, ungui-
Hipponyx Grayanus, serratus, anti-
Spiroglyphus Iituella (on Cr. umbrella).
Turritella goniostoma, tigrina.
Cerithium maculosum,stercus muscarum.
Litorina fasciata, conspersa.
Modulus catenulatus, disculus.
Luponia Sowerbii, albuginosa.
Trivia sanguinea, radians, Solandri, pus-
Strombus granulatus, gracilior.
Pleurotoma funiculata, maculosa.
Conus puncticulatus, gladiator, purpu-
rascens, regularis, arcuatus, mix.
Solarium granulatum, v. quadriceps.
Cancellaria obesa, cassidiformis, solida,
Natica maroccana, zonaria.
Polinices Kecluziaua, bifasciata, otis.
542 REPOUT 1SG3.
Oliva porphyria, Melchersi, Cumingii,
Olivella tergina, gracilis, volutella (seve-
ral taken alive).
Purpura patula, biserialis, triangularis,
muricata, planospira J.
Columbella fuscata, var.
Nassa luteostoma, scabriuscula, corpn-
Strombina (? new, deep water, San
Pisania sanguinolenta, insignis.
Murex plicatus, recurvirostris.
Phyllonotus nigritus, brassica, princeps,
Lieut. Green having been obliged to pack up his collection and leave home
on professional duty, I was not able to make any critical examination of it,
Capt. Dupont also, of Delaware, was one of the " Mexican-war naturalists,"
and made a large collection of La Paz shells during his campaign ; but I had
no opportunity of seeing them.
Dr. Gould notes the following corrections in Lieut. Green's list, pp. 231-
Semele flavicans should bejlarescens. \ Donax abruptm should be obesus.
50. Kellett and Wood. The locality-marks, on further study, display still
Nassa Woodwardii, Fbs., Sandwich Islands [is the adolescent state of a very abun-
dant Vancouver and California!! shell, = & mendica, Gld.].
Nassa Cooperi, Fbs., Sandwich Islands. [The type is immature and in poor con-
dition; but it is a rare Californian species, since found by Dr. Cooper.]
Trochita spirata [has not been confirmed from Gulf Cal., but appears in Brit. Mus.
from St. Vincent, Cape Verd Is., on the excellent authority of Macgillivray, who
did not visit the West Coast. The Cumingian specimens were from K. and W. ;
but the "spirata, var.," from Magellan and Peru, are simply turrited forms of T.
Chlorostoma aureotincta [=(?. nigerrima (Gmel.), Mus. Cum.; but it is unlikely
that Gmelin knew the species. It is not quoted by Desh. (Lam. ix. 157) : but
the Trochus infauce nigcrrimus, Chemn. f. 1526, = T. melanostomus, Gmel., is a
Margarita purpurata et Hillii [are South American shells].
Purpura analoga [is the rough irregular form of P. canaliculata=deccmcostata~}.
fuscata, Fbs. [of which one brown and one whitish specimen (immature)
are preserved in the Brit. Mus. as types, is the large, smooth, rather elevated var.
of saxicola. It belongs to the Vancouver district].
Purpura, like decem-costatus and Freycinetii [is the normal state of saxicola. The
banded smooth var. is named in Brit. Mus. "?7?c. striatum, Martyn, Un.
Conch, no. 7," but does not agree with the figure].
Fuws Kellettii. [This Siphonalia, after long remaining unique in the Brit. Mus.
Col., has been twice confirmed from the San Diegan district by the Smithsonian
collectors. Dr. Cooper's living specimen is 6-25 in. long j and one specimen
was dredged by A. Ad. in the seas of South Japan.]
51. Iteiyen. The type collection, presented to the Brit. Mus., contains
about 8900 specimens. The first duplicate series, containing about 6000
shells, was presented to the State of New York at the urgent request of
Dr.. Newcomb (well known for his researches in Achatinella, made during his
professional residence in the Sandwich Islands), and is arranged in the Albany
Museum. Three other typical series were prepared for the Museums of
Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, and offered on the same terms, viz. that
they should be arranged by the author, and preserved intact for the free use
J Dead shells at La i'az j two fresh specimens in deep water from San Joie ; ditto,
ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 543
of students ; but the donations were severally declined by the respective
governments. They have since been offered to the Museums of Harvard
University, Cambridge, Mass. ; M'Gill University, Montreal, C. E. ; and the
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. ; and accepted on the same con-
ditions *. The writer of the Brit. Mus. Catalogue spared no pains in his
endeavours to verify the previously described species of Prof. C. B. Adams ;
yet a subsequent comparison of types has developed very unexpected coinci-
dences. Those who will take the trouble to compare the two diagnoses in the
synonyms now given will add one to the many proofs of the uncertainty of
the senses in observation, and the inaccuracy of language in description. The
following corrections and additions should be made to the list in the British
Association Eeport, pp. 243-264.
18. Parapholas acuminata is united to P. calva by Tryon, Mon. Phol.
23. The specimens obtained from Madagascar by Sir E. Belcher in the Voy. Sa-
marang appear absolutely idenlical.
24. Petricola robusta. The West Indian form of this species is the Choristodon
typicum of Jonas ; Mus. Cum.
35. Sphcenia fragilis is perhaps *S'. luticola, Val.
38. Solecurtus politus ? = S. Carpenteri, Dkr.
40. Should be Semele favescens, Old.
41. Semele ?venusta should be S. bicolor, C. B. Ad. Panama. C. S. Lucas.
46. Should be Sanc/uinolaria miniata, Gld., as in first Report.
48. Should be TelUna purpurea, Brod. & Sby., teste type in Mus. Hani.
49. = T. pur A, Gld., nom. prior.
54. Quite distinct from TelUna alternata, Say.
56. Tellina ?eburnea proves to be the type of a new generic form, probably
belonging to Kelliadce, viz. Cycladella papyracea. A perfect specimen, since
found, is in Mr. Hanley's collection.
65. Tellidora Burnett is not L. cristata : v. antea, p. 528.
66, =Strigilla fucata, Gld. (not miniata). Specimens received from different
stations on the Pacific Coast vary very greatly in colour and markings.
68. The fragment of " ??Psammobia " is perhaps part of a Lepas-vslve.
71 and 72. The names of these shells have been altered and re-altered in Mus.
Cuming, as will be seen by comparing Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat., p. 43, with the
note, p. 548, and with the present arrangement. Mr. Hanley states that
no. 72, D. culminatus, Cpr., is his true carinatus ; therefore 71, D. carinatus,
Cpr., and of most collections, must stand as D. rostratus, C. B. Ad., teste type-
valve in Mus. Amherst. The two species uniformly retain their dis-
78. Should be Mactrella exoleta= Lutraria ventricosa, Gld., from type.
81. Should be Gnathodm mendicus, Gld.
83. T. Hindsii is distinct, teste Hani.
85. T. argentata, Sby., 1835, = T. aquilatem, Desh., 1839.
92-99. The generic name should be Callista.
* A few of the duplicate sets having been sent in exchange to one of the principal
scientific dealers, he advertises a list of species in which he not merely alters the nomen-
clature, giving " Monoceros " cingulatum, " Pollia" insignis (with "Pisania" gemmatd),
" Trochus" olivaceus (with " Imperator" unguis), " Cerithiwn " montagui (for Cerithidea
Montagnei], Cytherea " dione" (for Dione lupinaria), "Astarte" DunJceri, " Cytherea"
Columbiensis, &c., but inserts Californian species (" ZizipMnus filosus" " Cardium
Nutali ") as though from the Gulf, and adds others not known at all in the West Coast
faunas, as " Columbella lamgata" " Patella plumbea," and " Chiton reticulata" All
these, with such shells as Olwa Cumingii, which belong to other regions on the Mexi-
can coast, would be accredited by the reader on the supposed authority of " Carpenter's
Catalogue." In these times it appears that naturalists must be content to resemble the
dealers in patent medicines, and guard the accuracy of their works ! With regard to the
Mazatlan collections (now scarce), none can be trusted unless they present an
seal, with the initials of the author.
5-14 REPORT 1863.
98. CalKsta altemata has a very different aspect from the ordinary C. circinata ; but
several of the Pacific shells afHliate more naturally to the West ludianform.
Circes. At this distance of time, a written locality-ticket would have had
105. The hinge proves that this species is distinct from the true V. crenifera, Sby.
It has been named V. siigillata by live., Conch. Ic. sp. 43. It 'was also
brought by Kellett and Wood, and is allied to V. pulicaria.
110. Among the Panama varieties of this very variable species is Venus fuscolineata.
T. grata takes the place of the Californian T. staminea, which is sometimes
erroneously given as a synonym, and is not straminea, as often quoted.
116. It appears that Gouldia (Thetis, C. B. Ad., olim, non Sby. nee II. & A. Ad.) is
congeneric with " Circe" minima, not with the Astartids. Prof. Adams's
fresh specimens of his 6. Pacifica prove to have the Crassatelloid internal
ligament, and represent one of the many remarkable forms of that group.
117. Fresh specimens of G. variam, from Cape St. Lucas, have also the internal
ligament, and must rank under Crassatella until that genus has been naturally
118. Lazaria Calif ornica. A well-marked group of species from the West Coast.
121. The purple and orange specimens, here treated as the adolescent state of Chama
Mexicana, are certainly the Ch. echinata of collections, and may possibly
prove a distinct species. A large series sent from Socoro Is. by Mr. Xantus
confirms this view ; but all the specimens seen are decorticated or incrusted.
1216. This is the Chama Buddiana of C. B. Ad., and probably distinct.
134. The specimens of Cardium graniferum in Mus. Cam., from St. Thomas, W. I.,
appear exactly identical.
136. The specimens from the Pacific coast, some of which are of very large size,
have generally a red tinge round the inner margin ; as have also the Fiji
specimens brought by the U. S. Expl. Exp. In other respects they exactly
accord with the W. Indian. The Pacific shells are generally called C.
exasperata, Rve., a name first given to the rough Caribbean variety from
137. Codakia punctata. This shell also, brought by the U. S. Expl. Exp. from the
Fiji Is., is found sparingly along the American shores, and has the same
142. May possibly prove identical with L. bella, Conr., S. Diego.
150. The Lucina orbella of Gould, = Sphcerella tumida, Conr., MS., is the northern
form; uniformly larger and smoother than Diplodonta semiaspera. This
last is fully confirmed from both oceans.
152. " Felania" serricata appears congeneric with Miltlia, H. & A. Ad., = Mittrea f
Gray, the type of which (M. Childreni) is a Gulf species.
154. Lasea rubra* Mr. J. G. Jeffreys does not consider the Brit. Mus. specimen
identical with the British. The Mediterranean specimens are much more
unlike. A colony of fresh shells from & burrow at Cape St. Lucas, when
examined, under the microscope, side by side with Ilfracombe specimens, did
not present even varietal differences. The species also appears on the Cali-
fornian and Japan coasts. Similar and perhaps conspecitic forms are
found on most coasts : among them is Poronia Petitiana, Chen. Conch. 111.
p. 2, pi. 1. f. 2 ; Callao, not rare, Petit.
150, For this species, corbuloides, and other angular forms, the name Bornia may
be revived in a restricted sanse. (A. Ad.)
157, 158. Mr. A. Adams, who is about to make the Kelliads a special study, thinks
that these intermediate forms would rank better with Montacuta or TeUin.ya
166. This is almost certainly =Anodonta ylauca, Val.
168. Dr. D unker renamed this shell M. Adamsianus, P. Z. S. Nov. 1856.
177. The subgerius Aiula may be enlarged to include this and other nestling
?Lithopha(/i, which often adhere by byssus, like Modiola.
178. Liosolenus is quite distinct from Mijtilimeria, which appears simply an aber-
rant form of Lyonsia. Other " Lithophayi" probably rank with it.
ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 545
180. Arcasemlis is fromW. Africa (not " E.Indies".): one of the many representative
species between the two West Coasts.
185. Noetia reversa, Gray.
7.86. Argina brcvifrons, Sby.
188. This is the young of Barbati* alternate*.
191-195 belong to the"^ group Barbatia.
193. =Barbatia Tabogensis, from type.
203. The young of this shell is Aiicula libella, Rve. Dr. Gould protests against
some of the interpretations here given to his views.
204. The W. American pearl-oyster should stand as M. jimbriata, Dkr. It has
been redescribed as M. barbata, Rve.
212. Dr. Gould protests against the Pacific shells being regarded as O. Virginica.
Mr. Hanley adheres to his original opinion. Fossils sent from the Sand-
wich Is. by Mr. Pease (0. Sandwichensis, Pse.) appear scarcely to differ.
2146. The O. palmula appears a distinct species.
215. This species is identical with O. no. 384 of C. B. Ad. It may take the name
of O, amara from its " bitter flavour."
224. Sulla AdamsiB. punctulata, C. B. Ad., non A. Ad.
229. Haminea cymbiformis is closely allied to H. virescens, Sby.
239. Siphonaria lecanium. S. maura, Sby., is one of the varieties of this species.
The S. palmata may prove distinct. S. ferruginea, Rve., is probably de-
scribed from the intermediate form.
242. lanthina striulata. Name given in ignorance of striolata, Ad. and Rve. j and
not needed, teste Rve.
245. The Denialium hyalinum of Phil, is probably the young of D. semipolitum :
this species is distinct.
247. The Dent, pretiosum of Nutt. is a northern species j this is most likely D. lac-
248-250. This typical group of Chitonids retains the Linnean name in Dr. Gray's
arrangement ; and as he first pointed out the generic distinctions in the
family, his judgment is to be preferred.
252-254, 256. These species belong to Ischnochiton, Gray.
255. Lepidopleurus, Risso, has sculptured valves and scaly margin, and is probably
synonymous with Lophyms, H. and A. Ad. The name may be retained for
the "' Lophyroid " Ischnochiton here described, the peculiarities of which have
been confirmed by adult specimens in Mus. Cuming, and by other species.
257. Chiton, H. and A. A(L,=:Acanthoplettra (Guild.), Gray.
262. = Nacella pcltoides, n. s. (described from Cape St. Lucas specimens).
263. The true Lottia pintadina of Gld. (teste figured types) consists entirely of
varieties of A. patina.
265. The " large flat shell " referred-to is Tecturella grandis, Gray, Brit. Assoc. Rep.
1861, p. 137. Tecturella is preoccupied by Stimps. Gr. Manan Invert. It
being needful to divide the old genus Acmaa, Lottia may be used for this
section. By reviving synonyms as sectional names, when a genus is divided,
good names may be retained in a restricted sense, and the burden of a spu-
rious nomenclature lessened. The species is Lottia gigantea (Sby. Gen. j.
269. Scutellina navicelloides, Cpr.,= Crepidula osculans, C. B. Ad.
280. This should stand as Gadinia stellata, Sby., that name having been given to
the normal form, Rep. pi. 7. f. 3a, of which pentegoniostoma, f. 3/\| is only
an accidental variety.
282. Callopoma Fokkesii=;tessellatum, Rve., is the Lower Californian form, and
28-1&. = Turbo phasianella, C. B. Ad., non Melaraphe phasianella, Phil.
289. The first name is T. eximius, Rve., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 185 ; Mke.'s shell bearing
date 1850. It appears identical with " Javanicus, Lam.," in Mus. Cum., and
is extremely like " speciosus, Japan." Trochus being now generally retained
for the Niloticus group, which contains the largest forms, it is best to revive
Swainson's excellent name Calliostoma for the " Ziziphinus "group. A specific
name should not be used for a genus, where a distinctive name has already
been accurately described,
546 REPORT 1863.
290. Calliostoma M' Andrea is the normal state, of which C. Leanum is the pale
292. Mr. Pease considers that T. Byronianus represents a Polydonta from the Pacific
313-316. The non-pearly Liotia are Conradia, A. Ad.
322, 323. Mr. A. Adams thinks that the " Eihalia " amplectam is probably the
young of " Teinostoma" a., as suggested in Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 253.
338. Crepidula adunca, Cpr. (non Sby.,=softVa. H.d.s., = rostrifonms, Gld.). The
tropical shell is C. uncata, Mke.~ = (7. rostrata, C. B. Ad'., Rye.
341. Should stand as C. squama : v. note on C. B. Ad. no. 351.
354. Vermetus eburneus, Rve.,= V. ?glomeratm, C. B. Ad., non Lam. The note to
Ccecum, Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 314, should read : " Of a fourth group, Meioceras,
three species are known from the Caribbean Sea, one of which is fossil at
Grignon. The earliest Crecid is the Eocene genus Strebloceras." Vide
Mpn. Cfecidaj in P. Z. S. 1858, pp. 413-444.
387. Cerithimn irroratum, Gld. (teste type sp. in Mus. Smiths.), is a very distinct
East Indian species, = C. obesum, feby. sen.
388. This is not the C. interruptum of C. B. Ad., Sby., and Mus. Cum. (Jiodie),
which latter is the roughened form of C. stercus muscarum, Vol. C. Galla-
paginis is the rough form of C. interruptum, Mke.
389. Vertayus should be changed into Rhinoclavis, Swains. ; v. note to 289.
391-393. The genus Triforis should be removed to Cerithiopsidce. The true
lt Triforis" infrcquens of C. B. Ad. is a dextral shell, = Cerithiopsis tuber-
cidoides, no. 557. The shell here doubtfully affiliated is probably a variety
of T. inconspicuus.
398. Litorina Pliilippii=L, ?parwila, C. B. Ad., non Phil.,=Z. diibiosa, C. B. Ad.,
399. = Litorina pullata, Cpr. ; described from Cape St. Lucas specimens.
409. Probably = Rissoina jirmata, C. B. Ad.,-f-K. scalariformis, C. B. Ad.
411. " Not a Barleeia" teste Jeffr. MS. It seems, however, too closely allied tc
-B. rubra to create afresh genus for it, unless the animal should display differ-
412, 413. Belong to Fenella, A. Ad.* F. excurvata=? Itissoa inconspicua, C. B. Ad.,
417. Fresh specimens prove this to be not a dead Hydrobia ulvce, but a Barlecia.
It appears on the Californian coast, as . subtcnuis.
418, 421. Are very similar, and possibly conspecific forms of Cythna, A. Ad.
422. Is a Gemetta, teste A. Ad.
426, 427. Belong to Styliferina, A. Ad.
430 ct seq. Some of these forms may rank with Gottoina, A. Ad., and thus approach
437. Luponia spurca. This shell is quite distinct from L. albuyinosa, to which it
was supposed to belong by Dr. Newcomb. It is probably a ballast specimen.
438. Quite distinct from the Panamic A. punctulata.
445, 446. Cancellariadfs should be removed to Proboscidifera, teste A. Ad.
450-452. Mr. Reeve unites all these species, with several others, to M. rariegata ;
which is certainly the easiest way of meeting the difficulty.
453. Myurella rufocinerea= T. rudis, Gray, teste Rve.
477. Conns reyalitatis-^ C. purpurascens, var. Most Cones vary in the same manner.
484. Torinia variegata. Mr. Hanley restores to this shell the uncomfortable name
of Chemn. (perspectiviuncida), and unites to it areola, Desh. A careful com-